Sustainable agriculture in carbon arithmetics. Emilio González Sanchez

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A presentation at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane.

A presentation at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane.

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  • 1. LIFE+ AGRICARBONSustainable Agriculture in CarbonArithmetics 5 WCCA. Brisbane, Australia September 29th 2011 González-Sánchez EJ, Gil-Ribes JA, Ordóñez-Fernández R, Agüera- Vega J, Márquez-García F, Carbonell- Bojollo R, Veroz-González O, Gómez- Ariza M; Pérez-García, JJ
  • 2. LIFE + AGRICARBON. Some basicdata Duration of the project:48 months (ending 31/12/2013) Total budget: € 2,674,653 EU contribution: €1,237,262 (46%) Generic Theme:Reduction GHG emissions. Coordinating beneficiary: AEAC.SV (Spanish Association for Conservation Agriculture . Living Soils) – Non profit making association. www.agriculturadeconservacion.org Associated beneficiaries: ◦ University of Córdoba (Spain) ◦ IFAPA (Spain) ◦ European Conservation Agriculture Federation – ECAF (Belgium). www.ecaf.org
  • 3. Climate change and agriculture Agriculture is the 3rd activity emitting GHG in Spain, MAINLY DUE TO THE SPREAD OF SOIL TILLAGE (around 90%) meaning:  Losses of 50% Soil Carbon.  When tilling there are high CO2 releases from soil to atmosphere, due to burning of Soil Carbon. C+O2 = CO2  High ENERGY consumptions due to excesive and intensive tillage.Flame credits to Don Reicosky 
  • 4. Erosion: also a major environmental problemEUROPE: 157 M ha are serioulsy affected by erosion (3 times as large as France)SPAIN: More than 50% of agrarian surface is also affected.
  • 5. Erosion and OM are linked! Spain. Erosión map (left) and OM content map (right) Adapted from JRC, European Commission.
  • 6. Conservation agriculture: a holistic approachConservation agriculture, based in NOTILLAGE systems, with PERMANENT SOILCOVER with CROP ROTATIONS offers: Mitigation of the Climate Change. Crops adaptation to the Climate Change Control of erosion and desertification. Increased energy saving and efficiency. At least same yields for European farmers. Precision agriculture is a good partner!
  • 7. LIFE + AGRICARBON Sinergies MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGEConservation Agriculture:• Use soil as carbon sink.• Reduces CO2 emissions due to the no tillage of the soil.• Need much less fuel in farms.• Promotes a better water use by crops, specially important indrought conditions.Precision Agriculture:• Helps better tractor driving (CTF), avoidingoverlaps, meaning less inputs needed in farms.• Optimise the use of agrichemicals.
  • 8. LIFE + AGRICARBON aims to…Boost CA and PA by: ◦ Organizing local events and a Congress in 2013 in Brussels (Belgium) ◦ Creating an online platform where farmers may check their own emissions and Adapt agriculture to the costs new climate conditionants ◦ Providing scientific info found in global warming (for about CA+PA for policy makers to use (CAP 2020!) South Europe: less rain and higher temperatures). Help to mitigate climate change emitting less CO2 and sinking it in the soil
  • 9. 90 hectares in Southern Spain in 3 farms SOIL AREA (ha) FARM CROP MANAGEMENT Conventional 4.0745 BLOCK 1 SUNFLOWER No Tillage 4.0746 Conventional 5.0001RABANALES BLOCK 2 WHEAT No Tillage 5.0002 Conventional 5.0002 BLOCK 3 CHICKPEA No Tillage 5.0002 Conventional 6.1357 BLOCK 1 HABA No Tillage 6.1399 Conventional 4.9995CARMONA BLOCK 2 SUNFLOWER 4.9995 No Tillage Conventional 6.7548 BLOCK 3 WHEAT 6.7553 No Tillage Conventional 5.0437 BLOCK 1 WHEAT No Tillage 5.0437 Conventional 5.0434LA PLUMA BLOCK 2 SUNFLOWER No Tillage 5.043 Conventional 5.0435 BLOCK 3 CHICKPEA No Tillage 5.0435
  • 10. Soils Depth pH Sand Silt Clay Farm OM (%) CEC Texture (cm) Cl2Ca (%) (%) (%) 0-20 2.9±0.6 7.2±0.5 24±10 31±13 32±5 37±12 L-CRABANALES 20-40 2.3±0.7 7.2±0.6 27±12 31±14 31±5 38±12 L-C 40-60 1.8±0.6 7.3±0.6 27±12 28±14 31±7 41±11 C 0-20 1.6±0.4 7.7±0.1 34±8 20±5 29±3 51±5 CCARMONA 20-40 1.4±0.3 7.7±0.1 35±9 19±5 28±2 53±4 C 40-60 1.2±0.3 7.7±0.1 34±10 19±5 28±3 53±5 C 0-20 1.9±0.4 7.8±0.1 34±11 16±4 26±4 58±6 CLA PLUMA 20-40 1.8±0.3 7.8±0.1 34±12 16±4 25±4 59±6 C 40-60 1.6±0.3 7.8±0.1 35±12 17±5 26±6 57±7 C
  • 11. Measurements of CO2 flux Monthly and after every operation. Comparing TT to NT
  • 12. Monitored work In every tractor a data logger is connected to fuelflow meters and PAequipment for CTF
  • 13. Average yields(Seasons extremely wet, under historic averages) Carmona La Pluma CA TT CA TT Wheat 1.037 1.024 2.620 2.972 Sunflower 1.332 1.292 1.312 1.140 Legume 2.058 1.446 492 1.282 9 0 09 10 10 10 0 10 10 9 .0 09 .1 0 .1 .0 1 pt v. n. g. b. n. ay r. c. ar ct l. No Se Ap Ya Au Fe Ju Ju Di M M 400 O 30 27.5 Temperatura (ºC) 350 25 22.5 20 300 17.5 15 Precipitación (mm) 250 12.5 Lluvia Campo 1 10 Lluvia Campo 2 200 Lluvia Campo 3 7.5 Temperatura Campo 1 Temperatura Campo 2 150 Temperatura Campo 3 100 50 0 10 0 10 0 9 09 09 10 0 9 10 10 .1 1 .0 .1 .0 b. n. l. v. c. r. n. g. ct ar pt ay Ju Ap Di No Fe Ju Ya Au O Se M M
  • 14. Yield map Carmona farm
  • 15. Fuel consumption and overlaps measured Fuel (L/ha) Overlap (%) Moldboard 22.5 ± 4.1 16.2 ± 3.7 Chisel 14.4 ± 0.4 12.0 ± 8.1 Semi-chisel 6.7 ± 3.1 4.7 ± 1.3 Disc harrow 7.6 ± 1.4 26.2 ± 14.3 Cultivator 5.6 ± 0.8 11.7 ± 1.5 NT seeder 7.1 ± 1.3 4.7 TT seeder 5.9 ± 1.2 13.2 Sprayer 1.2 ± 0.4 14.6 ± 1.5Fert. Broadcaster 1.7 ± 0.3 12.1 ± 1.4 Harvester 10.5 ± 0.7 -
  • 16. Energy production and use (MJ /ha), energy efficiency (EE) and energy productivity (EP) in kg/kJ Energy spent (MJ) Energy Indirect Energy Energy DirectField Crop Soil M. produced spent EE EP energy Machin Seed Fertil. Agric. (MJ) . s (MJ) 16,31 NT 21,313 1,199 301 3,454 302 21,573 0,99 80 7 Wheat 18,29 TT 18,750 1,625 408 3,454 346 24,124 0,78 60 1Car. Sunflo NT 13,358 1,152 289 84 2,451 1,299 5,275 2,53 180 w. TT 12,913 1,983 498 84 2,748 493 5,806 2,22 160 Legum NT 18,696 898 226 2,357 348 339 4,168 4,49 390 e TT 15,960 1,562 392 2,726 431 388 5,499 2,90 250 11,24 NT 45,750 1,175 295 3,234 701 16,645 2,75 220 0 Wheat 12,88 TT 43,875 2,824 709 3,234 681 20,328 2,16 170 0Plu. Sunflo NT 10,230 1,013 254 84 0 298 1,649 6,20 450 w. TT 9,619 2,255 566 84 0 16 2,921 3,29 240
  • 17. Rainfall recorded in the study period and temporal evolution ofthe CO2 emissions for each crop and soil management system.Farms: La Pluma, Carmona and Rabanales respectively.NT (No-tillage), TT (Traditional Tilllage)
  • 18. Daily CO2 emissions and maximum difference fs gf g
  • 19. CONCLUSIONS1. First results of the LIFE+ Agricarbon project confirm that CA+PA are allied to mitigate climate change.2. As average Energy Productivity is improved by 36% and CA saved 78.3L/ha in the rotation.3. First results in the gas flux measures have shown high reduction in CO2 emissions in all CA crops in comparison to traditional tillage.4. Farmers adopt easily CA where high impact
  • 20. Thank you! Meet you anytime in www.agricarbon.euand in Brussels in 2013 in theInternational Conference on CA egonzalez@ecaf.org