Striga asiatica: a driving-force for dissemination of CA systems based on Stylosanthes guianensis in Madagascar. Olivier Husson
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Striga asiatica: a driving-force for dissemination of CA systems based on Stylosanthes guianensis in Madagascar. Olivier Husson

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Presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane, Australia.

Presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane, Australia.

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Striga asiatica: a driving-force for dissemination of CA systems based on Stylosanthes guianensis in Madagascar. Olivier Husson Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Striga asiatica:a driving-force for dissemination of conservation agriculture systemsbased on Stylosanthes guianensis in Madagascar Dr. Olivier Husson
  • 2. Michellon, R.; Naudin, K.;Letourmy, P.; Enjalric, F.; Penot, E., Séguy, L. Moussa, N.;Randrianjafizanaka, M.T.; Andrianaivo, A.P. Raveloarijoana, N. Rakotondramanana
  • 3. Striga in the world Parasite of cereals 50 million hectares, 300 million people Jeopardizes food security (Ejeta, 2007) Elusive wide-scale effective control S. asiatica S. hermontica
  • 4. Striga in Madagascar Striga asiatica South–West & Middle West 700 - 1,100 meters a.m.s.l. 1,000-1,500 mm/year 6 months dry season S. asiatica
  • 5. Striga in Madagascar Compacted soil, +/- degraded “Medium” scale agriculture Rice//maize Field abandonment – Village migration
  • 6. Objective Can we propose practical CA systems that effectively control striga? YES WE CAN !!! Striga : driving–force for CA dissemination
  • 7. Material and methods (1/3) From 2002/03 TAFA/CIRAD Test of 4 CA systems Rice//maize + tillage 2 to 4 replicates 200 m²
  • 8. Material and methods (1/3) DMC systems : Direct-Seeding, Mulch- based Cropping systems 3 principles of CA + high biomass production by multifunctional cover crops Muskwari sorghum
  • 9. Material and methods (1/3) 1. Rice + Stylosanthes // maize+ Stylo.
  • 10. Material and methods (1/3)2. Rice // maize+B. ruziziensis + C. cajan
  • 11. Material and methods (1/3) 3. Rice // maize + cowpea
  • 12. Material and methods (1/3) 4. Rice + Arachis sp // maize + Arachis Arachis pintoï and Arachis repens
  • 13. Material and methods (2/3) From 2004/05, extension programmes FAFIALA, ANAE, SD-Mad Monitoring / Data base
  • 14. Material and methods (3/3) 2009/10 specific study on striga control: striga seeds and plants Ø 12 cm cylinder x 4 rep. 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth 0-12 cm and 24-36 cm from maize row
  • 15. Results (1/3) Systems with Stylosanthes or Arachis control striga Average Average number Cropping system number of of parasite striga striga plants (0-12 and Maize + seeds 24-36cm) (0-12 cm) (CA) Arachis pintoï 1.0 a 0.0 a (CA) Stylosanthes 1.5 a 1.0 a (CA) Brachiaria+Cajanus 4.5 ab 3.5 bc (CA) Cowpea 15.5 c 3.0 bc (CT) Tillage 8.6 bc 8.4 c Mean values in each column followed by the same letter(s) are not different in Fisher pairwise comparison (least significant difference, p-value= 0.05).
  • 16. Results (2/3) Systems with Stylosanthes produce more and more regularly than other systems 4275 kg/ha 1805 kg/ha Recommended fertilization: 5t/ha manure + 50 N - 30 P – 40 K
  • 17. Results (3/3) Rapid dissemination of systems with Stylosanthes
  • 18. Results (3/3) Fastest rate of CA dissemination in Madagascar Possibility to re-introduce rice and maize in the cropping systems with CA identified as a major factor of CA adoption (Sorreze, 2010)
  • 19. Discussion Why DMC/CA controls striga (hypothesis) Temperature control/conditioning N + C inputs Triggering “suicidal germination” Favourable conditions for striga parasites
  • 20. Discussion Stylosanthes based cropping systems Easy to implement Easy to learn (progressive) Robust and resilient Flexible Small scale, low input to mechanized, commercial agriculture Efficient Production Weed control 60-70 % of CA systems in the area
  • 21. Conclusions Some CA/DMC systems actually control striga CA/DMC systems based on Stylosanthes are practical, easy to implement and very efficient Farmers adopt CA/DMC systems as it is the only possibility they have to effectively control striga Major constraint  driving force for CA
  • 22. Thanks for your attention ! Website: http://agroecologie.cirad.frhttp://agroecologie.cirad.fr/librairie-virtuelle
  • 23. Thanks for your attention ! Conservation agriculture :100% of the winners did play !