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Scope for sustainability: do castor beans and the biodiesel industry offer family farmers a sustainable development opportunity in Brazil? Madeleine Florin
 

Scope for sustainability: do castor beans and the biodiesel industry offer family farmers a sustainable development opportunity in Brazil? Madeleine Florin

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A presentation made at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane, Australia.

A presentation made at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane, Australia.

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    Scope for sustainability: do castor beans and the biodiesel industry offer family farmers a sustainable development opportunity in Brazil? Madeleine Florin Scope for sustainability: do castor beans and the biodiesel industry offer family farmers a sustainable development opportunity in Brazil? Madeleine Florin Presentation Transcript

    • Scope for sustainability:Do castor beans and the biodiesel industry offerfamily farmers a sustainable developmentopportunity in Brazil? Madeleine Florin, Gerrie van de Ven, Martin van Ittersum Plant Production Systems group
    • Brazilian national biodiesel programme Blending targets  5% by 2012 Social fuel seal  Fraction of expenditure on family farmers (feedstock, extension, seeds) Regional development  Targeting the semi-arid  Promoting castor beans for family farmers
    • Family farming in Montes Claros Transition zone between Caatinga and Cerrado  1035 mm year-1 concentrated during 3-4 months Dominant farming system is extensive cattle ranching  Pasture  Fodder crops  Food crops  Dairy cattle for cheese production  Meat production
    • The situation unfolding Few family farmers participating and the dominant biodiesel feedstock is soy beans  Suitability of castor beans  Trust between industry and farmers  IncentivesWhat is the scope for sustainable cultivation ofcastor beans by family farmers and can this beexplained by: o Current productivity? o Alternative productivity? o Alternative farm-level management decisions?
    • Research question:What is the scope for sustainablecultivation of castor beans by familyfarmers and can this be explained by:o current productivityo alternative productivityo alternative management decisions taken at the farm level?
    • Indicator selection framework Productivity Acceptability Security Protection ViabilityPrinciples - Not endanger - Contribute to - Increase the - Maintain or - Contribute to the food economic stability of increase carbon economic production and development of smallholder or sinks in development of other local smallholder or family farmers vegetation and smallholder or biomass family farmers livelihood soil family farmers applications - Contribute to the - Retain or social justice of improve the soil smallholder or and soil quality family farmers - Retain orCriteria improve the water quantity and quality - Maintain or increase biodiversity - Mitigate greenhouse gas emissions (compared with fossil fuels)
    • Indicator selection frameworkSustainability criteria Selected indicatorsBiofuel production should contribute to - Farm income (R$ ha-1; R$economic development of family household-1)farmersBiofuel production should increase the - Simpson’s diversity indexstability of family farmer livelihood - Labour inputs and labour use efficiency (days year-1; R$ day -1) - Purchased inputs and purchased input use efficiency (R$ year-1; R$ R$-1)Biofuel production should retain or - Nitrogen balance (kg ha-1; kg farm-improve the soil and soil fertility 1)
    • Research question:What is the scope for sustainablecultivation of castor beans by familyfarmers and can this be explained by:o current productivityo alternative productivityo alternative management decisions taken at the farm level?
    • Farm survey Visit 20 farms in September 2010  Current activities and areas  Economic characteristics  Inputs and outputs by activity
    • Variation in pasture productivityVariation in crop productivity (for fodder)Maize yield: 340 – 4080 kg ha-1Milk yields: 436 – 4169 l cow-1 year-1
    • 4 focus farms – variation of maize and milkFarm Farm areas (ha) Herd Household size/ yields size/number of milking cows labour (no. of people)‘1’ Whole farm: 46 30/7 2/2- Maize quartile 1 Maize/beans: 2.0(340 kg ha-1) Sugarcane: 1.5- Milk quartile 1 Brachiaria pasture: 3.0(436 l cow-1) Native pasture: 33.5 Native vegetation: 5.0‘2’ Whole farm: 8.0 34/10 4/2- Maize quartile 2 Maize/beans: 2.0(1148 kg ha-1) Sugarcane: 1.0- Milk quartile 4 Brachiaria pasture: 5.0(2555 l cow-1) Native pasture: 0.0 Native vegetation: 0.0‘3’ Whole farm: 96.8 150/5 5/5- Maize quartile 3 Maize/beans: 2.0(2550 kg ha-1) Sugarcane: 2.0- Milk quartile 3 Brachiaria pasture: 58.1(2268 l cow-1) Native pasture: 0.0 Native vegetation: 33.7 ‘4’ Whole farm: 19.9 35/10 2/2- Maize quartile 4 Maize/beans: 2.0(4080 kg ha-1) Sugarcane: 0.8- Milk quartile 2 Brachiaria pasture: 17.1(1200 l cow-1) Native pasture: 0.0 Native vegetation: 1.0
    • Research question:What is the scope for sustainablecultivation of castor beans by familyfarmers and can this be explained by:o current productivityo alternative productivityo alternative management decisions taken at the farm level?
    • Alternative farming system design Castor bean 1 – 552 kg ha-1 Castor bean 2 – 615 kg ha-1 Castor bean 3 – 1035 kg ha-1 Castor bean 4 – 1051 kg ha-14 castor bean yield levels (Diniz Neto et al. 2009)
    • Alternative farming system designCastor bean area decision 1 Castor bean 1 – 552 kg ha-1Replace one hectare of areacurrently cropped with maize Castor bean 2 – 615 kg ha-1and beans with castor beansand beans Castor bean 3 – 1035 kg ha-1 Castor bean 4 – 1051 kg ha-1Castor bean area decision 2 Castor bean 1Replace total area currentlycropped with maize and beans Castor bean 2(two hectares) plus one hectarecurrently under pasture with Castor bean 3castor beans and beans Castor bean 44 castor bean yield levels by 2 castor bean area decisions
    • Alternative farming system design Animal feeding decision 1 Animal feeding decision 2 Replace all sacrificed feed Sacrifice milk yields due to production (maize and pasture) losses in fodder production by purchasing supplementary fodder (maize equivalent) and renting an equivalent hectare of pasture Castor bean area decision 1 Castor bean 1 – 552 kg ha-1 Castor bean 1 Replace one hectare of area currently cropped with maize Castor bean 2 – 615 kg ha-1 Castor bean 2 and beans with castor beans and beans Castor bean 3 – 1035 kg ha-1 Castor bean 3 Castor bean 4 – 1051 kg ha-1 Castor bean 4 Castor bean area decision 2 Castor bean 1 Castor bean 1 Replace total area currently cropped with maize and beans Castor bean 2 Castor bean 2 (two hectares) plus one hectare currently under pasture with Castor bean 3 Castor bean 3 castor beans and beans Castor bean 4 Castor bean 44 castor bean yield levels by 2 castor bean area by 2 animal feeding decisions
    • Indicator quantification 4 current + 4 X 16 alternatives Input-output calculations  Survey data  Supplementary data  Assumptions involved... • Nitrogen balance assumptions • Labour assumptions • Alternative feeding strategy assumptions “Indicator differences” by current and alternatives Graphical display
    • Results – current farms Farm Farm Farm Farm ‘one’ ‘two’ ‘three’ ‘four’Farm-level indicatorsFarm income (R$ household-1) 4017 14791 16369 8554Farm income (R$ ha-1) 89 1849 171 409Labour inputs (days year-1) 254 206 330 190Labour use efficiency (R$ day-1) 16 72 50 45Purchased inputs (R$ year-1) 1863 1456 4234 1599Purchased input use efficiency (R$ R$-1) 2 10 4 5Nitrogen balance (kg farm-1) -529 -476 -2749 -606Nitrogen balance (kg ha-1) -12 -59 -29 -29Simpson‟s diversity index 0.41 0.41 0.46 0.50Field-level indicatorsNitrogen balance for crops (kg ha-1) -10 -18 -39 27Nitrogen balance for animal/pasture (kg ha-1) -19 -112 -66 -60
    • Results – “indicator differences” by currentfarm Mean ∆ income (R$ year ) -1 Mean ∆ purchased inputs (R$)„Farm 1‟ +1143 +237„Farm 2‟ -8 +628„Farm 3‟ +209 +950„Farm 4‟ -423 +1348 Income  Productivity of castor beans relative to maize and milk Purchased inputs  Value of current on-farm fodder production
    • Results – “indicator differences” byalternative farming systems Mean ∆ purchased inputs (R$) Castor bean area 1 +365 Castor bean area 2 +1216 Feeding decision 1 +1474 Feeding decision 2 +107 By castor bean yield levels  Nitrogen balance and fertilizer inputs important here By farm-level decisions  Purchased inputs different between castor area and fodder replacement strategies
    • Results – interactions between current andalternative farming systems Which combinations of farm, field- and farm-level decisions are most favourable?Area decision 1 and feeding decision 1Area decision 1 and feeding decision 2Area decision 2 and feeding decision 1Area decision 2 and feeding decision 2
    • Discussion and concluding remarks – scope Broad implications of the results  Farm-specific nature of opportunities • Target low productivity farms • Alternatives to suit different farms  Do not ignore the trade-off with milk and fodder production  Improving current production activities versus introducing a new activity
    • Discussion and concluding remarks – futurework... Explore more extensive set of alternatives  Agronomic detail  Temporal variation Integration of animal production with biodiesel production Consider land, labour and cash constraints Consider more sustainability indicators  Capture regional-level issues (industry viability; hydrology)  Product-level issues (life cycle analysis)
    • Acknowledgements NWO-WOTRO for funding Programme partners in Wageningen, Brazil and Mozambiquewww.foodorfuel.org