• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
QAToCA - a qualitative expert assessment tool for CA adoption in Africa. Hycenth Tim Ndah
 

QAToCA - a qualitative expert assessment tool for CA adoption in Africa. Hycenth Tim Ndah

on

  • 696 views

A presentation at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane.

A presentation at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
696
Views on SlideShare
696
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
9
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    QAToCA - a qualitative expert assessment tool for CA adoption in Africa. Hycenth Tim Ndah QAToCA - a qualitative expert assessment tool for CA adoption in Africa. Hycenth Tim Ndah Presentation Transcript

    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany QAToCAa Qualitative expert Assessment Tool for CA adoption in Africa - selected applications in Kenya, Tanzania and ZambiaNdah, HT1; Schuler, J1; Uthes, S1; Zander, P1; Triomphe, B2; Apina, T3; Corbeels, M2 1 Leibniz-Centrefor Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socio-Economics, Germany. 2 Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), France. 3 African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), Kenya
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany IntroductionIn spite of the large amount of available literature on constraints to CAadoption in Africa, a comprehensive self-assessment tool is lacking that allows a systematic evaluation of the determinants in the CA adoption process from field, farm to regional scale and for use in a variety of regional contexts.This knowledge gap motivated us to develop a Qualitative expertAssessment Tool for the assessment of CA adoption (QAToCA),QAToCA, pronounced [ka:toka:])Developed in EU-funded project ‘CA2Africa’ (www.ca2africa.eu).
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), GermanyCA2Africa scales of implementation and QAToCA Coverage Source: adapted from Corbeels et al (2009) CA2Africa DoW
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Overall goal of QAToCAQAToCA is designed to assess in a semi-qualitative mannerconditions under the following three themes that promote or hinderthe adoption of CA in the heterogeneous farming contexts of Africa. Institutional conditions Cultural QAToCA conditions Socio-economic conditions
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Specific questions of QAToCAThe following issues are considered through cross comparison amongst the CA2Africa case studies: Which region(s) have higher or lower CA adoption potential? Which thematic area within the CA innovation system or component of a particular case study is likely to be influencing the adoption status? What are some of the key determinants of the observed adoption status?
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Further use of outcomesOutcomes can be used as a basis for restitutionsand discussions with stakeholders of the casestudies as this will assist in…. providing new insights into the specific CA development and diffusion programs and projects, and in providing entry points for planning /adjusting some of the on-going and future CA-related actions.
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Material and methods -Origin and development of QAToCA-The following steps have assisted in the development of the tool: A review of selected adoption theories and conceptual models of innovation systems Inspiration from the ScalA –Tool: Tool for the assessment of sustainability, climate relevance and scaling-up potential of project approaches (Bringe et al (2006) used by GTZ (http://www.gtz.de/) and Sustainet (http://wwww.sustainet.org/) CA2Africa experts evaluation and feedback. Pretesting and feedback in CA2Africa 1st regional workshops with CA experts and stakeholders (Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Tunisia, Morocco, Madagascar, Zimbabwe)
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Theories and concepts used as frameworkA list of adoption theories and conceptual models have acted as a framework for this tool, e.g.: The adoption and diffusion theories put forward by Hruschka (1994); Rogers (2003); Hoffmann (2005) and Triomphe et al (2007) The conceptual models of innovation proposed by Lundvall (2004); World Bank (2006); OECD (1997); Callon and Latour following Law and Hassard (1999) NB: For a more detailed and comprehensive list and description of these theories and concepts, see deliverable report D2.2 of CA2Africa: An inventory of bio-physical, socioeconomic and conceptual models of innovation systems for assessment of agricultural (Innovative) practices
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Structure of QAToCAQuestions are grouped under specific thematic areasConsideration is given to differerent scales of implementation ofa project from Farm level to Village/Local and Regional levels:  Object of Adoption (CA)  Capacity of implementing organisation  Attributes of Scaling up  Political/Institutional framework at Regional Level  Political/Institutional framework at Village level  Economic Conditions  Community’s attitude towards CA
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Object of Adoption (CA) Issues relating to the characteristics of CA as an object of adoption. Subjective measurement of issues such as: Trialability of CA, complexity, compatibility with societal norms and customs, observability Divisibility Financial requirements of CA Knowledge intensive nature
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), GermanyCapacity of implementing organization Targets the CA implementing organizations Checks on the overall philosophy of the organization The type and quality of staff Leadership quality Connectivity of the institution or the level of network
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Attributes of Scaling up Measurement of the diffusion strategy of the promoting organizations is the main focus of this theme Overall objective of diffusion Organization’s level of documentation Monitoring and evaluation Type and quality of communication channels; organization’s level of involvement in capacity building Use of incentives in stimulating adoption
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), GermanyPolitical/Institutional framework atregional level This theme is focused on subjectively checking on the political or institutional frame conditions of the region Level of political stability Tolerance level of the civil society towards CA The system of administration and its effect on CA promotion Nature of administrative set up Type of policies as well as their possible influence on the CA adoption
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), GermanyPolitical/Institutional framework at villagelevel Questions under this theme are focused on assessing: Compatibility of CA as an emerging innovation with local customs and traditions Issues of land access and Land ownership
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), GermanyEconomic Conditions The theme addresses issues related to Market availability and access Availability of basic infrastructures such as farm to market roads and irrigation possibilities Level of other economic actors’ engagement in CA promotion Availability of quality control measures and implementation
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), GermanyCommunity’s attitude towards CA Questions that fall in this theme check issue of acceptability of CA by: The entire community, Village leaders and Other influential persons in the decision making process of the village Young farmers vs. elderly farmers Measure of the dynamic and innovative level of the CA community under consideration
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Procedure
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Evaluation Scale for QAToCA Three possible statements for each operational question The scale from 0-2 indicates the strength of the suggested statements with respect to their influence on the potential of adoptionWith:0 = not influential, has no/negative effect on adoption likelihood1 = little influence, has limited positive effect on adoption,2 = highest influence, has maximum positive effect on adoption likelihoodN = if non of the statements is appropriate [including a comment]
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Example: decision rule Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6Step 1 Step 2 2
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Target group for QAToCA Who should fill in the tool to ensure a reasonable degree of scientific quality? Ideally, one QAToCA file should be filled in by several experts for one case study, assuming that no single expert has knowledge about all levels considered by the tool. The best selection would be a researcher, an extensionist/promoter of CA, a farmer (with appropriate knowledge), who adopted, and if possible a farmer, who adopted, but stopped practicing, or who considered adoption, but then didnt go for it.
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Results and Discussion: CA-SARD projectRegion Bungoma, Kenya Karatu, Tanzania CA-SARD case studiesLocation Western Kenya Arusha Region, northern part of TanzaniaElevation 1200 – 2000 m 1000 - 1900 mRainfall 1250 - 1800 m 400 – 1200 mmTemperature 20.0-22.5 C in the 15 C (forest) to 24 C at the southern part to about level of Lake Eyasi 5.0-10.0 Cfarming subsistence agriculture maize, beans and paddy (rice),systems with Maize, Sunflower, also wheat, barley, beans, Sugarcane, Coffee, maize, coffee, flowers, pigeon Tobacco, Potatoes, Beans pea, sorghum, finger millet and and cotton sunflower.CA systems cover crops, dolichos cover crops, (mucuna, lablab, lablab, pigeon peas sunn hemp, pigeon peas) sub-soiler, rippers and sub-soiler, rippers and direct direct seeders or seeders or planters planters
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Results and DiscussionFor Bungoma (Kenya): Attributes of scaling up (C=100%), Political and institutional frame conditions at village and regional levels (D and E=100% each) and Community’s attitude towards CA (G=100%) were all observed to have outstanding positive influence on CA adoption potentialbut...: Characteristics of CA as an object of adoption (A=59%) and CA inputs plus market conditions (F=80%) were seen to be negatively influencing CA adoption potential
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Results and DiscussionSome results from Tanzania:For Karatu (Tanzania) Capacity of implementing institutions (B=100%) was observed to have a major positive influence over CA adoption potential in the region.but..: Attributes of scaling up (C=79%) and Characteristics of CA (A=79%) were observed as having negative influence over CA adoption potential for the region.
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), GermanyVisualisation of results from Kenya and Tanzania Bungoma, Kenya
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Overview of supporting and hindering factors to CA adoption in Kenya and Tanzania Results for thematic area A: Case study regions Thematic area ID Indicator Karatu, Ndindikuru, Kenya Tanzania A Object of A01 Cost of CA and liquidity issues - - Adoption (CA) A02 Availability of CA knowledge - - A03 Complexity of CA - - A04 Labour requirements vs. endowments - - A05 Availability of social networks/org. - - A06 Residue and seeds requirements vs. availability + - A07 Machinery + fuel requirement and availability - - A08 Land requirement and availability + + A09 Observability of CA + + A10 CA yield response and time - - A11 Relative economic risk + - A12 Trialability + + A13 Flexibility/adaptability + + A14 CA and social status + prestige of farmers + - A15 CA and conflict over resources + - B Capacity of the B1 Concept of organisation + + implementing B2 Availability and quality of human resources + +Legend: +Supporting factor; - organisation B3 Hinderingand reputation Leadership factor + + B4 Organisational linkage to other CA organisations+ - in the region * a close look reveals a certain dominance of supporting factors over hindering + B5 Organisational linkage with target group + B6 Organisational linkage with stakeholders in the + + factors hence a much better chance for CA adoption in the region. CA innovation systems * C Attributes of needed basic infrastructures :target groups and and roads, credit + improving on the C01 Scaling up area, market access characteristics facilities and adapted CA + equipments to this region are key Clarity of scaling up strategy Scaling up C02 measures to effecting a scaling up of the technology + + C03 State and level of documentation, monitoring and - +
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Conservation Farming Units case studyRegion ZambiaLocation Most provinces of ZambiaElevation 1000 - 1900 mRainfall 800 – 1000 mmfarming systems Focus on maize and cottonCA systems hand hoe planting basin systems dry-season ripping mechanized minimum tillage methods with leguminous crop rotations
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Some results from Zambia [Conservation framing Unit (CFU-Zambia)] Thematic contribution to CA adoption potential in Zambia Thematic areas with significant positive influence over adoption potential in Zambia Percentage Percentage achieved achieved (unweighted) (weighted Thematic area (A….G) Maximum (Points with equal possible Total points achieved/total strength for points achieved points) each level)A Object of Adoption (CA) (ObjofAdoptFarmVillLev) 30 23 77% 77%B Capacity of implementing institution (CapacityofImplInstVillRegLev) 12 11 92% 92%C Attributes of dissemination strategy (AttrOfDissemStraVillRegLev) 20 17 85% 85%D Political/Institutional framework (PolInstFramRegLev) 12 9 75% 75%E Political/Institutional framework (PolInstFramVillLev) 10 5 50% 50%F CA products & inputs Market conditions (ProInpMarkCondVillRegLev) 10 6 60% 60%G Perception of community towards CA (PercepCommVillRegLev) 12 9 75% 75% Total 106 80 75% 73% Thematic areas with significant negative influence over adoption potential in Zambia
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany Results from Zambia cont.Main supporting factors to CA adoption potential (QAToCA analysis)Organisational linkage of CFU to other CA organisations in the regionCFU leadership and ReputationAvailability and quality of human resources employed by the CFUConcept, philosophy and organisational structure of the CFUCFU’s diffusion strategy and use of CA champions (lead farmers)An existing enabling environment and good linkage of CFU experts with CAfarmersCFU’s involvement in capacity buildingMain hindering factors to CA adoption potential (QAToCA analysis)Scattered settlement pattern in farming communities hence, negative effect onCA dissemination activitiesLimited land access, ownership and used especially for womenNo compatibility of CA to local customs and/or norms and rules in some casese.g. the use of herbicides for weeding is not welcomed by some communities.Limited availability and accessibility of markets for CA products
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), GermanyWe wish to thank especially:• all the CFU team-Zambia for the moral and logistic support during the field visit and• all stakeholders of CA2Africa for their contributions during the QAToCA workshopsHave fun with QAToCA!! Photo by: Ndah HT; Basins preparation in Kafue district (Zambia)
    • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany For more insight and references, see: • Ndah, HT.; Schuler, J.; Uthes, S.; Zander, P.; Triomphe, B.; (2010): The concept of the Qualitative expert Assessment Tool for CA Adoption (QAToCA). Manual/working paper; ZALF Muencheberg, CIRAD France • Uthes, S.; Ndah, HT.; Triomphe, B.; Schuler, J.; Zander, P. (2011): D2.2 Report on inventory of bio-physical and bio-economic models and conceptual models of innovation systems for assessment of agricultural (innovative) practices. ZALF Muencheberg, CIRAD FranceThank you for your attention!