Making CA ever green. Dennis Garrity

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

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Making CA ever green. Dennis Garrity

  1. 1. Making Conservation Agriculture Ever Green Dennis Garrity Director General World Agroforestry Centre Nairobi, Kenya
  2. 2. Wangari MaathaiConservation Heroine
  3. 3. 5000 4500 Cereal Yields by Region 4000 East Asia 3500 3000 Latin AmericaKg per Hectare 2500 2000 South Asia 1500 1000 Sub-Saharan Africa 500 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 World Bank World Development Indicators
  4. 4. 2500 Fertilizer Use by Region East Asia 2000100 grams per Hectare 1500 South Asia 1000 Latin America 500 Sub-Saharan Africa 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 World Bank World Development Indicators
  5. 5. Hoe Minimum-Tillage with Planting Basins, Zambia
  6. 6. Minimum Tillage with Ox-drawn Ripper Cost 40% of ploughingImproved Magoye Ripper 1ha 4 hrs. Ploughing 14 hrs
  7. 7. Conservation Farming with Faidherbia Trees in Zambia
  8. 8. Typical on farm nursery of 125 air-pruned seedlings
  9. 9. National recommendations for maize in Zambia & Malawi: Faidherbia Fertilizer Trees at 100 trees per ha
  10. 10. Faidherbia Trial Results in Zambia Maize yield – CA with zero fertilizer 2008 2009 2010 ----- Tons/ha -------With Faidherbia 4.1 5.1 5.6Without Faidherbia 1.3 2.6 2.6________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Number of trials 15 40 40
  11. 11. Long-term maize yield without fertilizer in a Gliricidia system, Malawi P addition resumed Flood Drought Drought P stopped
  12. 12. Effect of Faidherbia with CA on Maize Yields (All treatments had 90 kg N, 26 kg P, 5 kg S)8000 Improved yields with Faidherbia due to 7,215 improved soil fertility, capture of rainfall7000 and the better micro-environment6000 5718 Source: T Bunderson Total Land Care5000 45854000300020001000 0 Control CA Maize CA Mz + Mz Faidherbia
  13. 13. Soil nutrient status improves under Faidherbia Soil C, OM and K are much higher % Soil N is almost double with with Faidherbia Faidherbia 0.06 Control Maize CA Maize 0.057 CA Maize-Faidherbia 0.051.2 0.04 10.8 0.03 0.029 0.030.6 0.020.4 0.010.2 0 0 Control Maize CA Maize CA Maize- C (%) OM (%) K (Cmol/Kg) Faidherbia
  14. 14. Biomass Litter and Nutrient Contributions from Mature Trees are enormous (kg) Per Ha at 20• Biomass components Per Tree trees/ha Leaves: 221 4420 Pods: 78 1560 Wood (twigs/branches): 59 1180• Nutrients contributed N 6.5 130 P 0.6 12 K 9.3 186 Ca 5.4 108 Mg 0.6 12
  15. 15. Malawi National Agroforestry Food Security Programme
  16. 16. Impact of fertilizer trees on maize yield_______________________________________Plot management Yield (t/ha)Maize only 1.30Maize+ chemical fertilizer 1.70Maize + fertilizer trees 3.05Maize + fertilizer trees +chemical fertilizer 3.07____________________________________________________________Survey of farms in six districts (Mzimba, Lilongwe, Mulanje, Salima, Thyoloand Machinga)
  17. 17. Kenyan Farmlands: Bold policy to achieve >10% tree cover on farms through aNational Evergreen Agriculture Programme
  18. 18. Rwanda - a nation of small-scale farmersLandscape restoration for them is really Farmscape Restoration.Increasing tree cover on farms: sustaining soil health, conserving soils, enhancing fodder production, increasing fuelwood supplies.
  19. 19. Faidherbia albida is commonly found in cereal crop systems in Ethiopia
  20. 20. Restored farmland covered by an emerging forest of Faidherbia. Tigray, Ethiopia.
  21. 21. Southern Niger in the 1980s
  22. 22. Assisted Natural Regeneration of Indigenous Trees in the arid lands of the Sahel
  23. 23. The albida haloeffect
  24. 24. Impact of a single F. albida tree on crop growth(radius of high productivity: 5 m around a small tree)
  25. 25. High-density Faidherbia millet systems in southern Zinder, Niger, 2006.
  26. 26. Five million hectares of millet production in Faidherbiaparklands in Niger: A transformed agricultural landscape
  27. 27. he trees provide fodder to livestock – pods and leaves
  28. 28. oung regenerating agroforests, Seno Plains, Mali
  29. 29. New agroforests on the Seno Plains of Mali450,000 ha
  30. 30. Mature Agroforests in Senegal
  31. 31. Major agroforestry regions in West Africa and directions of expansion
  32. 32. The Next PhaseAccelerate the ongoing national scaling- up programmes in Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso and NigerNational Agroforestry Food Security Programmes being developed for Senegal, Ethiopia, Rwanda, and KenyaPreparatory work for new programmes under way in Tanzania, Mali, and 12 other countries
  33. 33. LandcareAn institutional innovation that provides a platform for accelerating farmer participation in evolving conservation agriculture with trees…

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