Long-term evaluation of dryland cropping systems intensification for enhancing productivity on Vertisols of the semi-arid India. V Nageswara Rao

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Long-term evaluation of dryland cropping systems intensification for enhancing productivity on Vertisols of the semi-arid India …

Long-term evaluation of dryland cropping systems intensification for enhancing productivity on Vertisols of the semi-arid India

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  • 1. Nageswara Rao V, Rego TJ, Meinke H, Parsons D, Craufurd PQ, Wani SP, and Kropff MJ
  • 2.  180 m. ha is under Vertisols globally Distributed across Northern Australia, India, Ethiopia, Sudan, Argentina, Mexico and Central America. 72.9 m. ha is in India, that is 22.2% of India’s geographical area. Distributed in the states of  Maharashtra (84%),  Gujarath (48%),  Madhya Pradesh(38%)  Andhra Pradesh (26%).
  • 3.  Vertisols are difficult to Manage as they shrink and crack, becomes hard on drying. Swell and sticky with rains. Twin problems : poor drainage – water logging due to high clay content (40-60%, up to 80%). Farmers keep Vertisols fallow in rainy season, and sow crops in Sept-Oct on stored soil moisture. Rainy season fallow Vertisols distribution States Rainy season fallows (m. ha)All India 26.2Madhya Pradesh 5.378Maharashtra 4.642Andhra Pradesh 2.253
  • 4. Water balance studies for 6 years on rainy season fallows showed rainfall losses are :Waterlogging on Vertisols during rainy season  25% as runoff against 15% as runoff from cropped fields.  25% of rainfall lost through evaporation.  9% of rainfall lost in deep percolation  41% of rainfall is potentially available for post rainy season crops. Runoff and soil erosion from Vertisols 10-43 t ha-1 yr-1 of soil is lost through soil erosion from fallows. 80% of soil erosion could be reduced with cropping .
  • 5. Chickpea after a rainy season fallow (FCP-FCP)  Farmers’ risk management strategy is to leave the land fallow during rainy season.  Sow crops like sorghum, chickpea, safflower year after year on these Vertisols. Sorghum after a rainy season fallow (FS-FS) Farmers preferably sow post rainy season crops in the month of October based on receding monsoon rainfall. Generally farmers sow traditional varieties.
  • 6. monthly mean rainfall (mm) Pan Evaporation 400Mean monthly rainfall and 350 Rainy season evaporation (mm) 300 250 200 Post-rainy season 150 100 50 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Rainfall ranges from 750-1250 mm on Vertisols regions in India, Rainy season cropping period is June- September, ET is less than rainfall from July to September months
  • 7. Our main goal was to enhance sustainableproductivity, and specific objectives are:1. Identify improved sustainable cropping system options for enhanced crop productivity.2. Quantify the benefits of grain legumes in the intensified cropping system rotations.
  • 8. Experiment was conducted for 15 years at ICRISAT farmfrom 1983 to 1997 seasons.Main plots: cropping systems 1st Year 2nd Year Rotation Abbreviation Rainy Post-rainy Rainy Post-rainyMung bean (M) + Sorghum Mung bean + Sorghum MS-MSSorghum (S) + Chickpea (CP) Sorghum + Chickpea SCP-SCPFallow (F) + Sorghum(S) Fallow + Sorghum FS-FSFallow + Sorghum Fallow + Chickpea FS-FCPSub plots: Nitrogen application 4 levels of Nitrogen 0, 40, 80,120 kg ha-1 for cereals only (sorghum). Rainfed cropping completely and no irrigation for crops.
  • 9. Mung bean in rainy season  Mung bean was dry seeded during first fortnight of June before monsoon rains.  270,000 plants ha-1 population was maintained for mung bean. Sorghum in post-rainy season Post-rainy sorghum sown in the 3rd week of September after mung bean harvest. 120,000 plants ha-1 was maintained for post-rainy sorghum.
  • 10. Rainy season sorghum  Rainy sorghum was dry sown, to maintain 180,000 plants ha-1 .  Cultivar sown was CSH-6 in all the years. Chickpea sown after the harvest of sorghum Chickpea cultivar Annegiri was sown one week after harvest of sorghum without any cultivation. 333,000 plants ha-1 was maintained
  • 11. Fallow+sorghum (F+S) Fallow+chickpea (F+CP)  Sorghum cultivar CSH-8R was sown after fallow in Sep-Oct in FS-FS treatment.  Post rainy sorghum was maintained at 120,000 plants ha-1. Chickpea sown after rainy season fallow in Sep-Oct in FCP treatment. Population target was 333,000 plant ha-1.
  • 12. 12000Grain yield (kg ha-1 two-year rotation-1) chickpea sorghum mung bean 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 N-40 N-80 N-40 N-80 N-40 N-80 N-40 N-80 N-0 N-0 N-0 N-0 N-120 N-120 N-120 N-120 FS-FS MS-MS FS-FCP SCP-SCP Cropping systems Error bars (SE±) indicate standard error for each crop yield
  • 13. Rainy season sorghum grain yield probabilities with SCP-SCP systems 1 0.8Probability Mungbean grain yield probabilities 0.6 with MS-MS 1 0.4 0.8 Probability 0.2 0.6 0 0.4 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Grain yield (kg ha-1) 0.2 Nitrogen_0 Nitrogen_40 Nitrogen-80 Nitrogen-120 0 0 500 1000 1500 mungbean Grain yield (kg ha-1)
  • 14. mungbean sorghum chickpea Crop mean uptake of N (kg ha-1 two-year 250 200 150 rotation-1) 100 50 0 N-0 N-0 N-0 N-0 N-120 N-120 N-120 N-120 N-40 N-80 N-40 N-80 N-40 N-80 N-40 N-80 FS-FS MS-MS FS-FCP Cropping systems SCP-SCPError bars indicate SE± for the crops mean uptake in two-year rotation
  • 15. Mean water use efficiency (WUE) for crops and rotationCropping Crops Systems of two-year rotationsystem WUE (kg ha-1 mm-1) N0 N 40 N 80 N120SCP-SCP Rainy sorghum 11.4 18.6 21.8 23.2 chickpeaMS-MS Mung bean 9 12 13.8 14 PR. sorghumFS-FS PR. sorghum 4.4 8.6 10.2 11.8FCP-FS Chickpea- 5.6 7.5 9.3 9.4 PR. sorghum
  • 16. 120000Gross returns (Rs. ha-1 two- N-0 100000  Gross returns increased in N-0 year rotation-1) with MS-MS exceeded by Rs 80000 22,000 and with SCP-SCP 60000 exceeded by Rs. 30,000 in two- 40000 year rotation. 20000 0 FS-FS MS-MS FS-FCP SCP-SCP 120000 mungbean sorghum Gross returns (Rs. ha-1 rotation 100000 sorghum fodder chickpea N-80 80000  Gross returns increased in N-80 with MS-MS exceeded by Rs cycle-1) 60000 30,000 and with SCP-SCP by Rs. 40000 34,000 in two-year rotation. 20000 0 FS-FS MS-MS FS-FCP SCP-SCP Cropping systems
  • 17.  Double cropping with MS-MS or SCP-SCP replacing fallows improves WUE between 19%-165% at same N level across systems. Farmers’ gross returns increase by Rs.22000-25000 ha-1 two-year rotation-1 at N-0 over traditional fallow systems. Yield response to applied Nitrogen increased by 2-3 fold in rainy season crops as well as post-rainy crops in the systems. Post-rainy season cereal or legume that follows a cereal in rainy season require N application to utilize water more efficiently . Adopting opportune double cropping on dryland Vertisols enhances productivity and additional N uptake of 30 kg N ha-1 y-1 by crops in N-0 for 15 years.
  • 18. Thanks