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Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre
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Intercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in QLD, Australia. Joseph Eyre

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A presentation at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane.

A presentation at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane.

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  • 1. Department of Employment, Economic Development and InnovationIntercropping maize and mungbean to intensify summer cropping systems in Queensland, Australia Joseph Eyre Richard Routley Daniel Rodriguez John Dimes
  • 2. Project background SIMLESA aims at increasing farm-household food security and productivity, in the context of climate risk and change, through the development of more resilient, profitable and sustainable maize- legume farming systems Socio-economic More productive, Improved range of characterization resilient and maize and legume sustainable varieties available Input and output smallholder for smallholders value chain maize-legume practices, tactics Whole farm and strategies resource allocations Scaling out and capacity building 30% increase in maize yields and 30% reduction in risk 500,000 households over the next 10 years© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 2
  • 3. Project background Similar agro-ecologies© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 3
  • 4. Objective: The sustainable intensification of cropping with an emphasis on maize and legumes© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 4
  • 5. How intensify?© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 5
  • 6. Intensifying resource use Double cropping Maize Legume© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 6
  • 7. Intensifying resource use Intercropping Maize Legume© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 7
  • 8. Intensifying resource use Relay cropping Maize Legume© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 8
  • 9. Intercropping 2010-2011 • 2 by 2 row replacement intercropping – Suitable for mechanisation – No opportunity for relay • Maize-mungbean – Opportunities to increase maize production in Qld • Light competition managed with multiple maize population densities© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 9
  • 10. Materials & Methods • cv. Emerald and cv. 34N43 (CRM 110) sown 1/2/2011 at Gatton RS • 0.75 m rows in Nth-Sth orientation • Nitrogen (150 Kg/Ha N) and rain fed (water unlimited) • 2, 2 row replacement intercropping with consistent intra row plant spacing – Sole Mungbean (Mb) 20 pl/m2 – Sole Maize (Mz) 2 pl/m2 – Sole Mz 4 pl/m2 – Sole Mz 8 pl/m2 – Intercropped Mb 10 pl/m2 Mz 1 pl/m2 – Intercropped Mb 10 pl/m2 Mz 2 pl/m2 – Intercropped Mb 10 pl/m2 Mz 4 pl/m2 • Soil water and light interception monitored intensively • 4 replicates (blocks) • 4.5 m2 harvest area© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 10
  • 11. Preliminary results • Maize population density – Yield plateau 4-8 plants/m2 monoculture – No plateau for intercropped maize? 7 6 l.s.d. (p=0.05) 5 Yield (t/Ha) 4 Sole maize Intercropped maize 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Population density (plants/m2)© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 11
  • 12. Preliminary results • Maize intra-specific competition; Land use Equivalence Ratio (LER) – Intercropped maize more land efficient (Partial LER>0.5) Treatment Yield (t/ha) Yield (g/plant) Partial LER Total Mz Mb Total Mz Mb Mz Mb LER Mb 20 pl/m2 Sole Mz 8 pl/m2 Sole 7.35a IC 16.5 cm intra row (t/ha) Mz 4 pl/m2 Sole 6.85a Sole 16.5 cm intra row (t/ha) = Partial LER Mz 2 pl/m2 Sole 4.80b Mz 4 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 5.14b 0.70a Mz 2 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 3. 92c 0.58b Mz 1 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 2.62d 0.55b l.s.d. (P = 0.05) 0.63 0.04© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 12
  • 13. Preliminary results • Maize intra-specific competition – Intercropped maize more land efficient (Partial LER>0.5) – Maize is more susceptible to intra-specific competition Treatment Yield (t/ha) Yield (g/plant) Partial LER Total Mz Mb Total Mz Mb Mz Mb LER Mb 20 pl/m2 Sole Mz 8 pl/m2 Sole 7.35a Mz 4 pl/m2 Sole 6.85a Mz 2 pl/m2 Sole 4.80b Mz 4 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 5.14b 0.70a Mz 2 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 3. 92c 0.58b Mz 1 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 2.62d 0.55b l.s.d. (P = 0.05) 0.63 0.04© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 13
  • 14. Preliminary results • Maize yields; intercropped vs. sole – Intercropped maize more land efficient (partial LER>0.5) – Maize is more susceptible to intraspecific competition – Intercropping can’t compensate for reduced land area Treatment Yield (t/ha) Yield (g/plant) Partial LER Total Mz Mb Total Mz Mb Mz Mb LER Mb 20 pl/m2 Sole Mz 8 pl/m2 Sole 7.35a Mz 4 pl/m2 Sole 6.85a Mz 2 pl/m2 Sole 4.80b ≠ Mz 4 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 5.14b 0.70a Mz 2 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 3. 92c 0.58b Mz 1 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 2.62d 0.55b l.s.d. (P = 0.05) 0.63 0.04© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 14
  • 15. Preliminary results • Maize yields; intercropped vs. sole – Intercropped maize more land efficient (partial LER>0.5) – Maize is more susceptible to intraspecific competition – Intercropping can’t compensate for reduced land area Treatment Yield (t/ha) Yield (g/plant) Partial LER Total Mz Mb Total Mz Mb Mz Mb LER Mb 20 pl/m2 Sole Mz 8 pl/m2 Sole 7.35a Mz 4 pl/m2 Sole 6.85a Mz 2 pl/m2 Sole 4.80b Mz 4 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 5.14b ≠ 0.70a Mz 2 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 3. 92c 0.58b Mz 1 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 2.62d 0.55b l.s.d. (P = 0.05) 0.63 0.04© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 15
  • 16. Preliminary results • Mungbean yields; intercropped vs. sole – High sole crop yield Treatment Yield (t/ha) Yield (g/plant) Partial LER Total Mz Mb Total Mz Mb Mz Mb LER Mb 20 pl/m2 Sole 2.40a Mz 8 pl/m2 Sole Mz 4 pl/m2 Sole Mz 2 pl/m2 Sole Mz 4 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.73d Mz 2 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.89c Mz 1 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 1.07b l.s.d. (P = 0.05) 0.59© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 16
  • 17. Preliminary results • Mungbean yields; intercropped vs. sole – High sole crop yield – Intercropping reduced mungbean yield partly due to population decreases Treatment Yield (t/ha) Yield (g/plant) Partial LER Total Mz Mb Total Mz Mb Mz Mb LER Mb 20 pl/m2 Sole 2.40a 12ab Mz 8 pl/m2 Sole Mz 4 pl/m2 Sole Mz 2 pl/m2 Sole Mz 4 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.73d 8c Mz 2 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.89c 10bc Mz 1 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 1.07b 13a l.s.d. (P = 0.05) 0.59 3© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 17
  • 18. Preliminary results • Mungbean competition; intercropped vs. sole – High sole crop yield – Intercropping reduced mungbean yield partly due to population decreases – Susceptible to interspecific competition (Partial LER<0.5) Treatment Yield (t/ha) Yield (g/plant) Partial LER Total Mz Mb Total Mz Mb Mz Mb LER Mb 20 pl/m2 Sole Mz 8 pl/m2 Sole Mz 4 pl/m2 Sole Mz 2 pl/m2 Sole Mz 4 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.30c Mz 2 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.37b Mz 1 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.45a l.s.d. (P = 0.05) 0.02© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 18
  • 19. Preliminary results • Total LER; intercropped vs. sole – No effect of maize population – Similar land area could produce both crops in monoculture Treatment Yield (t/ha) Yield (g/plant) Partial LER Total Mz Mb Total Mz Mb Mz Mb LER Mb 20 pl/m2 Sole Mz 8 pl/m2 Sole Mz 4 pl/m2 Sole Mz 2 pl/m2 Sole Mz 4 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.70a 0.30c 1.00a Mz 2 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.58b 0.37b 0.95a Mz 1 & Mb 10 pl/m2 IC 0.55b 0.45a 0.99a l.s.d. (P = 0.05) 0.04 0.02 n.s.© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 19
  • 20. Conclusions • Intercropped maize is more land efficient than sole maize, but can’t completely compensate for decreased area • Mungbean is susceptible to competition from maize Future research • Investigate novel temporal (i.e. relay cropping) and spatial arrangements to manage intra- & inter-specific competition • Famer interest in wheat-mungbean, millet-mungbean, & sorghum-chickpea relay© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 20
  • 21. Acknowledgements DEEDI QAAFI James McLean Daniel Rodriguez Richard Routley John Dimes Solomon Fekybelu Aldo Zeppa Scott Geddes© The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2011 21

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