InfoRCT: simulation tool for CA based rice-wheat systems. Yashpal Saharawat
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InfoRCT: simulation tool for CA based rice-wheat systems. Yashpal Saharawat

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Presentation made at the WCCA 2001 event in Brisbane, Australia.

Presentation made at the WCCA 2001 event in Brisbane, Australia.

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  • 1. InfoRCT: Simulation Tool for Conservation Agriculture based Rice-Wheat Systems Y.S. Saharawat International Rice Research Institute ysaharawat@cgiar.org
  • 2. Challenges Facing the R-W SystemGrowing cereal demand vis-à-vis decliningharvest area.Declining/stagnating productivity.Degrading soil and water resource base.Inefficiency associated with intensive tillage.Adverse changes in micro-climate.Inefficient nutrient management.Growing labor shortageEscalating fuel price.
  • 3. IntroductionVarious Conservation Agriculture based resourceconservation technologies (RCTs) are believed to beresource use efficient, environment-friendly andeconomically superior to conventional practices.However, an accurate accounting of the ecology andeconomics of such practices is lacking.A decision support system (DSS) is required to quantifythe input-output budget, fluxes of N, and globalwarming potential (GWP) along with detailedcost/benefit analysis of the prominent RCTs in rice-wheat systems.
  • 4. CA based Resource conservation technologies in rice-wheat systems Conventional Unpuddled Raised bed Zero-tillageTillage Transplanting Direct-drill-seedingCropestablishment
  • 5. Quantitative Evaluation of CA based RCTsProductivityResource use efficiencyCost effectivenessEnvironmental impact N loss Greenhouse gas emission Biocide residue
  • 6. InfoRCT Decision Support System (DSS): The ConceptThe DSS integrates bio-physical, agronomic and socio-economic parameters to establish empirical input-outputrelationships related to water, fertilizer, labour and biocideuses, GHG emissions, biocide residue in soil and N fluxes inrice-wheat system.This is programmed in Microsoft Excel and inputs and outputsare calculated on a seasonal basis using the target-oriented-approach.With this an optimal combination of inputs is identified torealize a target yield based on the biophysical environmentand the production technique.Outputs like GHG emissions, N losses, and biocide residue arethen calculated based on the amount of input used and therelated soil-plant processes.
  • 7. Schematic overview of the InfoRCT decision support system Target yield Soil organic C Seed Nutrient Water requirement requirement Manure/residues Human labor Soil supply Potential evapo- transpiration Root exudates Machine Manure/residue Precipitation Animal labor Deposition Technology Irrigation Fertilizer N Biocides Fertilizers NH3 Denitrifi NO3 CH4 CO2 N2O Biocide volatilization cation leaching emission emission emission residue Global warming potential Legends: Model Outputs Factors inputsSaharawat et al. 2011 Pathak et al. 2006
  • 8. Methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions Soil + organic/inorganic inputs + Technology ~ SOC ~ fertilizer ~ cont. flooding ~ bulk_density ~ root biomass ~ midseason drying ~ soil_depth ~ manure ~ alternate flooding ~ crop_duration ~ residues ~ zero tillageSaharawat et al. 2011, Pathak et al. 2011
  • 9. Global Warming PotentialGWP = CH4 * 21 + N2O * 296 + CO2 * 44/12
  • 10. Biocide residue index (BRI)BRI = Chemical use (g ha-1) * Toxicity index * Persistence index/100 <100 = Safe 100-200 = Permissible >200 = Unsafe
  • 11. Development andCalibration of InfoRCT
  • 12. Treatments in the Modipuram ExperimentGathala et al. 2011 (a,b)
  • 13. Simulated and observed yields of rice and wheat in Modipuram 10 Rice 6 Wheat Modi 2003 Modi 2003 Caculated yield (Mg ha ) -1 8 Caculated yield (Mg ha ) Modi 2004 Modi 2004 -1 Modi 2005 4 Modi 2005 6 4 2 2 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 -1 -1 Observed yield (Mg ha ) Observed yield (Mg ha )Saharawat et al. 2011, Pathak et al. 2011
  • 14. Sensitivity analysis of the InfoRCTSaharawat et al. 2011, Pathak et al. 2011
  • 15. Simulated yield and income in different RCTs Technology Yield Total cost Net return Return compared (Mg ha -1 ) (US $ ha -1 ) (US $ ha -1 ) with TP1 TP1 12.2 1137 482 1.00 TP2 12.0 1002 607 1.26 TP3 9.8 901 428 0.89 TP4 10.8 1012 435 0.90 TP5 11.1 910 572 1.19 TP6 11.6 1014 540 1.12 Yield of rice is more with puddled transplanting (TP1) but net returns are higher with midseason drying (TP2) and double zero-till systems (TP5 and TP6) due to reduced cost of irrigation in the former and reduced cost of tillage in the latter.Saharawat et al. 2011, Pathak et al. 2011
  • 16. GWP in different RCTs in Modipuram 4000 Rice Wheat GWP (kg CO2 equi. ha ) -1 3000 2000 1000 0 TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4 TP5 TP6 Calculated GWP is more in the conventional system because of more methane emission in continuously submerged condition in rice and more fuel consumption for tillage and irrigation.Pathak et al. 2011
  • 17. Biocide residue index (BRI) in different RCTs 250 Wheat Rice 200 Biocide residue index 150 100 50 0 TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4 TP5 TP6 Biocide residue index in rice and wheat under different technologies in rice-wheat system Biocide residue index is at a safe limit in the puddled transplanted systems, whereas it exceeds the safe limit in direct drill-seeded and raised bed systems because of more herbicide usePathak et al. 2011
  • 18. Validation and Evaluation of InfoRCT at farmers’ fields
  • 19. Study site IndiaHaryana Study site
  • 20. MethodologyExperimental site 10 Villages at Haryana, India 76 FarmersSurvey methodology Social, economic and educational status Input use: seed, irrigation, tractor, labour, fertilizer, and pesticides use Output: Grain and straw yieldSimulation InfoRCT- for estimation of global warming potential
  • 21. Rice yield under alternative tillage and crop establishment methods 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 Yield (Mg/ha) 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 CTPR UPTPR CTPR BTPR CTPR DSR CTPR ZT TPR o No significant differences in rice yield between conventional tillage/CE and alternative tillage/CE. o Aromatic rice (Basmati) had lower yield due to low genetic yield potential.Saharawat et al. 2011
  • 22. Economics Conventional Alternate tillage Difference Total Cost (US$) 518 379-473 45-139 Net income (US$) 275 345-377 70-102 Transplanting 5% Labour 22% Threshing fixed cost Irrigation Seed 5% 1% water 2% Labour 15% 8% Harvest Land preparation 7% 37% Weedicide/insectici 11 de 7% Land preparation 77% Fertilizers Irrigation 14% 22% Input cost in conventional tillage/CE Saving in alternate tillage and CESaharawat et al. 2011
  • 23. Simulated and observed net income in different tillage and crop establishment methods 800 Simulated net income (US $) 700 y = 0.99x + 3.68 600 2 R = 0.95 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Observed net income (US $)Saharawat et al. 2011
  • 24. Simulated greenhouse gas emissions in rice-wheat system with different tillage and crop establishment practices Techno Crop CH4 soil N2O soil N2O CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 GWP logy fertilizer machine fertilizer biocide fertilizer biocide (CO2 prod. prod. appli. appli. equi.) kg ha-1 kg N ha - kg N ha- kg C ha- kg C ha- kg C ha- kg C ha- kg C ha- kg ha-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 T1 Rice 59 0.10 0.32 478 199 47 11 11 3286 Wheat 0 0.10 0.42 81 256 0.2 14 0 597 RW 59 0.20 0.74 559 455 47 25 11 3884 T2 Rice 48 0.11 0.36 507 197 47 10 11 3174 Wheat 0 0.11 0.47 66 256 0 14 0 576 RW 48 0.23 0.83 573 454 47 24 11 3750 T3 Rice 25 0.12 0.24 389 117 82 6 18 2209 Wheat 0 0.12 0.53 60 261 0 14 0 591 RW 25 0.24 0.77 450 378 82 19 18 2799 T4 Rice 25 0.12 0.37 446 182 69 9 15 2491 Wheat 0 0.12 0.46 59 222 0 11 0 542 RW 25 0.24 0.83 505 404 70 21 15 3033 T5 Rice 25 0.12 0.41 433 202 82 10 18 2482 Wheat 0 0.12 0.54 58 222 0 10 0 564 RW 25 0.24 0.95 501 466 82 25 18 3046Saharawat et al. 2011
  • 25. ConclusionsDouble no-till rice-wheat system increases farm income;saves water, labour and energy; and reduces globalwarming potential.The technology could be a viable alternative for theconventional puddled transplanted rice- and intensivetilled-wheat system.The InfoRCT decision support system could capture themajor effects of tillage and crop management practicesand could be used for a comparative assessment ofdifferent resource conservation technologies in rice-wheatsystem.
  • 26. Calculated input, uptake and losses of N in rice-wheat system with different technologies in ModipuramTechnolo Crop Input Outputgya Fertilizer Irrigation Rain Fixation Uptake Leachin Volatilizati Denitrificati Total g on on loss kg N ha-1TP1 Rice 153 12 3 25 108 19 33 26 79 Wheat 173 1 1 5 113 11 31 4 46 RW 326 13 4 30 221 30 64 31 125TP2 Rice 138 10 3 25 101 18 31 24 73 Wheat 188 1 1 5 121 11 34 5 49 RW 326 11 4 30 222 29 64 29 122TP3 Rice 71 8 3 25 72 9 20 16 45 Wheat 176 1 1 5 114 9 32 4 45 RW 247 9 4 30 186 18 52 20 90TP4 Rice 107 10 3 25 88 14 26 21 60 Wheat 171 1 1 5 112 9 31 4 44 RW 278 11 4 30 200 22 57 25 104TP5 Rice 114 8 3 25 90 15 26 21 63 Wheat 178 1 1 5 116 10 32 4 47 RW 292 9 4 30 205 25 59 26 110TP6 Rice 120 10 3 25 93 15 28 22 65 Wheat 191 1 1 5 122 11 34 5 50 RW 310 11 4 30 215 26 62 27 115
  • 27. Conclusions• Midseason drying and double zero-till systems increased income whereas raised bed systems decreased it compared with the conventional system.• Direct-seeding and double zero systems reduce GWP but have a risk of high biocide residue. More efficient and safer herbicides, therefore, need to be developed.• The InfoRCT decision support system could be used for a comparative assessment of different RCTs for productivity, income and environmental impact at different scenarios of soil, climate and crop management.
  • 28. Area under zero-tillage (million ha) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.519 98 -9 919 99 -0 020 00 -0 120 01 -0 220 02 -0 320 03 -0 420 04 -0 5 Diffusion of zero tillage in wheat in the IGP20 05 -0 6
  • 29. Mechanistic Model vs. Decision Support ToolParameter Mechanistic model Decision Support Tool (DNDC) (InfoRCT)Overall purpose Computation of actual pools Comparison of technologies for and fluxes yield, net income, N balance and GHG emissionScale Plot FarmBasic concept Description of processes Description of processes through algorithms and through empirical data and empirical data algorithmsProgramming C++ MS ExcelInputs Detailed soil, climatic and Basic soil, climate, management data management, and prices dataOutputs C and N budget (daily C and N budget (seasonal records) records)Socio-economic Indirect: Yields Direct: Net incomeparameters
  • 30. Simulated global warming potential CTPR-CW UTPR-ZTW BTPR-Bed DSR-ZTW ZT TPR-ZTW 2500 2000 2400Co 2 (kg/ha) 1500 1742 1697 1616 1514 1000 500 0 CTPR-CW UTPR-ZTW BTPR-Bed DSR-ZTW ZT TPR-ZTWo Higher GWP in the conventional system was due to more fuel use for tillage, water pumping and more methane emission in submerged condition.o At the current price of C credit (US$ 30 Mg-1 CO2) double no till system fetches an additional income of US$ 24 ha-1 compared to the conventional rice-wheat system.
  • 31. Monthly total rainfall, mean maximum and minimumtemperatures and mean solar radiation in Modipuram Rainfall Max. temp. 40 Min. temp. 30 Solar radiation Temperature (oC) and solar radiation (MJ m d-1) 35 25 -2 30 Total rainfall (mm) 20 25 20 15 15 10 10 05 05 00 00 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  • 32. Technologies Adopted by FarmersTreatment Rice Wheat Number of farmers T1 Transplanted rice after Broadcasted wheat after 76 conventional puddling (FP), Conventional tillage (FP) T2 Transplanted rice in Drill sown wheat after zero tillage 41 unpuddled fields (UP-TPR) (ZTW) T3 Transplanted rice on raised Drill sown wheat on same beds 9 beds (BP-TPR) after reshaping (ZTW) T4 Transplanted rice after zero Drill sown wheat after zero tillage 6 tillage (ZT-TPR) (ZTW) T5 Direct-drill-seeded rice after Drill sown wheat after zero tillage 20 zero tillage (DSR) (ZTW)
  • 33. Monthly total rainfall, mean maximum and minimum temperatures and mean sunshine hour in Haryana Rainfall 45 Max. temp. 250 Min. temp. 40 Sunshine hours 200 35 Average temp. (o C) and sunshine (hr d -1 ) 30 Total rainfall (mm) 150 25 20 100 15 10 50 05 00 00 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec