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Increasing rainfall-use efficiency for dryland crops on duplex soils. Peter Sale
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Increasing rainfall-use efficiency for dryland crops on duplex soils. Peter Sale

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

Published in Education , Technology
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Transcript

  • 1. Increasing rainfall-use efficiencyfor dryland crops on duplex soils Sale P 1, Gill J 1, Peries R 2, Tang C 1 1 Department of Agricultural Sciences, LTU 2 DPI Victoria, Geelong
  • 2. Introducing “Subsoil Manuring”….a new technology in SE Australiato increase productivity of problemsoils with dense clay subsoils….
  • 3. The problem: dense clay subsoils Very denseWater loggingin wet winters No pore spaceReduced yieldsin dry springs FEW ROOTS
  • 4. “Small bucket size”
  • 5. Is it possible ?
  • 6. Research Project 2005-2007Subsoil amelioration !
  • 7. Research Project 2005-2007Treatments• control• deep ripped (DR)• DR + gypsum• DR + MAP• DR + gyp/ MAP• DR + coarse sand at 2 sites: - 4 years of grazing lucerne• DR + dynamic lifter (20 t/ha) - continuous cropping• DR + lucerne pellets (20 t/ha) Subsoil manuring• DR + luc.pellets (20 t/ha) /MAP/gypsum
  • 8. 2005 wheat crop 2006 wheat crop
  • 9. Crop responses 2005, 2006Year Crop Control SS Man. Control SS Man. (20 t/ha) (20 t/ha) Grain yield (t/ha) Grain protein (%)2005 Wheat 7.6 12.9 9.1 13.42006 Wheat 3.6 5.6 10.8 13.9
  • 10. Loss of soil water (mm) from subsoil layers during the 2005 crop Soil water (mm) Soil water (mm) 60 40 20 0 60 40 20 0 0 0 20 20 Depth * 40 40 (cm) ** 60 60*** 80 80 (- 57 mm) (- 123 mm) CONTROL Subsoil manuring
  • 11. Accumulation of soil water (mm) in subsoil layers during 2006 summer fallow Soil water (mm) Soil water (mm) 0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60 0 0Depth 20 20(cm) 40 40 60 60 ** 80 80 *** (+45 mm) (+125 mm) CONTROL Subsoil manuring
  • 12. Loss of soil water (mm) from subsoil layers during the 2006 crop Soil water (mm) Soil water (mm) 60 40 20 0 60 40 20 0 0 0 20 20 * Depth 40 40 (cm)** 60 60*** 80 80 (- 57 mm) (- 136 mm) CONTROL Subsoil manuring
  • 13. Rainfall-use efficiency in 2006 (kg grain/mm annual RF)CONTROL 12.9 kg/mmSubsoil Manuring 20.1 kg/mm
  • 14. What is happening in the subsoil? Subsoil 4 years after incorporation Control: 30-40 cm Lucerne +: 30-40 cm Across the bed
  • 15. Subsoil manuring: why does it transform clay?manure microbes + polysaccharides clay particles Roots clay aggregates
  • 16. Subsoil manuring: how much does it cost? Manure cost: $ 18-25 / tonne Rate: 20 tonne / haFreight: say $ 8-15 / tonneIncorporation: say $150 / ha Poultry litter TOTAL = $ 670-950 /ha (equal to lucerne pellets)
  • 17. Great interestamong farmers
  • 18. Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge GRDC for funding (Project ULA0008), and the Australian Research Council for funding (Project LP0455551), and my co-authors Jaikirat Gill, Renick Peries, and Caixian Tang for their great team effort.
  • 19. Thank You