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Herbicide resistance in no tillage farming systems. David Minkey
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Herbicide resistance in no tillage farming systems. David Minkey

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane.

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane.

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  • 1. Herbicide Resistance In No Tillage Farming Systems Dr David Minkey david.minkey@wantfa.com.au www.wantfa.com.au
  • 2. Sustaining no-till & glyphosate D’Emden et al 2009
  • 3. Resistance Surveys Frequency of herbicide resistance in Western Australia Mechelle Owen, Michael Walsh & Stephen Powles Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative www.ahri.uwa.edu.au
  • 4. Crop variety testing zones 30 plus sites visited in each region Sampled every 5km H
  • 5. Multiple Resistant Annual Ryegrass Populations
  • 6. Multiple resistance Wild Radish 84%H1/M1/L1 65%H2/M2/L2 39% H3/M3/L3 28%H4/M4/L4
  • 7. Years to resistance for different herbicides - USA 35 ALS Inhibitors 30 25Resistant species 20 ACCase inhibitors 15 Triazines 10 5  Glyphosate 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Years of use
  • 8. (Roundup) glyphosate @ 450g/haR S
  • 9. (Gramoxone) paraquat @ 200g/haR S
  • 10. (Hoegrass) diclofop @ 1000g/haR S
  • 11. (Verdict) haloxyfop @ 52g/haR S
  • 12. (Fusilade) fluazifop @ 100g/haR S
  • 13. (Achive) tralkoxydim @ 152g/haR S
  • 14. (Sertin) sethoxydim @ 100g/haR S
  • 15. The Rise and Rise of GlyphosateAustralian Herbicide Resistance Initiative University of Western Australia
  • 16. Glyphosate: a once in a life time herbicide“Glyphosate is as important toworld agriculture as penicillin is to human health” Powles 2010
  • 17. 2009 Global Herbicide Sales Source: Cropnosis Ltd Atrazine Nicolsulfuron Clodinafop FenoxapropS-MetalochlorMesosulfuron 2,4-D Acetochlor Glufosinate Mesotrione Paraquat Glyphosate 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 600 Sales ($m)
  • 18. $ 5 billion19 7419 7619 7819 8019 8219 8419 86 Knockdown use19 8819 9019 9219 9419 9619 9820 0020 0220 0420 06 History of glyphosate20 08 Introduction of RR Crops20 10
  • 19. Global GM Crops (million ha) •Soybean, maize, cotton and canola •90% RR160 •80% globally traded soybeans are RR140120 •60% globally traded canola are RR10080604020 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Source: ISAAA
  • 20. Argentine GM soybeans v No-till No-till Argentine RR soybeans & farming 16 20 GM Soybeans RR Soybeans No-till Farming (m ha) 16GM Soybeans (m ha) 12 No-till farming 12 8 8 4 99% RR 4 0 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Trigo J & Cap J
  • 21. How to be inherbicide resistance
  • 22. Corn, Cotton and Soybean BeltCorn 40 m haSoybean 30 m haCotton 5 m ha
  • 23. Corn, Cotton and Soybean BeltCorn 40 m ha (85% glyphosate resistant)Soybean 30 m ha (95% glyphosate resistant)Cotton 5 m ha (95% glyphosate resistant)
  • 24. RR soybean removed previous herbicide diversity
  • 25. GLYPHOSATE BELT
  • 26. Palmer Amaranth inin RR Cotton Palmer Amaranth RR Cotton
  • 27. Learning from GM cropping in Canada Cereal, Canola Corn/Soy
  • 28. Learning from Canada• Wheat the major crop• GM Canola dominant but with diversity - Liberty Link Canola - Clearfield Canola - RR Canola – 80% Diversity in crops and herbicides= Sustainability
  • 29. Glyphosate Resistance in Australia 133 cases of resistant ryegrass State No of populations SA 49 NSW 48 WA 22 Vic 14 Other Species - Liverseed grass (3) - Awnless barnyard grass (18) - Windmill grass (1) - Fleabane (8) Photo: Andrew Heinrich
  • 30. Glyphosate resistance• Not limited to broadacre situations resistance hasbeen found in: • Vineyards • Orchards • Roadside verges • Railway lines • Irrigation channels • Airstrips• Fencelines/crop margins – using glyphosate asonly method for weed control will lead to evolutionof resistance GLYPHOSATE STILL WORKING ON MOST FARMS – KEEP IT THAT WAY Photo: Andrew Heinrich
  • 31. Probability of glyphosate resistance 1 Glyphosate every yearProbability of resistance 0.8 Glyphosate/paraquat rotation Glyphosate then paraquat sequence 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Year Neve et al 2003 weed research Cumulative probability distributions for predicted evolution of glyphosate resistance in annual ryegrass in a 30-year simulation of a Wheat-Lupin-Wheat-Canola rotation with no tillage at sowing
  • 32. Harvest weed seed mgt, double knock!• Up to 85% of ryegrass seed “harvested” can be collected in the chaff fraction
  • 33. Burn Narrow windrows
  • 34. HSD – double knock Photo: Piers Blake
  • 35. Bale everything!!
  • 36. 300 250Wild radish seed (m 2) 200 No cart Cart 150 100 50 0 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Distance (m)
  • 37. Targeting weed seeds allowscrop production to continue - Chaff collection - Harvest residue baling - Windrow burning - Chaff destruction