Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms. Diego Valbuena

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Birsbane.

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Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms. Diego Valbuena

  1. 1. crop residue use in crop-livestock farmschallenges & options of mulching in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Diego Valbuena Olaf Erenstein Sabine Homann Tahirou Abdoulaye Alan Duncan Bruno Gérard Nils Teufel WCCA 2011 Brisbane, Australia
  2. 2. mixed systems & SLP www.vslp.orgMixed systems = 2/3 population + food + value chains (Herrero et al. 2010)Biomass trade-offs: immediate demands & soil sustainability SLP: Bring livestock research on the agenda + links CGIAR Current project: crop residues use in mixed systems
  3. 3. objectivesDescribe crop residue use in diverse mixedsystemsIdentify main challenges of mulchingLook for options related to mulching
  4. 4. crop residue use CA ideal situation http://www.iconpot.comhttp://www.openclipart.org
  5. 5. crop residue use mixed crop-livestock farms http://www.iconpot.com http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com http://coloring-drawing.comhttp://www.openclipart.org $$ www.clipartof.com
  6. 6. working ideasCR: much more than mulchOffer (pressure) & demand(intensification) mattersOptions need to include localspecificities
  7. 7. site & village selection site: agri. intensification & market village: market & road access
  8. 8. selected sites Pot. pressure HIGH MEDIUM LOW on biomass Country India Bangla. Kenya Ethiopia India Ethiopia Zimb. Mozam. Niger Nigeria Malawi Niger Site ID H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 Location Karnal Dinajpur Kakamega Nekemte Rajasthan Kobo Nykayi Changara Fakara Kano Mzimba Maradi SymbolMarket access +++ ++ ++ + ++ + ++ + + +++ + ++Intensification +++ ++ ++ + + + + + + ++ ++ + semi-arid humid Agro-ecology highlands highlands semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid (irrigated) (irrigated) Rainfall 750 2000 1650 1050 650 700 600 650 500 800 700 600 maize, sorghum, maize, sorgh. millet, millet, Main crops wheat-rice rice maize, teff maize maize millet, maize.gnt maize sorghum, beans teff cowpea sorghum cpea cowpea buffalo cattle cattle/buf cattle cattle cattle cattle cattle Livestock cattle-dairy cattle cattle cattle cattle goat goat goats shoats shoats goats shoats after Valbuena et al. submitted
  9. 9. potential biomass pressure 3 H-I1 H-B H-K 2tlu ha-1 M-E2 M-E1 M-I2 1 L-Z Grouping sites: L-MZ L-NG pop. & livestock L-N1 L-N2 L-MW densities 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 persons ha-1 after Valbuena et al. submitted
  10. 10. land & animals 100 L-NG H-I1 H-B H-K M-E1 80 M-I2 M-E2% hh with livestock L-Z L-N1 L-MZ L-N2 60 land & livestock; livelihood for > L-MW ½ farms 40 40 60 80 100 % hh with land
  11. 11. income & production 90 H-I1 75 H-B Range of agriculture & self-consumption 60 Extremes in S. Asia % crop sold L-MW 45 M-E2 M-E1 L-N1 30 L-N2 H-K L-NG 15 L-Z L-MZ M-I2 0 20 40 60 80 100 % income non agriculture
  12. 12. CR more than mulch: cereals ↑ feed, ↓ mulch 100% 80%% cereal residue NG: feed-fuel 60% MW: feed-mulch 40% other 20% traded left/mulch 0% feed H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 ↓ feed sites after Valbuena et al. submitted ↑ mulch
  13. 13. CR more than mulch: legumeL-NG L-N1 L-N2 H-K Legume residue high value or good for cooking (H-K). No mulching. In Southern Africa not mentioned. % sold % fed % others
  14. 14. trends last 10yrs% villages H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2increase fuel - 71 100 100 - 63 - - 100 88 - 57 stall feed 63 100 88 100 38 88 60 88 86 100 - 71 left/mulch 63 88 38 0 0 0 - 40 57 - 75 -decrease left/mulch 0 13 63 88 25 100 - 20 43 - 13 - Overall increase of CR use as fuel & stall feed Increase left/mulch key sites: irrigation & fertilizers Increase of collection/privatisation of CR in ET
  15. 15. CR as feed 100% ↑ feed: M & H- sites 80%% feed from residues 60% 40% 20% 0% H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 ↑ feed sources sites after Valbuena et al. submitted
  16. 16. feed shortages 10 M-sites & West Africa: 8 ↑ pressure on feedNo. months with shortage 6 4 2 crop residues green fodder grazing 0 H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 sites
  17. 17. intensification matters 3 H-IN1 H-BD H-KN 2 M-IN2tlu ha-1 M-ET2 ↑ pop: ↑ intensity (area) H M-ET1 ↑ pop: ↓ communal land 1 L-ZW ↑ pop ↓ int./prod (area) & L-MZ L-NE1 L-NG ↓ com. land: L-MW L-NE2 ↑ pressure on CR 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 % cropped area yr-1 after Valbuena et al. submitted
  18. 18. other CA-related practices 100 > ½ area is tilled by animal; but also hand or 80 tractor (not shown) Scarce legumes; market distortion & farming systems%area legumes 60 40 L-N1 H-K L-MZ L-NG 20 L-MW L-N2 L-Z H-I1 H-B M-I2 M-E1 M-E2 20 40 60 80 100 % tilled area by animal
  19. 19. results show that:CR are short-term resources: feed & Co.CR to mulch with lower pressure (very ↑ production; or↑ production + ↓ demand), but practices need to change.With higher pressure: increase of production is needed.Each region has its own potential, challenges & optionsfor more sustainable agriculture = no silver-bullet exists
  20. 20. work in progresshousehold diversitylinking better socio-economic, biophysical & institutionalstakeholder involvement: R4D & demand-led R&D proposals

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