Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms. Diego Valbuena
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Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms. Diego Valbuena

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Birsbane.

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Birsbane.

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Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms. Diego Valbuena Crop residue use in crop-livestock farms. Diego Valbuena Presentation Transcript

  • crop residue use in crop-livestock farmschallenges & options of mulching in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Diego Valbuena Olaf Erenstein Sabine Homann Tahirou Abdoulaye Alan Duncan Bruno Gérard Nils Teufel WCCA 2011 Brisbane, Australia
  • mixed systems & SLP www.vslp.orgMixed systems = 2/3 population + food + value chains (Herrero et al. 2010)Biomass trade-offs: immediate demands & soil sustainability SLP: Bring livestock research on the agenda + links CGIAR Current project: crop residues use in mixed systems
  • objectivesDescribe crop residue use in diverse mixedsystemsIdentify main challenges of mulchingLook for options related to mulching
  • crop residue use CA ideal situation http://www.iconpot.comhttp://www.openclipart.org
  • crop residue use mixed crop-livestock farms http://www.iconpot.com http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com http://coloring-drawing.comhttp://www.openclipart.org $$ www.clipartof.com
  • working ideasCR: much more than mulchOffer (pressure) & demand(intensification) mattersOptions need to include localspecificities
  • site & village selection site: agri. intensification & market village: market & road access
  • selected sites Pot. pressure HIGH MEDIUM LOW on biomass Country India Bangla. Kenya Ethiopia India Ethiopia Zimb. Mozam. Niger Nigeria Malawi Niger Site ID H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 Location Karnal Dinajpur Kakamega Nekemte Rajasthan Kobo Nykayi Changara Fakara Kano Mzimba Maradi SymbolMarket access +++ ++ ++ + ++ + ++ + + +++ + ++Intensification +++ ++ ++ + + + + + + ++ ++ + semi-arid humid Agro-ecology highlands highlands semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid semi-arid (irrigated) (irrigated) Rainfall 750 2000 1650 1050 650 700 600 650 500 800 700 600 maize, sorghum, maize, sorgh. millet, millet, Main crops wheat-rice rice maize, teff maize maize millet, maize.gnt maize sorghum, beans teff cowpea sorghum cpea cowpea buffalo cattle cattle/buf cattle cattle cattle cattle cattle Livestock cattle-dairy cattle cattle cattle cattle goat goat goats shoats shoats goats shoats after Valbuena et al. submitted
  • potential biomass pressure 3 H-I1 H-B H-K 2tlu ha-1 M-E2 M-E1 M-I2 1 L-Z Grouping sites: L-MZ L-NG pop. & livestock L-N1 L-N2 L-MW densities 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 persons ha-1 after Valbuena et al. submitted
  • land & animals 100 L-NG H-I1 H-B H-K M-E1 80 M-I2 M-E2% hh with livestock L-Z L-N1 L-MZ L-N2 60 land & livestock; livelihood for > L-MW ½ farms 40 40 60 80 100 % hh with land
  • income & production 90 H-I1 75 H-B Range of agriculture & self-consumption 60 Extremes in S. Asia % crop sold L-MW 45 M-E2 M-E1 L-N1 30 L-N2 H-K L-NG 15 L-Z L-MZ M-I2 0 20 40 60 80 100 % income non agriculture
  • CR more than mulch: cereals ↑ feed, ↓ mulch 100% 80%% cereal residue NG: feed-fuel 60% MW: feed-mulch 40% other 20% traded left/mulch 0% feed H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 ↓ feed sites after Valbuena et al. submitted ↑ mulch
  • CR more than mulch: legumeL-NG L-N1 L-N2 H-K Legume residue high value or good for cooking (H-K). No mulching. In Southern Africa not mentioned. % sold % fed % others
  • trends last 10yrs% villages H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2increase fuel - 71 100 100 - 63 - - 100 88 - 57 stall feed 63 100 88 100 38 88 60 88 86 100 - 71 left/mulch 63 88 38 0 0 0 - 40 57 - 75 -decrease left/mulch 0 13 63 88 25 100 - 20 43 - 13 - Overall increase of CR use as fuel & stall feed Increase left/mulch key sites: irrigation & fertilizers Increase of collection/privatisation of CR in ET
  • CR as feed 100% ↑ feed: M & H- sites 80%% feed from residues 60% 40% 20% 0% H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 ↑ feed sources sites after Valbuena et al. submitted
  • feed shortages 10 M-sites & West Africa: 8 ↑ pressure on feedNo. months with shortage 6 4 2 crop residues green fodder grazing 0 H-I1 H-B H-K M-E2 M-I2 M-E1 L-Z L-MZ L-N1 L-NG L-MW L-N2 sites
  • intensification matters 3 H-IN1 H-BD H-KN 2 M-IN2tlu ha-1 M-ET2 ↑ pop: ↑ intensity (area) H M-ET1 ↑ pop: ↓ communal land 1 L-ZW ↑ pop ↓ int./prod (area) & L-MZ L-NE1 L-NG ↓ com. land: L-MW L-NE2 ↑ pressure on CR 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 % cropped area yr-1 after Valbuena et al. submitted
  • other CA-related practices 100 > ½ area is tilled by animal; but also hand or 80 tractor (not shown) Scarce legumes; market distortion & farming systems%area legumes 60 40 L-N1 H-K L-MZ L-NG 20 L-MW L-N2 L-Z H-I1 H-B M-I2 M-E1 M-E2 20 40 60 80 100 % tilled area by animal
  • results show that:CR are short-term resources: feed & Co.CR to mulch with lower pressure (very ↑ production; or↑ production + ↓ demand), but practices need to change.With higher pressure: increase of production is needed.Each region has its own potential, challenges & optionsfor more sustainable agriculture = no silver-bullet exists
  • work in progresshousehold diversitylinking better socio-economic, biophysical & institutionalstakeholder involvement: R4D & demand-led R&D proposals