5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture  Conservation tillage improves soil properties and crops yields in North Ch...
<ul><li>Prof. Li  Hongwen </li></ul><ul><li>Changjiang Scholar, China Agricultural University </li></ul><ul><li>Head, Cons...
Why CA?
1. Severe soil degradation <ul><li>Soil, water and nutrient loss </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, in China’s ‘Yellow’ River...
<ul><li>Dryland farm : 60% of total farmland </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rainfall < 400mm: 15 Provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Dra...
<ul><li>Groundwater over-exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>The formation of underground funnel  </li></ul>3. Declining of gro...
4. Low and unstable crops yields
Soil erosion Blowing dust Traditional tillage aggravated environmental  destruction <ul><li>SOM loss </li></ul><ul><li>Soi...
Conservation tillage:    ------No or minimum tillage ------Permanent organic soil mulch cover ------Temporal and/or spatia...
Objectives <ul><li>Identify the impacts of long-term conservation tillage  on soil properties and crop yields in dryland f...
Material and Methods
Daxing, Beijing Linfen, Shanxi Wuchuan, Inner Mongolia 1. Experimental sites
2. Weather information   Experimental sites Altitude (m) Mean annual rainfall (mm) Mean annual temperature ( o C) Linfen, ...
4. No-till planter   2BMF-7 no-till wheat planter 2BMD-12 Strip-chopping no-till planter Daxing Linfen, Wuchuan Heavy resi...
Results and Discussion
1. Soil organic matter (g/kg) <ul><li>0-10cm: </li></ul><ul><li>Linfen: CT > TT,  ↑21.7%  Daxing: CT > TT,  ↑10.5%  </li><...
2. Total N and Available P <ul><li>In 0-10cm layer, Total N in CT was 51.5%, 24.3% and 23.8% higher than in Traditional Ti...
<ul><li>In 0-10cm depth, the AP was 56.3%, 48.5% and 10.5% higher for CT than for TT in Linfen, Beijing and Wuchuan; </li>...
3. Crops yields Wheat (kg/ha): Linfen Mean yield: CT>TT,  ↑ 579kg/ha Mean yield: CT>TT,  ↑ 138kg/ha Daxing Mean yield: CT>...
Maize: Mean yield: CT>TT,  ↑ 423kg/ha Daxing
Conclusion <ul><li>CA can improve soil properties and crops yields in North China; </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation tillage ...
Introduction of Conservation Tillage Research Centre, MOA 农业部保护性耕作研究中心介绍 and Conservation Tillage in China 以及中国保护性耕作状况
Conservation Tillage Research Centre, MOA 农业部保护性耕作研究中心 <ul><li>The only organization specially on CT research in China; Lo...
Machine  Development  Conservation  Agriculture Yields 产量  Cost  成本  Wind erosion Water  erosion Soil  Moisture  Weeds  Co...
<ul><li>1.  CA Machines </li></ul>
1992 : Started Conservation Tillage research  with ACIAR Projects Results:  With No till Seeders developed by CTRC , answe...
Corn No-till Planter
No Till wheat Seeders for areas with one crop a year 5 Rows 6 rows 9 rows 7 rows 10 rows
1998 年 : started to do research on no till seeding into maize stubble cover field
Series No-till Wheat Planter in Annual Two-crop Regions
Strip chop no-till seeder
 
 
Subsoiler
Shallow Tillage Weeder
<ul><li>2. Conservation Tillage /Environment </li></ul><ul><li>( Runoff, Sediment transport, green house gas emission ) </...
Experimental and Monitoring Sites ★ ★ ★ ★ 阳高 ★ 张北 ★ 武川 ★ 正蓝旗 ★ 赤峰 ★ 凌源 ★ 阜新 500 km 400 km 300 km ★ 丰宁 150 km Around Beijing
(1)  Water Erosion  水蚀 Rainfall Simulation 降雨模拟 Runoff Experiments 径流试验区
(2)  Wind Erosion
 
Satellite Image
Sampling in the field
Wind Tunnel
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Fengning  ZhangBei  Inner Mongolia   Beijing 丰宁  张北  内蒙古  延庆 ↘ 50%
(3) Soil Fertility  培肥地力 SOM 有机质: Increase 0.03% per year
Earth Worm After  years : 3 ~ 5/m 2 After years: 10 ~ 15/m 2
(4)  CO2 Flux
Conventional Tillage ( 11.30g/m 2 )  produced more CO 2  emission than Rotary till ( 9.63g/m 2 ) and No-till ( 7.99g/m 2 )...
3.  Controlled Traffic/Permanent Raised Bed
 
<ul><li>4. Integration of Mechanical and Electrical Industry in CT </li></ul><ul><li>机电一体化技术在保护性耕作中的应用 </li></ul>
Tractor Guidance  机械方式拖拉机导向系统 Control system Steering system Detecting system The tractor can be guided to follow the crop...
Camera Guidance  数码方式导向
Automatic monitoring Stubble Cover  Rate 利用数码照片快速测定覆盖率
Papers More than 20 English Papers,  100 Chinese papers
Own more than 40 Patents State  Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C
Min-till seeders for wheat into maize stubble
Training
Development of CT in China 中国保护性耕作发展 Area /M ha  面积 (百万公顷) Year  年份
Thank you!
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Conservation tillage improves soil properties and crop yields in North China. Li Hongwen

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane.

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  • 耕作 = 破坏环境 危害: 土壤有机质损失 土壤侵蚀——风 燃料需求 排放 CO2 耗资 耗时
  • Good morning, Chairman. Good morning Ladies and Gentle man. Firstly, I would like to thank the organizer inviting me here to share my team’s research results on conservation tillage.
  • (四)装备研究。授权河北农哈哈、河南豪丰等 6 个企业生产项目机具,已开发出三类 26 种小麦免耕播种机
  • This is the results from opaque chamber, on traffic zone, the CO2 flux is the smallest, because there is only soil respiration, few root in traffic.
  • (四)装备研究。授权河北农哈哈、河南豪丰等 6 个企业生产项目机具,已开发出三类 26 种小麦免耕播种机
  • Conservation tillage improves soil properties and crop yields in North China. Li Hongwen

    1. 1. 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture Conservation tillage improves soil properties and crops yields in North China China: He Jin, Li HW, Li H, Liu Lijing Australia: J.N. Tullberg (Unviersity of Queenlans) A.D. McHugh (University of South Queensland)
    2. 2. <ul><li>Prof. Li Hongwen </li></ul><ul><li>Changjiang Scholar, China Agricultural University </li></ul><ul><li>Head, Conservation Tillage Research Center (CTRC), MOA, P.R. China </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cn-ct.net </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why CA?
    4. 4. 1. Severe soil degradation <ul><li>Soil, water and nutrient loss </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, in China’s ‘Yellow’ River catchment, loess soils are being lost at average rates of up to 100t/ha.yr or about 8mm/yr </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Dryland farm : 60% of total farmland </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rainfall < 400mm: 15 Provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Draught : 60% of yield loss by natural disaster </li></ul>2. Drought and water shortage
    6. 6. <ul><li>Groundwater over-exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>The formation of underground funnel </li></ul>3. Declining of groundwater level North China Plain <ul><li>Average annual groundwater level decline more than 1m in some regions </li></ul>
    7. 7. 4. Low and unstable crops yields
    8. 8. Soil erosion Blowing dust Traditional tillage aggravated environmental destruction <ul><li>SOM loss </li></ul><ul><li>Soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Low yield </li></ul><ul><li>High fuel consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Increased CO 2 emission </li></ul><ul><li>High cost and low income </li></ul>
    9. 9. Conservation tillage: ------No or minimum tillage ------Permanent organic soil mulch cover ------Temporal and/or spatial diversity of crops
    10. 10. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the impacts of long-term conservation tillage on soil properties and crop yields in dryland farming areas in North China </li></ul><ul><li>Present suggestions for further research to enhance the development of conservation tillage in China </li></ul>
    11. 11. Material and Methods
    12. 12. Daxing, Beijing Linfen, Shanxi Wuchuan, Inner Mongolia 1. Experimental sites
    13. 13. 2. Weather information Experimental sites Altitude (m) Mean annual rainfall (mm) Mean annual temperature ( o C) Linfen, Loess Plateau (1992-2007) 360- 500 500 10-12 Daxing, North China Plain (2000-2007) 45 526 10-12 Wuchuan, farming pastoral ecotone (1998-2008) 1500-2000 360 2.5
    14. 14. 4. No-till planter 2BMF-7 no-till wheat planter 2BMD-12 Strip-chopping no-till planter Daxing Linfen, Wuchuan Heavy residues cover Low residues cover
    15. 15. Results and Discussion
    16. 16. 1. Soil organic matter (g/kg) <ul><li>0-10cm: </li></ul><ul><li>Linfen: CT > TT, ↑21.7% Daxing: CT > TT, ↑10.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Wuchuan: CT > TT, ↑23.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Higher SOM in CT due to: </li></ul>Ⅰ . Greater straw cover; Ⅱ . Reduced biological oxidation; Ⅲ . Less soil disturbance.
    17. 17. 2. Total N and Available P <ul><li>In 0-10cm layer, Total N in CT was 51.5%, 24.3% and 23.8% higher than in Traditional Tillage in Linfen, Daxing and Wuchuan. </li></ul>Sites Treatment Total N (g/kg) Available P (mg/kg) Soil depth 0-10cm 10-20cm 0-10cm 10-20cm Linfen, Loess Plateau CT 1.03a 0.67a 35.0a 10.5a TT 0.68b 0.66a 22.4b 22.9b Daxing, North China Plain CT 1.38a 1.02a 20.2a 16.9a TT 1.11b 0.86b 13.6b 13.9b Wuchuan, farming pastoral ecotone CT 0.52a 0.30a 17.9a 8.3a TT 0.42b 0.24a 16.2b 10.1b
    18. 18. <ul><li>In 0-10cm depth, the AP was 56.3%, 48.5% and 10.5% higher for CT than for TT in Linfen, Beijing and Wuchuan; </li></ul><ul><li>The topsoil accumulation of P in CT due to: </li></ul><ul><li>Ⅰ . Limited downward movement of particle-bound P in soils; </li></ul><ul><li>Ⅱ . Upward movement of nutrients from deeper layers through nutrient uptake by roots. </li></ul>Available P (AP): <ul><ul><li>Change of soil surface conditions under CT and TT after 16 years in Linfen </li></ul></ul>Conservation tillage Traditional tillage
    19. 19. 3. Crops yields Wheat (kg/ha): Linfen Mean yield: CT>TT, ↑ 579kg/ha Mean yield: CT>TT, ↑ 138kg/ha Daxing Mean yield: CT>TT, ↑ 171kg/ha Wuchuan
    20. 20. Maize: Mean yield: CT>TT, ↑ 423kg/ha Daxing
    21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>CA can improve soil properties and crops yields in North China; </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation tillage is a solution for Chinese agro-environment and food security </li></ul>
    22. 22. Introduction of Conservation Tillage Research Centre, MOA 农业部保护性耕作研究中心介绍 and Conservation Tillage in China 以及中国保护性耕作状况
    23. 23. Conservation Tillage Research Centre, MOA 农业部保护性耕作研究中心 <ul><li>The only organization specially on CT research in China; Locates in College of Engineering, China Agricultural University </li></ul><ul><li>专门从事保护性耕作研究的机构,挂靠中国农业大学工学院 </li></ul><ul><li>Use our hands to protect our soil and get good harvest </li></ul>
    24. 24. Machine Development Conservation Agriculture Yields 产量 Cost 成本 Wind erosion Water erosion Soil Moisture Weeds Control GHG Emission Others Tasks 任务
    25. 25. <ul><li>1. CA Machines </li></ul>
    26. 26. 1992 : Started Conservation Tillage research with ACIAR Projects Results: With No till Seeders developed by CTRC , answered: Is CA practicable in China? How to do CA ? What are the benefits of CA? Can we use machines to do CA in China?
    27. 27. Corn No-till Planter
    28. 28. No Till wheat Seeders for areas with one crop a year 5 Rows 6 rows 9 rows 7 rows 10 rows
    29. 29. 1998 年 : started to do research on no till seeding into maize stubble cover field
    30. 30. Series No-till Wheat Planter in Annual Two-crop Regions
    31. 31. Strip chop no-till seeder
    32. 34. Subsoiler
    33. 35. Shallow Tillage Weeder
    34. 36. <ul><li>2. Conservation Tillage /Environment </li></ul><ul><li>( Runoff, Sediment transport, green house gas emission ) </li></ul>
    35. 37. Experimental and Monitoring Sites ★ ★ ★ ★ 阳高 ★ 张北 ★ 武川 ★ 正蓝旗 ★ 赤峰 ★ 凌源 ★ 阜新 500 km 400 km 300 km ★ 丰宁 150 km Around Beijing
    36. 38. (1) Water Erosion 水蚀 Rainfall Simulation 降雨模拟 Runoff Experiments 径流试验区
    37. 39. (2) Wind Erosion
    38. 41. Satellite Image
    39. 42. Sampling in the field
    40. 43. Wind Tunnel
    41. 44. 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Fengning ZhangBei Inner Mongolia Beijing 丰宁 张北 内蒙古 延庆 ↘ 50%
    42. 45. (3) Soil Fertility 培肥地力 SOM 有机质: Increase 0.03% per year
    43. 46. Earth Worm After years : 3 ~ 5/m 2 After years: 10 ~ 15/m 2
    44. 47. (4) CO2 Flux
    45. 48. Conventional Tillage ( 11.30g/m 2 ) produced more CO 2 emission than Rotary till ( 9.63g/m 2 ) and No-till ( 7.99g/m 2 ) for the whole year. 传统耕作 11.30g/m2 , 比旋耕 9.63g/m2 和免耕 7.99g/m2
    46. 49. 3. Controlled Traffic/Permanent Raised Bed
    47. 51. <ul><li>4. Integration of Mechanical and Electrical Industry in CT </li></ul><ul><li>机电一体化技术在保护性耕作中的应用 </li></ul>
    48. 52. Tractor Guidance 机械方式拖拉机导向系统 Control system Steering system Detecting system The tractor can be guided to follow the crop row at lower speed 拖拉机可以顺着原有玉米行行走
    49. 53. Camera Guidance 数码方式导向
    50. 54. Automatic monitoring Stubble Cover Rate 利用数码照片快速测定覆盖率
    51. 55. Papers More than 20 English Papers, 100 Chinese papers
    52. 56. Own more than 40 Patents State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C
    53. 57. Min-till seeders for wheat into maize stubble
    54. 58. Training
    55. 59. Development of CT in China 中国保护性耕作发展 Area /M ha 面积 (百万公顷) Year 年份
    56. 60. Thank you!

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