CA in Brazil, yesterday, today and tomorrow. Pedro Arreas

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Presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

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CA in Brazil, yesterday, today and tomorrow. Pedro Arreas

  1. 1. Conservation Agriculture in Brazil Yesterday, Today and TomorrowPedro ArraesPresidentPresidencia@embrapa.br
  2. 2. OutlineBrazilian AG data - high tech and smallholdersDrivers of glogal AG demandBrazilian agriculture evolutionChallenges / Changes in Conservation AgricultureGreen AgricultureNAMAs BrazilFinal Messages
  3. 3. Brazilian AG data - high tech and smallholders
  4. 4. Agriculture and Food Security: Current land use in Brazil Total area : . . . . . . . . . . . .851 M ha Land suitable for agriculture (65%): . . ..555 M ha Land in use (39%): . . . . . .330 M ha Area of rural properties INCRA 2010 (67%): . . . . . 572 M ha Conservation Units + Limit states Indigenous Lands (26%): .220 M ha Amazon biome Pantanal biome Alto Paraguai river basin Areas planted with pa Legend sture Areas Limit states used for crops/livestock Areas Amazon biome used for agriculture Pantanal biome Alto Paraguai river basin Areas planted with pasture Areas used for crops/livestock Areas used for agriculture
  5. 5. Brazil – The importance of agribusiness GDP Labor Export (2010) (2007) (2010) Demais setores Demais setores Demais setores 37% 37,9% 22,3% US$ 76,4 bi US$ 520 biSource: CEPEA/USP, CNA, MAPA e MDIC. Elaboration: Fiesp-Deagro
  6. 6. ZZ Brazilian leadership in World Ranking - 2010 Orange juice Suco Laranja Sugar Açúcar Chicken C. Frango Coffee Café Beef C. Bovina Soybean Comp. Soja Corn Milho C. Pork Suína 1th 1th 1th 1th 1th 2th 3th 4th Export. Export 84% 47% 39% 29% 23% 27% 12% 10% Produção 1th 1th 3th 1th 2th 2th 4th 4th Production 56% 24% 15% 35% 16% 22% 7% 3% » Ethanol: 2nd largest producer and worlds leading exporterSource: USDA (fev/2011) Note: 2010 (meat) and harvest 2009/10 (other products) Elaboration: Fiesp-Deagro
  7. 7. Brazilian Agriculture: Projections
  8. 8. Small Farm Agriculture Contribution to Brazil in agriculture (%) cassava 87 beans 70 cattle 30 corn 46 milk 58 poultry 50 rice 34 wheat 21 swine 59
  9. 9. Brazilian Agriculture: Exports of Selected Products Data from Conab, G.B.Martha, Jr. (work-in-progress).
  10. 10. Meat production (1,000 tons) 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 0 10,000 12,000 14,000Source: after Conab. 1980/81 1,451 1981/82 1,099 2,112 1982/83 1983/84 + 1984/85 334% 1985/86 1986/87 1987/88 Beef (1,000 tons carc.equiv.) 1988/89 1989/90 1990/91 1991/92 Brazil: Meat Production 1992/93 1993/94 + 1080% 1994/95 1995/96 Poultry (1,000 tons) 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 + 219% 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 Pork (1,000 tons carc.equiv.) 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 12,928 2009/10 9,184 2010/11 3,384
  11. 11. Agricultural Land-Area Use Data from FAO, except for Brazil (IBGE), elaboration G.B.Martha.
  12. 12. Drivers of glogal AG demand
  13. 13. Drivers of global demand Population Growth (billion) 9,15 8,01 GDP (Annual growth %) 6,91 6,12 World Mundo Série1 PD DC Série2 PED Série3 UC 4,06 6,6 6,4 6,6 1975 2000 2010 2025 2050Urbanization (billion) 4,3 4,57,06,0 Urban 3,75,0 2,64,0 2,2 1,93,0 Rural2,01,00,0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Average00-10 Média 00-10 2011 2012 Source: UN (dez/2010) e IMF (jun/2011). Elaboration: Fiesp-Deagro
  14. 14. Drivers of global demand New patterns of feeding ZZ World - Per capita consumption of food 200 (kg / pessoa / ano) Kg/consumer/year 1989/91 1999/01 2030 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Grain Cereais Sugar Açúcar Vegetable oils Óleo vegetal Meat Carnes Dairy Lácteos - 4% + 12% + 55% + 42% + 20% Replacement of grains and starches for meat, dairy, sweets, processed foodsSource: ICONE e FAO (2006). Note: were not included cereals used for animal feed. Elaboration: Fiesp-Deagro
  15. 15. ZZ The size of the global challenge... Production Current 2050 (million ton.) Brasil World World Equals ... X current production 9,1 65,1 + 61% (04 x)Carnes Meat 3,0 105,1 + 60% (20 x) 12,2 92,6 + 108% (08 x) 8,5 456,8 + 24% (13 x)GrainsGrãos 52,6 1.112 + 52% (11 x) 61,9 407,9 + 96% (06 x) 36,7 161,5 + 83% (08 x) The demand of additional area will be of 81.7 million ha. The Brazilian agricultural sector is able to add about 60 million hectares through the intensification of beef production. Source: ICONE e FAO (fev/2011) Elaboration Fiesp-Deagro
  16. 16. Brazilian agriculture evolution
  17. 17. Brazilian Agriculture: before 1970‘sRural povertyFood supply crisisLow Ag production and low yields Jeca TatúProduction concentrated in South/SoutheastLack of specific knowledge on Tropical AgricultureInstitutional void (ag research, education, markets, media andgovernmental agencies, etc.) The task: To move from traditional agriculture to agriculture based on science & technology
  18. 18. Tropical Agriculture Achievements• Fibers and wood (cotton, Eucalyptus)• Tropical (African) grasses (Brachiaria, etc.)• Sugarcane and ethanol• No-tillage practices• Cerrado Agriculture• Biological control• N fixation• Poultry No-till Cropping System• Zebu cattle• Soybean (photoperiodism)• Tropical plants and animals:• Tropical and temperate horticulture 20/09/10
  19. 19. Conservation Agriculture in BrazilIntensification of land use with integrated crop-livestock-forest systems Technologies Adapted to Small Scale Farming Systems Source: MAPA, 2010 – Photo by APDC
  20. 20. Evolution of Agricultural Systems in Brazil Evolution of grains and oilseeds production (million metric tons), yields (Kg/ha) and area (million hectares) in Brazil from 1975 to 2010. Production (million tons) Area (million ha) Yield (kg/ha) Variation, 1976/77 to 2010/11 + 228% + 31% + 151% 160,00 4.000 154,20 140,00 3.500 Production (million tons) and 120,00 3.000 3.156 Yield (kg/ha) area (million ha) 100,00 2.500 80,00 2.000 60,00 1.500 40,00 1.000 48,86 20,00 500 0,00 0 1976/77 1978/79 1980/81 1982/83 1987/88 1989/90 1991/92 1993/94 2000/01 2002/03 2004/05 2006/07 1977/78 1979/80 1981/82 1983/84 1984/85 1985/86 1986/87 1988/89 1990/91 1992/93 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2001/02 2003/04 2005/06 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2009/11
  21. 21. Challenges / Changesin Conservation Agriculture
  22. 22. Conservation – 30 years in focusThe conservationist August 1980 No-Till cropping system The earth is our mother The role of earthworms in soil formation How to produce Erosion: biogas The great problem
  23. 23. Technologies For Environmental Protection Agro-Ecological Zoning Agro-Climatic Risk Zoning Biological Pest Control High yield cultivars (land-sparing effect) No-Till Cropping System Biological Nitrogen Fixation Bioenergy Reclamation Technology for Degraded Areas (mining, engineering and siderurgy) Precision agriculture
  24. 24. Agricultural Incorporation of Selected Anthropic AreasBrazil as Reference in Sustainable Agriculture Technical Capacity + New Technologies Partnerships Degraded Soils Modified Areas Exhausted Pastures 20/09/10
  25. 25. Agroecological zoning for sustainable production Oil Palm Sustainable Production Program BRS Manicoré Oil Palm Sustainable Production ProgramRestrict expansion to areas that have been deforestedProhibit the felling of native vegetationDirect the expansion of production to the recovery of degraded areasSmall farmers linked to the industrial plants
  26. 26. Conservation Agriculture in BrazilCultivated area under no-tillage systems around the world (1000 ha) Source: Brazilian Federation of No-Till cropping system – FEBRAPDP, 2006
  27. 27. Crop Livestock Forest Integration - CLFI “Agricultural intensification and expansion with mitigation of environmental impact” Source: MAPA, 2010 – Photos by Votorantin Metais
  28. 28. Biological Nitrogen FixationBrazil has become the world leader in replacing N fertilizers by biological N2 fixation (BNF). With Bradyrhizobium Anual economy: ~ US$ 5 billion Without Bradyrhizobium Source: Contini and Martha Jr., 2010
  29. 29. Agroecological Zoning Plan for Sugarcane Expansion Brazil is using Zoning Technology to Manage Sugarcane Expansion Sugarcane for ethanolproduction occupies 1.5% of Brazil s arable land 87% of sugarcane production http://www.cnps.embrapa.br/zoneamento_cana_de_acucar/ZonCana.pdf Source: UNICA.
  30. 30. Embrapa Embrapa Embrapa Embrapa Embrapa Embrapa Rice & Soils: Agriforestry: Agroenergy: Pantanal: Agriforestry : Beans: Terra Preta integration alternative pyrolysisfield trials and integrated of energy biomass and forests and crop theoretical systems and biochar and field systems wastes model trials production trials trials Biochar Research Network
  31. 31. 2600b. Soybean Yield 2600 a 3200 3200 a 2550 2550 3rd year after application 1st year after applicationYield (kg ha-1) 3150 3150 2500 2500 ab Produtividade (kg ha ) -1 3100 3100 ab 2450 2450 Produtividade (kg ha ) -1 3050 3050 bc 2400 2400 bc f=y0+a*carvão+b*carvão^2 3000 3000 bc 2350 2350 bc r2: 0,96 p (0,0155) 2950 2950 c f=y0+a*charcoal+b*charcoal f=y0+a*carvão+b*carvão^2 r2: 0,96 p(0,0176) 2 2300 c f=y0+a*charcoal+b*charcoal2 2900 2300 r2 = 0.96 p(0.0155) 2900 r2 = 0.96 p(0.0176) 2250 2250 2850 2850 0 0 5 5 10 10 15 15 0 0 5 5 10 10 15 15 Charcoal (Mg-1ha-1) -1 Carvão (Mg ha ) Carvão (Mg ha ) 3200 3200 4th year after application a Haplic Ferralsol, texture sandy clay Mato Grosso State, Savanna (Cerrado)Yield (kg ha-1) 3000 3000 b Produtividade (kg ha ) -1 2800 2800 b 2600 2600 f=y0+a*carvão+b*carvão^2 c c f=y0+a*charcoal+b*charcoal2 2 r : 0,96 p (0,016) 2400 2400 r2 = 0.96 p(0.0160) 2200 2200 0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 -1 Charcoal (Mg ha-1) Carvão (Mg ha )
  32. 32. NAMAs Brazil
  33. 33. Brazil’s Policy to Develope a Low Carbon Emission Agriculture NAMAs (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions): reduce GHG emissions = 36,1-38,9% by 2020  Reduce deforestation in the Amazon region (80%) and in the Cerrado (40%). Voluntary  Disseminate sustainable practices in Agriculture. Commitments  Increase energy efficiency. COP 15  Renovation of Degraded Pastures Brazilian  Crop-Livestock-Forest Integration Brazilian Low Carbon  No-TillClimate Change  Nitrogen Fixation Policy Emission Agriculture Program  Planted Forest  Treatment of Swine Residues Technological Package Embrapa
  34. 34. Fonte: http://photos.mongabay.com/08/1212target_deforestation_brazil.jpg
  35. 35. Towards a Greener Agriculture
  36. 36. Agriculture - the "industry" of the future Alimento Food Energy Fibers Biomass Chemicals Materiais Materials
  37. 37. Agriculture as a Provider of Environmental Services Protection and windbreaks Maintenance of Protection from Predators Soil Fertility Carbon and Parasitoids Aesthetics and Sequestration Landscaping cultural value Clean water productionClimate regulation Protection of Pollinators Biological Fixation Fertilizer Reduction Biological of Nutrients Control Ecological Reduction of food supply and stability Movement of maintenance of Pollutants Reduction of erosion wildlife
  38. 38. Agroecological Zoning and Climate Change Climate Change and the new geography of agricultural production in Brazil Source: http://www.climaeagricultura.org.br/index.html
  39. 39. Green Agriculture in the Cerrado: an example
  40. 40. Land use in the Cerrado RR AP AM MA PA CE RN PI PB PE AC RO AL MT TO SE BA GO DF42% of Brazilian agricultural GDP MS MG ES SP RJ PR Total area: 204 M ha SC RS Crop land: 21 M ha Pasture: 54 M ha Perennial crops: 4 M ha
  41. 41. Average yield (last 10 years) in Brazil and Cerrado biome Cerrado biome Brazil Ordinary farm* High-tech farm Exp.station Products Average (kg ha-¹ year-¹ ) Corn 3,507 4,546 12,000 16,000 Soybean 2,613 2,846 3,900 5,000 Beans 778 1,268 2,000 4,000 Eucalyptus¹ 30 40 80 120 Beef Cattle² 60 70 90 120 1 m³ ha-¹ year-¹; 2 live-weight gain; ha-¹ year-¹ (complete system) * Yields from Mid-western States (Mato Grosso, South Mato Grosso and Goiás). Source: Conab (2010)
  42. 42. Possibilities of a Green Agriculture in the African Cerrado?
  43. 43. Technical CooperationCase Structuring Project /ABC PRO SAVANNAH PROJECT - MOZAMBIQUE Why NACALA Corridor? Brazil 13º S Lichinga Nacala Corridor Nampula 17º SSimilar biomesSimilar challengesBusiness opportunitiesJoint learning opportunitiesA common vision for the future
  44. 44. Final Messages
  45. 45. Key Agricultural Challenges Today and Tomorrow• Public Image of Agriculture• Maintaining Agribusiness Competitivity• Sustainable Increase in Agricultural Production• Strengthening Smallholder Agriculture• Sustainable Use of Forests and Altered Areas• North-South-South Cooperation and Dialogue• Climate-Smart Agriculture• Subsidies and Doha Round• Greener Agriculture a Must

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