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Agroforestry adaptation and mitigationoptions for smallholder farmers vulnerable toclimate changeDr. Brenda B. LinResearch...
Agriculture and climate change effects• Temperature       • Maximums and         minimums       • Seasonal shifts• Precipi...
Agricultural VulnerabilitiesRice - decreased seedweight during El Niñodrought seasonsWheat - heat pulsesapplied to wheat d...
Smallholder farmers: Exposure and Sensitivity• Agricultural based economies with few other livelihood  strategies• Relianc...
Progressive adaptation                                                                                                    ...
Agroforestry Systems: Adaptation and Mitigation                                                                           ...
Literature Survey       What are the ways in which agroforestry can       increase farmer resilience to climate change    ...
Adaptation       Examples from the coffee agroforestry systemCSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for sma...
Variation in Coffee Agroforestry                                                                                       4  ...
Buffering against Temperature variability                     Dry Season                                                  ...
Buffering against water loss                                                            150 Water Loss through Evapotransp...
Buffering against extreme events: storms and winds                                                                        ...
Buffering against extreme events: storms and winds           Greater farming intensity led to greater farm           area ...
Mitigation                               Carbon sequestration potential                                                   ...
Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry• Trees    • Agroforestry systems maintains 22 times more carbon stored     ...
Payments for carbon sequestration• Eligible for  afforestation/reforestation (A/R)  activity in the Clean  Development Mec...
Curbing GHG emissions                 • Less fertilizer use because of nutrient cycling                 • Mitigate N2O and...
ConclusionsBenefits for Smallscale Farmers• Adaptation to climate change effects     • Temperature     • Precipitation• Mi...
CSIRO Climate Adaptation FlagshipBrenda B. LinResearch ScientistPhone: 03 9239 4476Email: Brenda.Lin@csiro.auWeb: www.csir...
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Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change. Brenda Lin

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

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Transcript of "Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change. Brenda Lin"

  1. 1. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigationoptions for smallholder farmers vulnerable toclimate changeDr. Brenda B. LinResearch ScientistOctober 27, 2011
  2. 2. Agriculture and climate change effects• Temperature • Maximums and minimums • Seasonal shifts• Precipitation • Extreme events • Flooding • Drought Fisher et al, 2005; Parry and Livermore, 2005CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  3. 3. Agricultural VulnerabilitiesRice - decreased seedweight during El Niñodrought seasonsWheat - heat pulsesapplied to wheat duringanthesis reducedharvestMaize - reduced pollenviability above 36 °C Lansigan et al, 2000; Porter and Semenov, 2005; Wollenweber et al, 2003CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  4. 4. Smallholder farmers: Exposure and Sensitivity• Agricultural based economies with few other livelihood strategies• Reliance on ecosystem services, natural resources - water, soil, air• Small family farms have little capital to invest in adaptation strategiesCSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  5. 5. Progressive adaptation Transformation from landuse or distribution changeBenefit from New products such as adaptation ecosystem services Climate ready germplasm Climate-sensitive precision-agric Diversification and risk management Varieties, planting times, spacing Stubble, water, nutrient and canopy management etc Climate change Howden et al. 2010 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  6. 6. Agroforestry Systems: Adaptation and Mitigation Schoeneberger 2009CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  7. 7. Literature Survey What are the ways in which agroforestry can increase farmer resilience to climate change effects?• Web of Knowledge search • “agfor* AND climate change”• Two main categories of agroforestry implementation for smallholder farmers • Adaptation tool to protect against climate change • Mitigation tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissionsCSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  8. 8. Adaptation Examples from the coffee agroforestry systemCSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  9. 9. Variation in Coffee Agroforestry 4 Height (m) High Shade (HS) 0 Traditional PolycultureCoffee grown under natural canopy, with other commercially productive trees Medium Shade (MS) Height Commercial Polyculture 15 Coffee grown only with commercially productive trees (no natural canopy) Height Low Shade (LS) Shaded Monoculture Coffee grown under one species of shade tree Moguel and Toledo, 1999 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  10. 10. Buffering against Temperature variability Dry Season Wet Season 30 30 Shade cover 27 27 Temperature (°C) High 24 24 Medium Low 21 21 18 18 15 15 0 6 12 18 0 6 12 18 Time Lin, 2007 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  11. 11. Buffering against water loss 150 Water Loss through Evapotranspiration Soil Evaporation cWater Loss through Evapotranspiration 150 Plant Transpiration Soil Evaporation Plant Transpiration 120 120 b (g H2O m-2 h -1) (g H2O m h ) -1 90 90 a -2 60 60 30 30 0 0 High Medium Low Shade Shade Shade High Shade Medium Shade High Shade Medium Shade Low Shade Low Shade Lin, 2010 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  12. 12. Buffering against extreme events: storms and winds • In Chiapas – economic damages estimated 3 billion in the agricultural sector • 20% of coffee harvest lost worth $US 4 million in the Pacific region of GuatemalaTropical Storm Stan: Oct 1-5, 2005 Philpott et al, 2008 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  13. 13. Buffering against extreme events: storms and winds Greater farming intensity led to greater farm area affected by landslides y=1.64x-0.8312 R2 = 0.0827P=0.014 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  14. 14. Mitigation Carbon sequestration potential Verchot et al, 2006CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  15. 15. Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry• Trees • Agroforestry systems maintains 22 times more carbon stored aboveground when compared to traditional maize• Soil organic matter • Improved fallow agroforestry found to increase topsoil C stocks up to 1.6 Mg C/ha/yr above continuous maize cropping• Sequestration potential • 95 Mg C ha-1 median value for the agroforestry system as a whole Soto Pinto et al, 2010; Montagnini and Nair, 2004; Albrecht and Kandji, 2003 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  16. 16. Payments for carbon sequestration• Eligible for afforestation/reforestation (A/R) activity in the Clean Development Mechanism• REDD – reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation• At $100 per MgC, carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems could potentially raise per capita incomes up to 15% Antle et al., 2007 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  17. 17. Curbing GHG emissions • Less fertilizer use because of nutrient cycling • Mitigate N2O and CO2 emissions from soils and increase CH4 sink strengthLand-use system N 2O emissions CH 4 flux CO 2 emissions Source -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 (µg N m h ) (µg C m h ) (µg C m h )Cropping System High input cropping 31.2 15.2 84 Palm et al (2002) Low input cropping 15.6 -17.5 66.6 Palm et al (2002) Cassava/Imperata 7.1 -14.8 Tsurata et al (2000)Agroforestry Shifting cultivation 8.6 -23.5 67.5 Palm et al (2002)Systems Multistrate agroforestry 5.8 -23.3 32.6 Palm et al (2002) Peach Palm 9.8 -17 66.4 Palm et al (2002) Jungle rubber 1 -12 Tsurata et al (2000) Rubber agroforests 12.5 -27.5 Tsurata et al (2000)Forests Forest 9.2 -28.8 73.3 Palm et al (2002) Forest 5 -31 Tsurata et al (2000) Logged Forest 7.2 -38.2 Tsurata et al (2000) Adapted from Mutuo et al 2005 Palm et al 2002; Mutuo et al, 2005 CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  18. 18. ConclusionsBenefits for Smallscale Farmers• Adaptation to climate change effects • Temperature • Precipitation• Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions • Carbon sequestration • Decreased GHG loss and increased sinks• Increase on farm profitability by • Protecting crop production from climate change and potential secondary effects • Increasing crop diversification and products produced including carbon sequestration CSIRO. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change
  19. 19. CSIRO Climate Adaptation FlagshipBrenda B. LinResearch ScientistPhone: 03 9239 4476Email: Brenda.Lin@csiro.auWeb: www.csiro.au/org/ClimateAdaptationFlagship.htmlThank you Contact Us Phone: 1300 363 400 or +61 3 9545 2176 Email: enquiries@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au
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