Adaptation of CA by smallholder farmers in Malawi: drivers, intensity, benefits and problems for scaling up. Amos Robert Ngwira
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Adaptation of CA by smallholder farmers in Malawi: drivers, intensity, benefits and problems for scaling up. Amos Robert Ngwira

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A presentation made at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane, Australia.

A presentation made at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane, Australia.

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Adaptation of CA by smallholder farmers in Malawi: drivers, intensity, benefits and problems for scaling up. Amos Robert Ngwira Adaptation of CA by smallholder farmers in Malawi: drivers, intensity, benefits and problems for scaling up. Amos Robert Ngwira Presentation Transcript

  • Adaptation of conservation agriculture by smallholder farmers in Malawi: drivers,intensity, benefits and problems for up scaling Amos Ngwira, Mulugetta Mekuria, Christian Thierfelder and Jens Aune 2111 2005 http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • IntroductionStudies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES  Food security is a major concern in southern Africa region  Maize - main staple  Drought, low soil fertility and weak value chains  Low adoption and limited capabilities in responding to stress factors  More sustainable production 2 practices - CA http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • Studies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Introduction  Wide CA adoption in the Americas and Australia  Major reasons : – Limited research to adapt principles of CA – Knowledge intensive nature of CA – Long periods to realize benefits  Farmer experimenting with CA  Assess major drivers of CA experimentation among smallholder farmers as well as 3 intensity of farmer adapatation of CA practices http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • Studies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Study Methodology 3056 Nkhotakota  Data collection 5230 – using sturctured questionnaire – A total of 300 farmers were interviewed as follows – Key informant interviews – Field observations  Categories of farmers – 150 adopters – 50 farmers who tried CA but later Balaka abandoned – 50 farmers who have never tried CA 4 before  Study period – May to June 2010 http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • Studies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Drivers of farmer experimentation with CA  Herbicide use is one of the principal factors – Major reasons provoking farmers’ interest CA: 90 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 Labor saving Higher yields Soil moisture Soil erosion Enhanced soil Other retention control fertility Motivations for CA http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • Studies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Drivers of farmer experimentation with CA  Other principal factors include: – Establishment of local innovation system – Motivation of extension worker – Existence of a strong social network – Farmer to farmer exchange visits and farmer field days 6 http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • http://www.umb.no/noragric/ Intensity of CA adoptionNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCESDepartment of International Environment and Development 7Studies, Noragric
  • http://www.umb.no/noragric/ Intensity of CA adoptionNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCESDepartment of International Environment and Development 8Studies, Noragric
  • http://www.umb.no/noragric/ Adoption of Specific Components of the CA PackageNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCESDepartment of International Environment and Development 9Studies, Noragric
  • Studies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Farmers’ scenarios and experiences with CA  Limited use of CA equipment  Some trade-offs on use of crop residues – rodents hunting  Limited widespread use of crop rotation due to: – Pritoritizing food security concerns – General shortage of legume seed – Inadequate knowledge of rotation systems – Undeveloped produce markets Maize intercropped with Pigeon 10 pea, Chipeni, Malawi http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • Studies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Major breakthroughs of CA into maize based systems and modifications by farmers  Monocropping to intercropping  Crop rotations  Extending CA principles to other crops such as cassava, paprika, Cassava planted in basins under CA, Balaka, Malawi soybean  Experimenting with low doses of herbicides to control weeds  Planting of relay crops such as cowpea and tomato  Long duration pigeon pea varieties to shorter duration varieties 11  Planting pigeonpea between rows of companion crops other than within Red chili in rotation with maize rows http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • http://www.umb.no/noragric/CA ImpactsNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCESDepartment of International Environment and Development 12Studies, Noragric
  • Studies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Reasons for disadoption and non adoption of CA  Limited access to inputs (54%)  Lack of information (70%9  Discontinued donor support (43%)  Perception that herbicides destroy soils (23%) 13 http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • Studies, Noragric Department of International Environment and Development NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Conclusion  Major drivers of farmer experimentation with CA included herbicides, extension support, social capital, farmer exchange visits, field days, etc  Benefits of CA include labour saving, soil fertility improvement, higher yields, increased soil moisture retention, etc  Farmers allocate small area under CA compared to conventional practice due largely to limited inputs  Limited access to inputs and technical information on CA were major reasons for non adoption 14 http://www.umb.no/noragric/
  • http://www.umb.no/noragric/ THANK YOUNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCESDepartment of International Environment and Development 15Studies, Noragric