Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machinery in Pakistan<br /><ul><li>Dr. Zahid Hussain
Muhammad Irfan
Ghani Akbar</li></ul>Pakistan Agriculture Research Council<br />
Presentation Outline<br />Introduction <br />Material & Method<br />Results<br />Conclusions<br />
Introduction<br />Mechanical power use in Pak. Agric. commences in 1950s<br />Tractor & tillage was introduced in 1960s<br...
Permanent Raised Beds in Pakistan<br />1998 Permanent Raised Bed system/machinery was introduced under a collaborative res...
Cont…<br />However,<br />Large scale adoption of the system was limited due to:<br />Two separate heavy machines (Bed form...
Objective<br />To develop an Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machine (ADPRB) suitable for local socio economic, av...
Material and Methods<br />After completion of three years of national project on PRB a survey was conducted to check:<br /...
Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machinery<br />Advanced design of PRB (ADPRB) machinery was developed with feature...
ADPRB Machinery details<br />ADPRB machine comprises of four parts<br />i) The front bar with three furrow openers, two bl...
Machinery Testing<br /><ul><li>Testing of machinery was performed at Gujjar farm, Haripur, KPK Province
Six rows of wheat was sown on 90cm wide raised beds in comparison with traditional flat basin under a replicated trial on ...
Machinery operation was closely observed and grain yield data was collected at harvest</li></ul>Material and method<br />
Results<br />Machinery testing and operation<br />55 hp tractor satisfactorily operated the machine due to light weight an...
Conclusions<br /><ul><li> Adoption of conservation agriculture techniques in developing world depends on availability of s...
 Preliminary results of ADPRB is encouraging. However, more research is needed to identify its impact on soil hydro-physic...
Fertilizer Outlet<br />Seed Outlet<br />4th Part<br />
Six Rows for Wheat & Rice<br />
Two Rows for Maize and Cotton<br />
Furrow Opener<br />Blades<br />
Cutters for Hoeing and Renovation<br />
Machinery Parts<br />Seed metering driving Wheel<br />Cutter Shafts<br />Roler<br />
Cutters<br />
Seed Dropping <br />Double Disk System<br />
Adjustable Furrow Opener<br />
Seed metering System for Cotton and Maize<br />
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Advanced design of permanent raised bed machinery in Pakistan

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Dr Zahid Hussain
Muhammad Irfan
Ghani Akbar

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Advanced design of permanent raised bed machinery in Pakistan

  1. 1. Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machinery in Pakistan<br /><ul><li>Dr. Zahid Hussain
  2. 2. Muhammad Irfan
  3. 3. Ghani Akbar</li></ul>Pakistan Agriculture Research Council<br />
  4. 4. Presentation Outline<br />Introduction <br />Material & Method<br />Results<br />Conclusions<br />
  5. 5. Introduction<br />Mechanical power use in Pak. Agric. commences in 1950s<br />Tractor & tillage was introduced in 1960s<br />Currently available tractors 593334 nos.<br />77% tractors (46-55hp) are available to farmers<br />23.8 million hectares cultivated<br /> With 6.62 million total farms <br />47.6 hectares/tractor <br />0.14 ha/capita agricultural land<br />
  6. 6. Permanent Raised Beds in Pakistan<br />1998 Permanent Raised Bed system/machinery was introduced under a collaborative research project of ACIAR and PARC. <br />Research findings were very encouraging:<br />Saving water, operating time and labour<br />Improving grain yield and WUP<br />Achieving uniform distribution seed and fertilizer <br />Improving soil health<br />Maize crop on PRB<br />Wheat crop on PRB<br />Introduction<br />
  7. 7. Cont…<br />However,<br />Large scale adoption of the system was limited due to:<br />Two separate heavy machines (Bed former and seeders) <br />Imported machinery cost was very high<br />Obstacles in local manufacturing of these machines<br />Thus, GOP supported PRB system through a national project where ACIAR was again a partner:<br />Machines were subsidised and locally manufactured<br />Farmer and manufacturer trainings were conducted<br />Research component was further strengthened<br />Bed former cum renovator<br />Seed drill<br />Introduction<br />
  8. 8. Objective<br />To develop an Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machine (ADPRB) suitable for local socio economic, available tractor power, cropping and environmental conditions of Pakistan.<br />
  9. 9. Material and Methods<br />After completion of three years of national project on PRB a survey was conducted to check:<br />Farmers Satisfaction with the available technology<br />To evaluate the performance of current PRB machinery distributed & to identify issues<br />Survey revealed:<br />Farmers satisfied with the system as compared to traditional farming system<br />However, two key issues identified<br />1: Capital cost (RS 320,000/set) and heavy machinery weight<br />2:Operating cost of twice machinery operation<br />
  10. 10. Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machinery<br />Advanced design of PRB (ADPRB) machinery was developed with features of:<br />Bed forming and sowing in a single operation<br />Adjustable bed size from 90cm (single bed) to 25cm (double bed)<br />Maximum capacity of six rows (wheat, rice etc) per 90cm bed and 2 rows (maize, cotton etc) per 25cm bed<br />Light weight (175 kg) and low cost (RS 120,000 per set)<br />Precision planting and inter row hoeing<br />Material and method<br />
  11. 11. ADPRB Machinery details<br />ADPRB machine comprises of four parts<br />i) The front bar with three furrow openers, two blades and one shaft with four cutters (Cutters are used for hoeing on beds between rows of cotton and maize)<br />ii) Fertilizer and seed boxes, a shaft with five cutters and one roller<br />iii) six tines with double disk furrow openers for wheat and rice seed<br />iv) A precision seed metering system for maize and cotton to maintain plant to plant distance<br />3rd Part<br />2nd Part<br />1st Part<br />4th Part<br />Material and method<br />
  12. 12. Machinery Testing<br /><ul><li>Testing of machinery was performed at Gujjar farm, Haripur, KPK Province
  13. 13. Six rows of wheat was sown on 90cm wide raised beds in comparison with traditional flat basin under a replicated trial on 25th Dec. 2010
  14. 14. Machinery operation was closely observed and grain yield data was collected at harvest</li></ul>Material and method<br />
  15. 15. Results<br />Machinery testing and operation<br />55 hp tractor satisfactorily operated the machine due to light weight and better performance<br />Low tractor fuel consumption was observed as compared to early machines<br />Bed making and sowing was smoothly performed in a single operation<br />Seed germination was satisfactory<br />Up to 33% increased grain yield was observed under PRB than flat basin<br />Farmers interest in adoption<br />Farmers interest in purchasing this machine can be evidenced by 20 applications so far received throughout the country which includes<br />10 from KPK<br />5 from Balochistan<br />5 from Sindh<br />However, due to financial constraints the project could hardly meet any more demands<br />The machines needs to be further tested for its impact on soil health<br />
  16. 16. Conclusions<br /><ul><li> Adoption of conservation agriculture techniques in developing world depends on availability of suitable technology according to their specific socio economic and environmental conditions
  17. 17. Preliminary results of ADPRB is encouraging. However, more research is needed to identify its impact on soil hydro-physical, chemical and biological health</li></li></ul><li>PRB machine for different crops<br />Maize & Cotton<br />Wheat & Rice <br />
  18. 18. Fertilizer Outlet<br />Seed Outlet<br />4th Part<br />
  19. 19. Six Rows for Wheat & Rice<br />
  20. 20. Two Rows for Maize and Cotton<br />
  21. 21. Furrow Opener<br />Blades<br />
  22. 22. Cutters for Hoeing and Renovation<br />
  23. 23. Machinery Parts<br />Seed metering driving Wheel<br />Cutter Shafts<br />Roler<br />
  24. 24. Cutters<br />
  25. 25. Seed Dropping <br />Double Disk System<br />
  26. 26. Adjustable Furrow Opener<br />
  27. 27. Seed metering System for Cotton and Maize<br />
  28. 28. Adil<br />Irfan<br />
  29. 29. Crop Sown with ADPRB Machine<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. THANKS ALL OF YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION<br />

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