Advanced design of permanent raised bed machinery in Pakistan
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Advanced design of permanent raised bed machinery in Pakistan

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Dr Zahid Hussain ...

Dr Zahid Hussain
Muhammad Irfan
Ghani Akbar

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  • 1. Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machinery in Pakistan
    • Dr. Zahid Hussain
    • 2. Muhammad Irfan
    • 3. Ghani Akbar
    Pakistan Agriculture Research Council
  • 4. Presentation Outline
    Material & Method
  • 5. Introduction
    Mechanical power use in Pak. Agric. commences in 1950s
    Tractor & tillage was introduced in 1960s
    Currently available tractors 593334 nos.
    77% tractors (46-55hp) are available to farmers
    23.8 million hectares cultivated
    With 6.62 million total farms
    47.6 hectares/tractor
    0.14 ha/capita agricultural land
  • 6. Permanent Raised Beds in Pakistan
    1998 Permanent Raised Bed system/machinery was introduced under a collaborative research project of ACIAR and PARC.
    Research findings were very encouraging:
    Saving water, operating time and labour
    Improving grain yield and WUP
    Achieving uniform distribution seed and fertilizer
    Improving soil health
    Maize crop on PRB
    Wheat crop on PRB
  • 7. Cont…
    Large scale adoption of the system was limited due to:
    Two separate heavy machines (Bed former and seeders)
    Imported machinery cost was very high
    Obstacles in local manufacturing of these machines
    Thus, GOP supported PRB system through a national project where ACIAR was again a partner:
    Machines were subsidised and locally manufactured
    Farmer and manufacturer trainings were conducted
    Research component was further strengthened
    Bed former cum renovator
    Seed drill
  • 8. Objective
    To develop an Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machine (ADPRB) suitable for local socio economic, available tractor power, cropping and environmental conditions of Pakistan.
  • 9. Material and Methods
    After completion of three years of national project on PRB a survey was conducted to check:
    Farmers Satisfaction with the available technology
    To evaluate the performance of current PRB machinery distributed & to identify issues
    Survey revealed:
    Farmers satisfied with the system as compared to traditional farming system
    However, two key issues identified
    1: Capital cost (RS 320,000/set) and heavy machinery weight
    2:Operating cost of twice machinery operation
  • 10. Advanced Design of Permanent Raised Bed Machinery
    Advanced design of PRB (ADPRB) machinery was developed with features of:
    Bed forming and sowing in a single operation
    Adjustable bed size from 90cm (single bed) to 25cm (double bed)
    Maximum capacity of six rows (wheat, rice etc) per 90cm bed and 2 rows (maize, cotton etc) per 25cm bed
    Light weight (175 kg) and low cost (RS 120,000 per set)
    Precision planting and inter row hoeing
    Material and method
  • 11. ADPRB Machinery details
    ADPRB machine comprises of four parts
    i) The front bar with three furrow openers, two blades and one shaft with four cutters (Cutters are used for hoeing on beds between rows of cotton and maize)
    ii) Fertilizer and seed boxes, a shaft with five cutters and one roller
    iii) six tines with double disk furrow openers for wheat and rice seed
    iv) A precision seed metering system for maize and cotton to maintain plant to plant distance
    3rd Part
    2nd Part
    1st Part
    4th Part
    Material and method
  • 12. Machinery Testing
    • Testing of machinery was performed at Gujjar farm, Haripur, KPK Province
    • 13. Six rows of wheat was sown on 90cm wide raised beds in comparison with traditional flat basin under a replicated trial on 25th Dec. 2010
    • 14. Machinery operation was closely observed and grain yield data was collected at harvest
    Material and method
  • 15. Results
    Machinery testing and operation
    55 hp tractor satisfactorily operated the machine due to light weight and better performance
    Low tractor fuel consumption was observed as compared to early machines
    Bed making and sowing was smoothly performed in a single operation
    Seed germination was satisfactory
    Up to 33% increased grain yield was observed under PRB than flat basin
    Farmers interest in adoption
    Farmers interest in purchasing this machine can be evidenced by 20 applications so far received throughout the country which includes
    10 from KPK
    5 from Balochistan
    5 from Sindh
    However, due to financial constraints the project could hardly meet any more demands
    The machines needs to be further tested for its impact on soil health
  • 16. Conclusions
    • Adoption of conservation agriculture techniques in developing world depends on availability of suitable technology according to their specific socio economic and environmental conditions
    • 17. Preliminary results of ADPRB is encouraging. However, more research is needed to identify its impact on soil hydro-physical, chemical and biological health
  • PRB machine for different crops
    Maize & Cotton
    Wheat & Rice
  • 18. Fertilizer Outlet
    Seed Outlet
    4th Part
  • 19. Six Rows for Wheat & Rice
  • 20. Two Rows for Maize and Cotton
  • 21. Furrow Opener
  • 22. Cutters for Hoeing and Renovation
  • 23. Machinery Parts
    Seed metering driving Wheel
    Cutter Shafts
  • 24. Cutters
  • 25. Seed Dropping
    Double Disk System
  • 26. Adjustable Furrow Opener
  • 27. Seed metering System for Cotton and Maize
  • 28. Adil
  • 29. Crop Sown with ADPRB Machine
  • 30.