Technology Transfer– changes in the materials and containers used to store
and transport wine
- JOHAN MATHEW
• The earliest known vessel, that could have been
used for wine is the Qvevri, which is a clay jar,
said to date back to 6000 BC.
• 79 AD- First evidence of barrel. Romans stored
their wine in wooden containers held together
• 1600’s- New glass making techniques started in
• Monk takes giant step from using wooden plugs
to cork as a wine closure.
• An Amphora is a vessel that was
used to transport and store wine
dating back as far as 800 B.C.
• Made from clay.
• Chemical analysis reveals
• Earliest evidence of use in
Why pointed base….???
Because they were used mainly in
Wine protected from spoilage
A layer of olive oil or bees wax.
A soft clay stopper.
Stopper would be marked with contents
and other information.
The bottle shape is born
• Initially hand blown glass.
• Bottle has a small capacity suitable for
one drinking session.
• There was an issue, as each bottle was
a different shape and size so the
customer never knew exactly how much
wine they were getting.
• Glass blowing became easier with time
and the need for long flat shaped bottle
• In 1979 U.S. set law for bottles to be 750
Bordeaux : High shoulder and straight and straight sides.
Burgundy : Sloping shoulders and tall.
Champagne : Sloping sides and wider bottle.
Rhine : Narrow and tall.
Fortified : Straight body with high, rounded shoulder.
Old : Layer of olive oil,
soaked rags, wooden
• First recorded use in
• First cork factory in 1750 in
• Production boomed in 19th
• No more cork taint.
• Caps are cheap.
• Maintains freshness.
• Made from rounded oak.
• Could be rolled and stacked.
• Most convenient form of transportation
until 19th century.
Why wooden barrels?
• Oak imparts interesting aromas to the
• Less susceptible to wood diseases.
Barrel Making ( )
• Split wood is passed through bandsaw.
• Metal ring is used to hold the staves.
• When circle is complete a third loop is
• Staves heated to bend.
• Oak is toasted in different degrees.
• After toasting, the hoops are removed from the
middle of the barrel and the outside is sanded.
• Barrel is tightened.
Then after all…
• The bung-hole is drilled into the side of the
• The outside is given its final planning before the
bottom lid are fitted.
READY TO FILL!
Conditions for transporting wine
• Ideal temperature must be maintained (13-16 degree
• Humidity should remain constant.
• Wine movement should be minimal.
• Climate controlled containers used for transporting to
minimise fluctuations in environment.
Modern methods for transporting
• Bulk wine transport
• Bottled wine transport
• Limited lost space.
• Cost efficient.
• Oxidation occurs
through entire product.
• Lower volume per
• More costly.
• Oxidation can be
Future Storage Containers
Made from recyclable products.
Will reduce gas emissions.
92% less packaging.
54% less energy than glass.
30-40% less trucks to transport
the same amount as bottled wine.
Not suitable for long term storage.
Wine cannot be seen through
Can be recycled.
Limited shelf life
Not suitable for long term
Ready to drink
No possible cork taint
Protects wine from UV rays
Chemical reaction will occur between wine
References and Resources
•Before The Wine Bottle Existed. April 2009. Retrieved 24 July, 2013,
from: http://salutwineco.wordpress.com/2009/04/27/historyof bottles/A
Short History of Wine Bottles.
•History of Glass Wine Bottles. (n.d). Retrieved 24 July,2013, from:
•Pendleton, J. (2007). Wine History-When the Cork Met the Bottle.
Retrieved 24 July,2013, from:http://thewinehistorian.blogspot.co.nz/2007
•Wine in PET Bottles: Will Plastic Replace Glass?. (n.d). Retrieved 24 July
•A History of Wine Storage. (n.d.). Retrieved 24 July, 2013, from:
•Brostrom, G. G., Brostrom, J. (2008). The Business of Wine: An Encyclope
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group.
•Johnson, H. (1989). The Story of Wine. London: Mitchell Beazley Internation
•Intardonato, J. (2008). Fermenting Wine in Cement Tanks. Retrieved 25
July, 2013, from:http://www.winebusiness.com/wbm/?go=getArticle&datald
•Amphora. (2013). Retrieved 25 July, 2013, from:https://en.wikipedia.org/