Problem solving


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Problem solving

  1. 1. BACKGROUND of ISSUE Fast and Rapid change Life issues are also All aspects of life canemerged in many areas of life increasingly complex not be separated from the mathematical Teachers considered it less efficient problem-based learning In accordance with the in terms of both time and subject KTSP, Graduate matter being taught. Competency Standards (SKL) mathematics courses have been directed to be Researchers to used in problem solvingProblem-based learning model is more attractive, where students conduct can collaborate with the group, researchalthough not to the teacher asked directly, Lessons should be drawn up which is based on problems
  2. 2. Problem formulation
  4. 4. BENEFITS
  6. 6. In general, people understand the problem as the gap between reality and expectation. But in mathematics, theterm problem has a more specific meaning. In this case not every problem can be called a problem.
  7. 7. A good problem situation must meet at least five important criteria: (Widada, 2004: 32)
  8. 8. (Trianto, 2007: 67)
  9. 9. (Widada, 2004: 23)
  10. 10. PurposeProblem Based Learning (Widada, 2004: 23)
  11. 11. syntax Problem Based Learning (Widada, 2004: 26) Stage The teachers behaviorPhase-1 The teacher explains the learning objectives, describes theTo issue the student orientation logistics required, motivating students engage in problem solving activities are chosen.Phase-2 Teachers help students learn to define and organize the tasksStudents organize to Study associated with the issue. Phase-3 Teachers encourage students to collect appropriate information,Individual and group guided inquiry conduct experiments, to obtain an explanation and problem solving.Phase-4 Teachers assist students in planning and preparation of Develop and Present Work appropriate work such as reports, videos, and models and help them to share the duties with his friend.Phase-5 Teachers help students to reflect or evaluate their investigationsAnalyzing and Evaluating Problem- and the processes they use.Solving Process
  12. 12. STUDY RESULTSAccording Dimyati and Mujiono (1999: 3), the study is the result of aninteraction acts and acts of teaching and learning. In terms of teachers,teaching act ends with the evaluation of learning results. From the students,learning outcomes are the end pieces, and their peak learning process.According to Sudjana (2001: 22), the results of learning are skills that thestudents after he received the experience of learning.Can be concluded that the study is the ability of businesses that have beenmade by students after the teaching-learning process. Learning outcomes canbe measured through the evaluation process learning outcomes. Learningoutcomes in this study is the result of studying the impact of teaching thelearning outcomes that can be measured and poured in symbols or numbers.
  13. 13. COOPERATION IN THE GROUPAffectively, students are capable of high academic also need to trainourselves to work together and share with the less. The ability to worktogether can be very useful later on in the world of work andcommunity life.So that students can work effectively in the learning process, eachgroup member needs to have a spirit of cooperation. This cooperativespirit can be felt with the intention of fostering and tips for students incollaboration with others.
  14. 14. RELEVANT RESULTSThe results Jelta Harleti (2009) revealed that through the learning ofmathematics with the Problem Based Instruction increased studentlearning outcomes. It is seen from an increase in the average valueand completeness of student learning in each cycle. On the cycle I withan average value 62.163 with 43.75% completeness of studentlearning, in the second cycle the average value of 80.551 with thethoroughness of students to learn 75%, and the third cycle the averagevalue of 86.096 with the thoroughness of students to learn 93, 75%.Thus, it can be concluded that the average student learning hasincreased and the thoroughness of action is achieved according to theindicators of success.
  15. 15. MINDSET Learning Materials Class VIII student Problem based learning Problem-Based junior high school Learning Tool Phase Problem Based Learning: 1. Student orientation to the problem 2. Organize students to learn 3. To guide individual and group inquiry 4. Develop and present the work 5. Analyze and evaluate the problem solving process Students work in groups Rises Increasing Student Results
  16. 16. HYPOTHESIS OF ACTIONBased on theoretical studies, the hypothesis of actionin this research is the implementation of Problem-Based Learning can enhance learning results andcooperation in groups at Junior VIII Level
  17. 17. METHOD OF STUDY kinds of research Kind of research is done is class action research. Classroom action research is an effort by the teacher or practitioner in the form of various activities undertaken to improve and or enhance the quality of learning in the classroom (Kasbolah, 1998:13). The main purpose of classroom action research is to solve the real problems that occur in the classroom. These activities not only aim to solve the problem, but at the same time look for scientific answers to why it can be solved with the action taken.
  18. 18. PLACE AND RESEARCH SUBJECTS Implementation of a class action is done inBengkulu City Junior High School in 2011-2012school year with a class VIII student of research subjects.
  20. 20. RESEARCH PROCEDURES Plan Reflection Cycle 1 Implementation Observation Plan Reflection cycle 2 Implementation Observation ?Classroom Action Research Design by Kasbolah (1998: 16)
  21. 21. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTObservation sheetObservation sheet was used to obtain data in the evaluation of teachingand learning process using problem-based learning approach.Learning Test ResultsIn this study tests conducted in the form of the initial test and final testfor each cycle. Initial tests performed to determine the level ofunderstanding and readiness of students to the material to be taughtand to guide the formation of groups of students. Test the end of eachcycle is used to obtain data on student learning outcomes in each cyclewhether or not have increased after the learning process.
  22. 22. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUEObservation sheetStudent observation sheets were processed using the following equation: Total Skor The Mean skor = Total ObserverThe highest score = number of observation points x the highest score of each observationpointThe lowest score = number of observation points x score lowest point of each observation The High Score − The Lowest Score + 1 The range of values for each criterion = Total CriterionThe criteria used were less (K), sufficient (C), and either (B).K = Less, score value = 1C = Fair, a score value = 2B = Good, score value = 3
  23. 23. Observation on the student activity sheet number 11 observation points, thehighest score of each observation point is 3, the lowest score each point of observationis 1, then the highest score is 3 X 11 = 33 and the lowest score is 1 X 11 = 11. . The Higher Score − The Lowest score + 1 The range of values for each criterion = Total Criterion 33 − 11 + 1 = 3 23 = 3 = 7 ,6 ≈ 8 Thus, the range of observational assessment scores for student activity sheets are Assessment criteria for student observation sheet No Category Interval Interval 1 Less 11-18 2 Enough 19-26 3 Good 27-33
  24. 24. Tes The average value of StudentsThe final score for the average student is calculated using the formula: Σ X X = NKeterangan: X = Final value of the average student Σ = Number of final grades of students X N = Number of students Percentage completeness LearningCompleteness in the classical study was calculated using the formula: NKeterangan: KB = X 100% SKB = exhaustiveness studyN = number of students who scored ≥ KKMS = the total number of students
  25. 25. Indicators and Success CriteriaAction will be stopped if the criteria for successful action has been reached. Criteriafor success will be determined based on the thoroughness of action learning set bythe school and based on the consideration of researchers. The criteria andindicators of success of action research isStudents are said to work in groups with the application of problem-based learning, ifthe observations of student activity is generally achieved either criterion is located inthe interval 27-33.Increase students mathematics learning outcomes of each cycle with the followingrequirements:If the minimum average student has achieved ≥ KKM mathematics courses.If at least 85% of students scored ≥ completeness criteria studied
  26. 26. ..Thanks..