1. DIRECTING FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENTIntroduction Directing/Direction is a function of management performed by top level management inorder to achieve organizational goals. It is very important and necessary function ofmanagement. Management has to undertake various activities like, guide people, inspired andlead them as well as supervision of their activity is required in order to achieve desired results.Meaning and Definition Direction consists of the process and techniques utilized in issuing instructions andmaking certain that operations are carried as originally planned. “Directing involves determining the course, giving order and instruction and providingdynamic leadership”– Marshall “Activating means and moving into action- supplying simulative power to the group”-G.R TerryDirecting Involves Telling people what is to be done and explaining how to do it. Issuing instructions and orders to subordinates. Inspiring them to contribute towards the achievement of objectives, Supervising their activities; Providing leadership and motivation ELEMENTS OF DIRECTIONCommunication - Complex and multifaceted phenomenon. It is the process by which verbal and non-verbal symbols are sent, received and given meaning. “Communication” word has been derived from Latin word “Communis” which meanscommon, thus communication stands for sharing of an idea in common. “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or morepersons” – Newman and Summer
2. “It is a sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding inthe minds of another. It is a bridge of meaning, it involve systematic telling, listening, andunderstanding” – HaimannMost Common Way to Communicate Speaking Writing Body Language Visual ImagesElements of CommunicationPeople- minimum is 2; one will act as the sender and the other the receiver.Message – the content or the substance of what is being communicated, could be an idea,feeling, instruction, fact or opinion.Channel – the medium and the manner by which the message is conveyed ; could be verbal ornon-verbal.Feedback – the reaction of the receiver to the message as conveyed through a particularchannel; measures the effectiveness of the communication.Noise – anything that distorts the message conveyed.Communication Process (NOTE: EXPLAIN)The process by which a message, encoded by a sender, is transmitted through a medium to areceiver, who encodes the message and provides feedback.
3. FOUR BASIC DIRECTIONSDownward Communication Communication which flows from the superiors to the subordinates is known as downwardcommunication. In an organizational structure, the superiors utilize their abilities to attain thedesired targets which mean that they may be engaged in issuing commands, directions andpolicy directives to the persons working under them. Under downward communication, thesuperiors anticipate instant recital of a job that’s why it is highly directive. Katz and Kahn haveidentified five general purposes of superior-subordinate communication. a. To give specific task directives about job instruction b. To give information about organization procedures and practices c. To provide information about the rationale of the job d. To tell subordinates about their performance e. To provide ideological-type information to facilitate the indoctrination of goalsUpward Communication Travels from subordinate to superior. The most common purpose of this communicationis to provide feedback on how well things are going. It provides also the middle level managersthe opportunity to represent their subordinates to the upper level managers. a. Open-Door Policy -(a communication policy in which a manager, CEO, president orsupervisor leaves their office door "open" in order to encourage openness and transparencywith the employees of that company.) b. Complaint programLateral Communication Lateral communication refers to messages conversed between people on the samehierarchical level. For example, in terms of the workplace, if two supervisors have a discussionor two board members raise an issue this is known as lateral communication. The mostcommon reason for this communication flow is to provide coordination and teamwork.
4. Diagonal Communication Occurs between people who are neither in the same department nor in the same level of management hierarchy. In this case, someone communicate either downward or upward with someone in another functional area. In utilizing this flow of communication, protocol must be observed so as not to bypass the authority of the person concerned EFFECTIVE METHODS OF COMMUNICATIONMethods Factors to considerElectronics • these are highly effective means of quickly reaching those with whom you are communicating • Interaction and participation are possible and often simple – for all involved parties • Their ease of use means that they pose a possible risk of communications overload • The seemingly endless possible combinations of words, images and color are very powerfulMeetings • If used properly; meetings can build relationships and mutual trust • Meetings enable instant feedback • Meetings facilitate mutual understanding • Reponses can often be gauged through eye contact • Preparation, planning and openness are requiredJournalism • In-house publications enable a wide range of msgs and editorial techniques • It is possible to facilitate some interaction through reader’ letters and contributions. • The content of most organizations’ journals tends to be bland, resulting in low leadershipInternal marketing • This is a powerful method of “selling” change to the organization’s own staff • Detailed written documents and colorful posters help to explain and simplify complex msgs • These techniques are able to elicit very strong, immediate motivational responses
5. Noticeboards • Can be either official information givers, or for general use by employees • Provide a central location in which to make information accessible to all employees. • There is no real possibility of interactive response, and employees may feel uninvolved.Telephone • The telephone is not suitable for lengthy or complicated discussions • The lack of physical presence may lessen the speakers’ understanding of each other BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • Too much information – people suffers from what we call sensory overload • The message is poorly organized – communicating also involves planning • Inaudible voice – when talking in front of a crowd be sure that you have loud and clear voice so that everybody will be able to hear what you are saying • Mannerisms – distract attention • Lack of understanding • Inconsistent verbal and non-verbal communication • Noise – any factors that disturbs, confuses or interferes with communication • Differing perceptions – people who have different backgrounds of knowledge and experience often perceive the same phenomenon from different perspective • Too many links in the communication process • Symbol with different meaning – a symbol that may mean something to the sender might mean another to the receiver. • Badly expresses message – The message is not clearly expressed by the sender that’s why the real message is not received by the receiver. • Faulty Translation – Mistranslation from other language may affect the real meaning of a message • Language differences – the words used must mean the same thing to sender and receiver
6. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION • Use feedback to facilitate understanding and increase the potential for appropriate action • Repeat message in order to provide assurance that they are properly received • Use multiple channels so that the accuracy of the information may be enhanced • Use simplified language that are easily understandable and which eliminates the possibility of people getting mixed-up with meaningsTO ATTAIN EFFECTIVE MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION 1. Humanize – understand, appreciate and elevate the importance of humans above other concerns 2. Harmonize – establish a climate of cooperation, trust, helpfulness, confidence, belongingness and openness 3. Habitualize – put into a habit such positive practices 4. Institutionalize – put into practice good communication habits at the individual level until these practices are introduced to the company or organization as standard operating procedure 5. Acclimatize – adjust, be flexible and extra tolerant 6. Modernize – learn the modern ways of communicating 7. Symbolize – if words will not do, use symbols 8. Empathize – to understand intimately the other people’s feelings ,thoughts, motives and aspirations 9. Dualize – make your communication dual 10. Minimize – Keep It short!!!!INFORMAL COMMUNICATION IN THE ORGANIZATIONGrapevine is an informal channel of business communication. It is called so because it stretchesthroughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. a. Grapevine networks
7. 1. Gossip chain – happens when one person passes informal communication to all others in theinformal organization2. Single strand – each person receives information from one individual and passes it toanother3. Probability chain – people randomly pass information to the other members of theorganization 4. Cluster chain – people pass information to other members of the informal organizationselectively b. Grapevine activity. People tend to engage in grapevine when:1. People lack information2. There is insecurity in a situation3. People have personal interest in the situation4. They have new informationLEADERSHIP - Art of getting someone else to do something that you want done because he wants todo it (Dwight D. Eisenhower) - Process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishments of objectives. - is one of the important parts of direction. “Leadership is the ability to secure desirable action from a group of followersvoluntarily, without the use of coercion”- Alford and Beatly “Leadership refers to the quality of the behaviour of the individual whereby they guidepeople on their activities in organized efforts”- Chester BarnardLEADING IN TIMES OF CRISIS 1. Stay calm 2. Be visible 3. Put people before business 4. Tell the truth 5. Know when to get back to business
8. LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. Autocratic Leadership Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making powers are centralized in the leader, as with dictators. Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group. 2. Participative Leadership Consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality. Consultative Leaders This style focuses on using the skills, experiences, and ideas of others. However, the leader or manager using this style still retains the final decision-making power. To his or her credit, they will not make major decisions without first getting the input from those that will be affected. Consensus Leaders For leadership to occur one party must follow another party. An exception being which requires the leader influence the followers to aid in a common task, which would seem to eliminate the possibility of leading people to do nothing. Which is kind of amusing when one considers to "do nothing" is usually the decision reached by process of consensus in the first place. Democratic Leaders democratic leader A leader who maintains an egalitarian atmosphere within the group and who is prepared to delegate planning, decision making, and other responsibilities to followers. 3. Free- rein Leadership A person may be in a leadership position without providing leadership, leaving the group to fend for itself. Subordinates are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods. 4. Narcissistic leadership The narcissism may be healthy or destructive although there is a continuum between the two. To critics, "narcissistic leadership (preferably destructive) is driven by unyielding arrogance, self-absorption, and a personal egotistic need for power and admiration.
9. 5. Toxic leadership A toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over a group of people or an organization, and who abuses the leader-follower relationship by leaving the group or organization in a worse-off condition than when he/she first found them.Importance of Leadership Initiates action- Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts. Motivation- He motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates. Providing guidance- A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently. Creating confidence- Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is also important to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems. Building morale- Morale denotes willing co-operation of the employees towards their work and getting them into confidence and winning their trust. A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals. Builds work environment- Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work environment helps in sound and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be kept into mind by a leader. He should have personal contacts with employees and should listen to their problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms. Co-ordination- Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive of a leader.
10. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP a. Fielder’s Contingency Theory - it hypothesizes that, in any given leadership situation success is determined primarily by; 1) The degree to which the task being performed by the followers is structured 2) the degree of position power possess by the leader 3)the type of relationship that exists between the leader and the followers. b. Theory X and Y Assumptions c. Theory ZMANAGEMENT STYLES (NOTE: EXPLAIN< ELABORATE< EXAMPLE) 1. Management by crisis 2. Management by exception 3. Management by objectives 4. Management by coaching and development 5. Management by competitive edge 6. Management by consensus 7. Management by styles 8. Management by walking around 9. Words simplificationsFILIPINOS AS MANAGERS a. Managers who are content-oriented; interested on what to do and why; most planners and thinkers 1. Manager by Libro 2. Manager by Oydo b. Managers who are process oriented; interested in how to do the job; most implementers and doers 1. Manager by Kayod 2. Manager by Lusot c. Combination of content and process 1. Management by Ognayan
11. MOTIVATION - set of forces that energize worker to do their job and to sustain their behaviour. Introduction & Definition to motivate means to provide motive, to impel people toaction, and to create incentives to work.“Motivation is the work a manager performs to inspired, encourage, and impel people to takerequired action” – Lewis Allen“The act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action”- Michael JNature and Characteristics Motivation Is an internal feeling Motivation is related to needs Motivation lead to goal oriented behaviour Motivation can be positive or negativeImportance of Motivation 1. Puts human resources into action Every concern requires physical, financial and human resources to accomplish the goals. It is through motivation that the human resources can be utilized by making full use of it. This can be done by building willingness in employees to work. This will help the enterprise in securing best possible utilization of resources. 2. Improves level of efficiency of employees The level of a subordinate or an employee does not only depend upon his qualifications and abilities. For getting best of his work performance, the gap between ability and willingness has to be filled which helps in improving the level of performance of subordinates. This will result into- a. Increase in productivity, b. Reducing cost of operations, and c. Improving overall efficiency. 3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals The goals of an enterprise can be achieved only when the following factors take place :-
12. 4. Builds friendly relationship Motivation is an important factor which brings employees satisfaction. This can be done by keeping into mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the employees. This could initiate the following things: a. Monetary and non-monetary incentives, b. Promotion opportunities for employees, c. Disincentives for inefficient employees. Leads to stability of work force Stability of workforce is very important from the point of view of reputation and goodwill of a concern. The employees can remain loyal to the enterprise only when they have a feeling of participation in the management. The skills and efficiency of employees will always be of advantage to employees as well as employees. This will lead to a good public image in the market which will attract competent and qualified people into a concern. As it is said, “Old is gold” which suffices with the role of motivation here, the older the people, more the experience and their adjustment into a concern which can be of benefit to the enterprise.TYPES OF MOTIVATION1. Fear motivation2. Incentive motivation3. Change or growth motivationTHEORIES OF MOTIVATION1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs a. Physiological b. Safety and security c. Social d. Esteem e. Self-actualization2. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory a. Establishing basic needs at work 1. Salary and benefits
13. 2. Working conditions 3. Company Policy 4. Status 5. Job security 6. Supervision and autonomy 7. Office Life b. Heightening workplace motivation 1. Achievement 2. Recognition 3. Job Interest 4. Responsibility 5. Advancement3. Acquired needs Theory a. Need for achievement b. Need for power c. Need for Affiliation4. Goal setting Theory a. Specific goals lead to higher performance than do generalize do goals b. Performance generally increases in direct proportion to go difficulty c. For goals to improve performance, the employee must accept them d. Goals are more effective when they are use to evaluate performance e. Goals should be linked to feedback and reward f. Goals setting is as important as individual goal setting5. Expectancy Theory of Motivation
14. 1. The individual believes effort (E) will lead to favourable performance (P) 2. The individual believes performance will lead to favourable outcome (O) 3. Outcome or reward satisfies an important need 4. Needs dissatisfaction is intense enough to make efforts seem worthwhileSUPERVISION Supervision implies expert overseeing of subordinates -at work in order to guide andregulate their efforts. Every manager has to supervise the work of his subordinates to see thatthey do their work as desired. But supervision is particularly important at the operating level ofmanagement or at the low-level management. The supervisor is in direct personal contact with the workers and he acts as the linkbetween workers and management. He communicates the policies, plans and orders ofmanagement to the workers. He also brings workers grievances, suggestions and appeals tothe notice of management. Effective supervision is essential for the accomplishment of desiredgoals. The direction of people at work is the most difficult of all production related tasks.Supervision means constantly functioning in a state of flux and ambiguity and few people feelsatisfaction from being a supervisor. The reason this is worth mentioning is because many newsupervisors feel that something is "wrong" when they are constantly faced with problemsrelating to their workforce. This state of flux and ambiguity is normal to supervision and successis measured in percentages rather than absolutes. All work requires the coordination of effort. We accomplish this by giving workersassigned tasks and assigned time in which they are to accomplish these tasks. But just givinginstructions is not enough. You must give clear, specific instructions on what is to be done,monitor the worker in the course of their efforts and hold them accountable for specificresults. These three elements; specific instructions on what is to be done, monitoring themperiodically to make sure it is being done, and making the employee accountable for the resultsare the core of the supervisory process. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to do this.Workers who do not receive good instruction and direction; who are allowed to do workincorrectly without correction and who do not have a review of their performance have not hadproper supervision and hence have not been allowed to perform properly. The purpose of supervision is to ensure that subordinates perform their tasks accordingto prescribed procedures and as efficiently as possible.
15. In Supervising1. Set realistic expectations. The expectations that are often left unstated need to be openlydiscussed.2. Establish clear goals. Goal setting gives purpose and direction to the work of the individualsubordinates as well as to the manager. It ensures alignment to corporate strategy.3. Communicate. Successful communication is a learned process that must accommodateindividual needs. As the boss, you establish the norms. Solicit feedback, encourage discussion(especially alternate points of view), and be accessible.4. Support. A manager is not made by title alone. Anyone new to a supervisory position needsto develop certain professional skills. Your mentoring will be the key to success.5. Be the Model Manager . Lead the way! Have others do as you say and do.COORDINATION Co-ordination is the unification, integration, synchronization of the efforts of groupmembers so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. It is a hidden forcewhich binds all the other functions of management. According to Mooney and Reelay, “Co-ordination is orderly arrangement of group effortsto provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals”. According to Charles Worth, “Coordination is the integration of several parts into anorderly hole to achieve the purpose of understanding”. Management seeks to achieve co-ordination through its basic functions of planning,organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. That is why, co-ordination is not a separatefunction of management because achieving of harmony between individuals efforts towardsachievement of group goals is a key to success of management. Co-ordination is the essence ofmanagement and is implicit and inherent in all functions of management. A manager can be compared to an orchestra conductor since both of them have to createrhythm and unity in the activities of group members.Co-ordination through Directing- The purpose of giving orders, instructions & guidance to the subordinates is served only whenthere is a harmony between superiors & subordinates.What to Report:
16. Johann RibacKing James EstavilloCJ FelicianoMarvie RamonHazelle AndresJohn Paul PacolRozhmaUstareAngelica GallanoAngelique CascayanCharmaigneTapec