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  • 1. Animal Morphology and Diversity Dr. Eden V. Evangelista Department of Biological Sciences Philippine Normal University Manila
  • 2. Levels of Classification Kingdoms (C. Linnaeus) 1.Plant 2. Animal five-kingdom system 1.Plant 4. Protist 2.Animal 5. Fungi 3.Monera Six-kingdom system 1. Plant 4. Protist 2. Animal 5. Fungi 3. Monera Eubacteria Archaebacteria
  • 3. 8 – Kingdom 1. Plant 2. Animal 3. Monera Eubacteria Archaebacteria 4. Fungi 5. Protist Archaezoa Protista Chromista
  • 4. * Animals cannot make their own food. They depend on other living organisms. *Animals digest their food. They cannot use proteins, fats and carbohydrates directly. *Many animals move from place to place. By moving around, they can find food, escape their enemies, find a better place to live and find mates.
  • 5. *Animals have many cells. Different cells carry out different functions such as digestion and reproduction. *Animal cells are eucaryotic. The cells have nucleus and organelles enclosed by a membrane.
  • 6. Examples of major phyla of the animal kingdom: (more or less 36 phyla) Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Aschelminthes Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata
  • 7. Butterfly, fish, grasshoppers, spider, bird Animals without backbones (invertebrates) Animals with backbones (vertebrates) With 3 body regions (Moth & grasshopper) With 2 body regions With gills Without gills Butterfly & grasshopper Spider Fish Bird
  • 8. Arrangement of the body parts (symmetry ) : Radial symmetry - animals that have body parts arranged in a circle around a central point. Examples: Sea anemones and starfish. Bilateral symmetry - animals that can be divided into right and left halves by drawing an imaginary line down the length of its body. Asymmetrical animals - animals that do not have definite shape
  • 9. Evolutionary Tree of Animals
  • 10. Poriferans (Sponges)
  • 11. Venus Flower Basket
  • 12. Sponges
  • 13. Cnidaria
  • 14. Hydra are named after the nine-headed sea snake of Greek mythology and are freshwater relatives of corals, sea anemones and jellyfish. Cnidaria and share in common stinging tentacles and a radially symmetrical body plan.
  • 15. Jelly Fish
  • 16. Sea Anemone
  • 17. Sea Anemone
  • 18. Platyhelminthes
  • 19. Flatworms
  • 20. Tapeworm
  • 21. Tapeworm lamb is passing a tapeworm
  • 22. Nematoda
  • 23. Anatomy of Roundworms
  • 24. Annelida
  • 25. Earthworm Anatomy
  • 26. External Parts of an Earthworm
  • 27. Leech Nereis
  • 28. Mollusca
  • 29. Chiton Snail Limpet
  • 30. Shell Squid Octopus
  • 31. Coelom Formation
  • 32. Clam Anatomy
  • 33. Arthropoda
  • 34. Butterfly Spider Centipede
  • 35. Metamorphosis
  • 36. External Parts of a Grasshopper
  • 37. Compound Eyes of Mosquito
  • 38. Millipede Shrimp
  • 39. Echinodermata
  • 40. Sea Cucumber
  • 41. Chordata
  • 42. Lancelets
  • 43. Tunicates
  • 44. Protochordates
  • 45. Amphibians (Frogs, Toads, Salamanders and Newts)
  • 46. Frogs, toads and salamanders are amphibians. - They have moist, smooth skin, or warty skin without scales. - They can breathe through their skin. - - Oxygen and carbon dioxide can be exchanged through the skin and the lining of the mouth. - have very small sac-like lungs in the chest cavity that are used for breathing on land. - also called cold-blooded which means that their body temperature changes depending on the temperature of the environment.
  • 47. External Parts of the Frog
  • 48. Frog
  • 49. The Reptiles (Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and Crocodiles) -cold-blooded vertebrate with dry, scaly skin -special type of egg adaptations that enable them to live their entire life out of water.
  • 50. - Snakes and lizards make up the largest group of reptiles - Turtles make up a very successful order of animals. They can be found in almost every continent and in most of the world's oceans. The body of a turtle is covered by a hard shell both on top and at the bottom. Most turtles can withdraw into their shell for protection. Turtles have no teeth and use their beaks to feed on insects,worms, fish and plants.
  • 51. A sea turtle Turtles are found or live in water, while Tortoise live on land
  • 52. A Crocodile Crocodiles and alligators are among the world's largest living reptiles. They are carnivorous and some species can grow up to 7 meters in length with a mass of around 1,000 kilograms.
  • 53. Vertebrates Around 5% of all animals are vertebrates. They have the following characteristics: presence of vertebral column; internal joint skeleton that protects internal organs; closed circulatory system; paired appendages; efficient organ for obtaining oxygen; kidneys as excretory organ; and a high degree of cephalization.
  • 54. Birds and Mammals (Warm-blooded animals) - a warm-blooded animal with an outer covering of feathers, two legs used for walking or perching, and front limbs modified into wings. - bird's body temperature is about 40 0C they have higher body temperature than the human body. - most striking characteristic is the presence of feathers.
  • 55. External Parts of a Bird
  • 56. Orders of Mammalia Mammals are classified according to means of reproduction: - mammals that lay eggs; - mammals that have pouches; and - mammals that have placentas.
  • 57. Man, monkeys , etc. Mammals Based on development and reproduction Marsupial Platypus Monotreme Placental Kangaroo/ Koala
  • 58. Egg- laying Mammals - monotremes are a small group of mammals that lay eggs. - they do not have nipples like the placental mammals - the young licks milk from the skin and hair surrounding the female's mammary gland.
  • 59. Spiny Anteater Platypus
  • 60. Mammals with Pouches - develop their young in pouches, but the youngs are born, not hatched from eggs. - marsupials, common in Australia and New Zealand. - young marsupial develops for a short while inside the body of the mother. When they are born, they are tiny and helpless.
  • 61. Mammals with Placenta - largest group of mammals - mammals whose embryo develops inside the placenta. - in a placenta, the baby can stay inside the mother longer - a baby placental mammal is more developed and active than other new born mammals.
  • 62. Lion Monkey Dog Cat
  • 63. Primates
  • 64. Man
  • 65. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Modes of Feeding filte r- feede rs (larv ae) paras ites (adul ts) filter- feeders , carnivo res, predato rs filte r- feede rs, carni vores , herbi vores herbivo res, carnivo res herbiv ores, carniv ores herbi vores , carni vores , omniv ores herbivores , carnivores , omnivores, insectivor es Respira tion gills gill slits (gills) gills , swim bladd er skin, gills, lungs lungs lung s, air sacs lungs
  • 66. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia General Charact eristic jawles s; lack bony skelet on; smooth non scaly skin skelet on of cartil age, with epider mal placoi d (tooth like) scales skelet on of bone, with swim blassd er (gas filled sac) with four legs, metamo rphosi s, smooth and moist with four legs, dry scaly skin, shelle d egg with feath ers, hard shell ed egg, with wings with hair or fur, infant dependency , mammary glands Classes of Phylum Chordata
  • 67. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Interna l Transpo rt simple circui t of closed circul atory system closed circul atory system ; 2 chambe red heart close d circu lator y syste m; 2 chamb ered heart closed circula tory system; 3 chamber ed heart; double circula tion closed circul atory system ; 4 chambe red heart closed; 4 chamber ed heart, blood vessels , air sacs closed; 4 chambered heart; blood vessels
  • 68. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibi a Reptilia Aves Mammalia Excreti on kidney kidney kidney kidney kidneys ; salt glands kidneys Respons e well- develo ped sense of smell and hearin g, with latera l line to sense vibrat ions well- develop ed sense of smell; brain, cold- blooded / ectothe rmic ectoth ermic/ cold- bloode d; well- develo ped brain ectoth ermic/ cold- bloode d; well- develo ped brain ectoth ermic/ cold- bloode d; well- develo ped brain endothe rmic/ warm- blooded ; well- develop ed brain endotherm ic/ warm- blooded; well- developed brain
  • 69. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Movemen t muscl es fins fins legs, feet legs and some are legles s wings, feet limbs, legs, feet Reprodu ction sexua l, exter nal, ferti lizat ion sexual, interna l fertili zation sexes separ ate; exter nal ferti lizat ion separat e sexes; externa l/ interna l fertili zation sexes separa te; intern al fertil izatio n sexes separat e; with copulat ory organs; interna l feriliz ation sexes separate, with copulator y organs; internato fertiliza tion
  • 70. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Symmetr y bilate ral bilate ral bilat eral bilater al bilater al bilate ral bilateral Habitat aquati c aquati c aquat ic terrest rial/ aquatic terrest rial/ aquatic terres trial/ aquati c terrestri al/ aquatic Examples lamprey s, hagfish es shark, rays, skates body fishes salaman ders, caecici lians, frogs, toads turtles, lizards, snakes, crocodil es, alligato rs birds anteater, kangaroo, dogs, apes, bats, whale, horse, rabbits, rats, moles, elephants, deer
  • 71. E.V.E