Animal Morphology
and Diversity
Dr. Eden V. Evangelista
Department of Biological Sciences
Philippine Normal University
Man...
Levels of Classification
Kingdoms (C. Linnaeus)
1.Plant
2. Animal
five-kingdom system
1.Plant 4. Protist
2.Animal 5. Fungi...
8 – Kingdom
1. Plant
2. Animal
3. Monera Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
4. Fungi
5. Protist Archaezoa
Protista
Chromista
* Animals cannot make their own food.
They depend on other living organisms.
*Animals digest their food. They cannot
use p...
*Animals have many cells. Different
cells carry out different functions such
as digestion and reproduction.
*Animal cells ...
Examples of major phyla of the animal
kingdom: (more or less 36 phyla)
Porifera Cnidaria
Platyhelminthes Aschelminthes
Mol...
Butterfly, fish,
grasshoppers,
spider, bird
Animals without
backbones
(invertebrates)
Animals with
backbones
(vertebrates)...
Arrangement of the body parts (symmetry ) :
Radial symmetry - animals that have
body parts arranged in a circle around a
c...
Evolutionary Tree of Animals
Poriferans (Sponges)
Venus
Flower
Basket
Sponges
Cnidaria
Hydra are named
after the nine-headed
sea snake of Greek
mythology and are
freshwater relatives
of corals, sea
anemones an...
Jelly Fish
Sea
Anemone
Sea Anemone
Platyhelminthes
Flatworms
Tapeworm
Tapeworm
lamb is
passing a
tapeworm
Nematoda
Anatomy of Roundworms
Annelida
Earthworm
Anatomy
External Parts of an Earthworm
Leech
Nereis
Mollusca
Chiton
Snail
Limpet
Shell
Squid
Octopus
Coelom Formation
Clam Anatomy
Arthropoda
Butterfly Spider
Centipede
Metamorphosis
External Parts of a Grasshopper
Compound Eyes of Mosquito
Millipede
Shrimp
Echinodermata
Sea Cucumber
Chordata
Lancelets
Tunicates
Protochordates
Amphibians (Frogs,
Toads, Salamanders and
Newts)
Frogs, toads and salamanders are amphibians. -
They have moist, smooth skin, or warty skin
without scales.
- They can brea...
External Parts of the Frog
Frog
The Reptiles (Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and
Crocodiles)
-cold-blooded vertebrate with dry, scaly skin
-special type of egg ...
- Snakes and lizards make up the largest
group of reptiles
- Turtles make up a very successful order
of animals. They can ...
A sea turtle
Turtles are found or live in water, while
Tortoise live on land
A Crocodile
Crocodiles and alligators are among the world's
largest living reptiles. They are carnivorous and
some species...
Vertebrates
Around 5% of all animals are vertebrates.
They have the following characteristics:
presence of vertebral colum...
Birds and Mammals (Warm-blooded animals)
- a warm-blooded animal with an outer
covering of feathers, two legs used for
wal...
External Parts of a Bird
Orders of Mammalia
Mammals are classified according to
means of reproduction:
- mammals that lay eggs;
- mammals that have...
Man,
monkeys
, etc.
Mammals
Based on
development and
reproduction
Marsupial
Platypus
Monotreme
Placental
Kangaroo/
Koala
Egg- laying Mammals
- monotremes are a small group of
mammals that lay eggs.
- they do not have nipples like the
placental...
Spiny Anteater
Platypus
Mammals with Pouches
- develop their young in pouches, but the
youngs are born, not hatched from eggs.
- marsupials, commo...
Mammals with Placenta
- largest group of mammals
- mammals whose embryo
develops inside the placenta.
- in a placenta, the...
Lion Monkey
Dog Cat
Primates
Man
Point
of
Compari
son
Agnatha
Chondric
hthyes
Osteic
hthyes
Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia
Modes
of
Feeding
filte
r-
feede...
Point
of
Compari
son
Agnatha
Chondric
hthyes
Osteic
hthyes
Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia
General
Charact
eristic
jawles
...
Point
of
Compari
son
Agnatha
Chondric
hthyes
Osteic
hthyes
Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia
Interna
l
Transpo
rt
simple
cir...
Point
of
Compari
son
Agnatha
Chondric
hthyes
Osteic
hthyes
Amphibi
a
Reptilia Aves Mammalia
Excreti
on
kidney kidney kidne...
Point
of
Compari
son
Agnatha
Chondric
hthyes
Osteic
hthyes
Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia
Movemen
t
muscl
es
fins fins le...
Point
of
Compari
son
Agnatha
Chondric
hthyes
Osteic
hthyes
Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia
Symmetr
y
bilate
ral
bilate
ral...
E.V.E
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
Animals let
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Animals let

  1. 1. Animal Morphology and Diversity Dr. Eden V. Evangelista Department of Biological Sciences Philippine Normal University Manila
  2. 2. Levels of Classification Kingdoms (C. Linnaeus) 1.Plant 2. Animal five-kingdom system 1.Plant 4. Protist 2.Animal 5. Fungi 3.Monera Six-kingdom system 1. Plant 4. Protist 2. Animal 5. Fungi 3. Monera Eubacteria Archaebacteria
  3. 3. 8 – Kingdom 1. Plant 2. Animal 3. Monera Eubacteria Archaebacteria 4. Fungi 5. Protist Archaezoa Protista Chromista
  4. 4. * Animals cannot make their own food. They depend on other living organisms. *Animals digest their food. They cannot use proteins, fats and carbohydrates directly. *Many animals move from place to place. By moving around, they can find food, escape their enemies, find a better place to live and find mates.
  5. 5. *Animals have many cells. Different cells carry out different functions such as digestion and reproduction. *Animal cells are eucaryotic. The cells have nucleus and organelles enclosed by a membrane.
  6. 6. Examples of major phyla of the animal kingdom: (more or less 36 phyla) Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Aschelminthes Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata
  7. 7. Butterfly, fish, grasshoppers, spider, bird Animals without backbones (invertebrates) Animals with backbones (vertebrates) With 3 body regions (Moth & grasshopper) With 2 body regions With gills Without gills Butterfly & grasshopper Spider Fish Bird
  8. 8. Arrangement of the body parts (symmetry ) : Radial symmetry - animals that have body parts arranged in a circle around a central point. Examples: Sea anemones and starfish. Bilateral symmetry - animals that can be divided into right and left halves by drawing an imaginary line down the length of its body. Asymmetrical animals - animals that do not have definite shape
  9. 9. Evolutionary Tree of Animals
  10. 10. Poriferans (Sponges)
  11. 11. Venus Flower Basket
  12. 12. Sponges
  13. 13. Cnidaria
  14. 14. Hydra are named after the nine-headed sea snake of Greek mythology and are freshwater relatives of corals, sea anemones and jellyfish. Cnidaria and share in common stinging tentacles and a radially symmetrical body plan.
  15. 15. Jelly Fish
  16. 16. Sea Anemone
  17. 17. Sea Anemone
  18. 18. Platyhelminthes
  19. 19. Flatworms
  20. 20. Tapeworm
  21. 21. Tapeworm lamb is passing a tapeworm
  22. 22. Nematoda
  23. 23. Anatomy of Roundworms
  24. 24. Annelida
  25. 25. Earthworm Anatomy
  26. 26. External Parts of an Earthworm
  27. 27. Leech Nereis
  28. 28. Mollusca
  29. 29. Chiton Snail Limpet
  30. 30. Shell Squid Octopus
  31. 31. Coelom Formation
  32. 32. Clam Anatomy
  33. 33. Arthropoda
  34. 34. Butterfly Spider Centipede
  35. 35. Metamorphosis
  36. 36. External Parts of a Grasshopper
  37. 37. Compound Eyes of Mosquito
  38. 38. Millipede Shrimp
  39. 39. Echinodermata
  40. 40. Sea Cucumber
  41. 41. Chordata
  42. 42. Lancelets
  43. 43. Tunicates
  44. 44. Protochordates
  45. 45. Amphibians (Frogs, Toads, Salamanders and Newts)
  46. 46. Frogs, toads and salamanders are amphibians. - They have moist, smooth skin, or warty skin without scales. - They can breathe through their skin. - - Oxygen and carbon dioxide can be exchanged through the skin and the lining of the mouth. - have very small sac-like lungs in the chest cavity that are used for breathing on land. - also called cold-blooded which means that their body temperature changes depending on the temperature of the environment.
  47. 47. External Parts of the Frog
  48. 48. Frog
  49. 49. The Reptiles (Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and Crocodiles) -cold-blooded vertebrate with dry, scaly skin -special type of egg adaptations that enable them to live their entire life out of water.
  50. 50. - Snakes and lizards make up the largest group of reptiles - Turtles make up a very successful order of animals. They can be found in almost every continent and in most of the world's oceans. The body of a turtle is covered by a hard shell both on top and at the bottom. Most turtles can withdraw into their shell for protection. Turtles have no teeth and use their beaks to feed on insects,worms, fish and plants.
  51. 51. A sea turtle Turtles are found or live in water, while Tortoise live on land
  52. 52. A Crocodile Crocodiles and alligators are among the world's largest living reptiles. They are carnivorous and some species can grow up to 7 meters in length with a mass of around 1,000 kilograms.
  53. 53. Vertebrates Around 5% of all animals are vertebrates. They have the following characteristics: presence of vertebral column; internal joint skeleton that protects internal organs; closed circulatory system; paired appendages; efficient organ for obtaining oxygen; kidneys as excretory organ; and a high degree of cephalization.
  54. 54. Birds and Mammals (Warm-blooded animals) - a warm-blooded animal with an outer covering of feathers, two legs used for walking or perching, and front limbs modified into wings. - bird's body temperature is about 40 0C they have higher body temperature than the human body. - most striking characteristic is the presence of feathers.
  55. 55. External Parts of a Bird
  56. 56. Orders of Mammalia Mammals are classified according to means of reproduction: - mammals that lay eggs; - mammals that have pouches; and - mammals that have placentas.
  57. 57. Man, monkeys , etc. Mammals Based on development and reproduction Marsupial Platypus Monotreme Placental Kangaroo/ Koala
  58. 58. Egg- laying Mammals - monotremes are a small group of mammals that lay eggs. - they do not have nipples like the placental mammals - the young licks milk from the skin and hair surrounding the female's mammary gland.
  59. 59. Spiny Anteater Platypus
  60. 60. Mammals with Pouches - develop their young in pouches, but the youngs are born, not hatched from eggs. - marsupials, common in Australia and New Zealand. - young marsupial develops for a short while inside the body of the mother. When they are born, they are tiny and helpless.
  61. 61. Mammals with Placenta - largest group of mammals - mammals whose embryo develops inside the placenta. - in a placenta, the baby can stay inside the mother longer - a baby placental mammal is more developed and active than other new born mammals.
  62. 62. Lion Monkey Dog Cat
  63. 63. Primates
  64. 64. Man
  65. 65. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Modes of Feeding filte r- feede rs (larv ae) paras ites (adul ts) filter- feeders , carnivo res, predato rs filte r- feede rs, carni vores , herbi vores herbivo res, carnivo res herbiv ores, carniv ores herbi vores , carni vores , omniv ores herbivores , carnivores , omnivores, insectivor es Respira tion gills gill slits (gills) gills , swim bladd er skin, gills, lungs lungs lung s, air sacs lungs
  66. 66. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia General Charact eristic jawles s; lack bony skelet on; smooth non scaly skin skelet on of cartil age, with epider mal placoi d (tooth like) scales skelet on of bone, with swim blassd er (gas filled sac) with four legs, metamo rphosi s, smooth and moist with four legs, dry scaly skin, shelle d egg with feath ers, hard shell ed egg, with wings with hair or fur, infant dependency , mammary glands Classes of Phylum Chordata
  67. 67. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Interna l Transpo rt simple circui t of closed circul atory system closed circul atory system ; 2 chambe red heart close d circu lator y syste m; 2 chamb ered heart closed circula tory system; 3 chamber ed heart; double circula tion closed circul atory system ; 4 chambe red heart closed; 4 chamber ed heart, blood vessels , air sacs closed; 4 chambered heart; blood vessels
  68. 68. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibi a Reptilia Aves Mammalia Excreti on kidney kidney kidney kidney kidneys ; salt glands kidneys Respons e well- develo ped sense of smell and hearin g, with latera l line to sense vibrat ions well- develop ed sense of smell; brain, cold- blooded / ectothe rmic ectoth ermic/ cold- bloode d; well- develo ped brain ectoth ermic/ cold- bloode d; well- develo ped brain ectoth ermic/ cold- bloode d; well- develo ped brain endothe rmic/ warm- blooded ; well- develop ed brain endotherm ic/ warm- blooded; well- developed brain
  69. 69. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Movemen t muscl es fins fins legs, feet legs and some are legles s wings, feet limbs, legs, feet Reprodu ction sexua l, exter nal, ferti lizat ion sexual, interna l fertili zation sexes separ ate; exter nal ferti lizat ion separat e sexes; externa l/ interna l fertili zation sexes separa te; intern al fertil izatio n sexes separat e; with copulat ory organs; interna l feriliz ation sexes separate, with copulator y organs; internato fertiliza tion
  70. 70. Point of Compari son Agnatha Chondric hthyes Osteic hthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Symmetr y bilate ral bilate ral bilat eral bilater al bilater al bilate ral bilateral Habitat aquati c aquati c aquat ic terrest rial/ aquatic terrest rial/ aquatic terres trial/ aquati c terrestri al/ aquatic Examples lamprey s, hagfish es shark, rays, skates body fishes salaman ders, caecici lians, frogs, toads turtles, lizards, snakes, crocodil es, alligato rs birds anteater, kangaroo, dogs, apes, bats, whale, horse, rabbits, rats, moles, elephants, deer
  71. 71. E.V.E
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