6th ed APA Style Manual


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How to format academic papers in APA style

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6th ed APA Style Manual

  1. 1. APA Style Formatting Requirements According to the new 6 th edition • What’s new in the 6th edition of the APA style manual? • What are formatting requirements? • What are the “secrets” to good writing? • Does grammar and sentence structure really matter? • How should I structure an essay? • Is it possible to develop good writing skills?Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 1
  2. 2. Worksheet # 1 Directions: Using the following information, format a cover page for an APA styled paper (don’t worry if you make mistakes– no one will see this except you).• Title of the paper: Newcomer socialization in the workplace• Author: Your name• Date: Today’s date• Add any other information that you think is required for an APA style cover page for a paperCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 2
  3. 3. Running head: NEWCOMER SOCIALIZATIONAnswer Newcomer Socialization in the Workplace Jane P. Doe Wilmington University ONLY insert the date, assignment, co urse name, or instructor name IF your instructor requires it! Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 3
  4. 4. The 6th Edition• NOTE: This slide show is not a substitute for reading the APA style manual! Double-check the printing: Should use the Second printing!!! 4
  5. 5. What Will Be Covered in This Presentation: Manual has 8 chapters, we will cover 7 of them1. Types of Articles & Ethical Considerations2. Manuscript Content3. Writing Guidance4. Writing Mechanics5. Tables & Figures6. Crediting Sources7. Formatting ReferencesFor good measure… suggestions for improving your writing !Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 5
  6. 6. . Types of Articles (pp. 9-20)• Primary publications – Journal articles that are reports of empirical studies, literature reviews, theoretical articles, methodological articles, or case studies 6
  7. 7. Empirical Articles• Reports of original research• Usually, these articles have the following sections: – Introduction These are reports – Method of original research – Results – Discussion EMPIRICAL means to be able to observe through one or more of the physical sensesCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 7
  8. 8. Literature Reviews• Critical evaluations of articles • In lit reviews: that have already been – Researchers define and published explain a problem – Meta-analysis: researchers – Summarize previous use existing data of several investigations so as to studies but now analyze this inform readers the current using statistical analysis state of knowledge about – Lit reviews also include this problem synthesis of previous – Identify gaps in the literature describing what literature has been already • Contradictions researched, or is known, about the topic • Inconsistencies – The purpose of a lit review • Relationships, etc is to explain what is already – Suggest next steps in solving known about a topic the problem 8
  9. 9. Theoretical Articles• Researchers draw upon existing research to formulate a theory• They will discuss the development of a theory so as to trace its origins, or history, and then either refine the existing theory or advance a new one• Discuss a theory’s internal consistency and external validityCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 9
  10. 10. Methodological Articles• Present new methodological approaches to studying a problem• May refine an approach used in the past or propose a new one – Present reason and rationale for why the proposed new or revised approach would be better than approaches used on the past These papers are often part of a Research ProposalCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 10
  11. 11. Case Studies• Case studies examine a specific problem in a specific situation or group, organization, or individual• Case studies have to be carefully written so as to protect confidential case material Graduate psychology students often have to conduct and write up interview materialsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 11
  12. 12. Other Types of Articles• Other articles may include – Reviews – Commentaries – Letters to the editor or introductory articles to dedicated journal topics – Monographs 12
  13. 13. APA Guidance• APA style manual provides guidance for scientific writing style – No right or wrong, but provides guidance to established writing conventions• Each scholarly discipline may have its own writing requirements 13
  14. 14. Ethical & Legal Standards of Publishing• Basic requirements/ ethical principles for all scholarly publication: – Ensure accuracy of scientific knowledge – Protect rights and welfare of research participants (p. 11) – Protect intellectual property rights (p.12) 14
  15. 15. . Manuscript Structure (pp. 21-38)• Title • Author – Titles of scholarly work are – First name usually long because they – Middle initial should fully explain the – Last name topic of the manuscript – EX: Johanna P. Bishop NOT J. – Each title should be fully P. Bishop explanatory when it stands alone from the text – Omit all titles or degrees – Upper and lower case • Institutional Affiliation – Centered on the page – Identifies location of where – Positioned in the upper half the author conducted of the page research – Use city and state of where institutional affiliation exists 15
  16. 16. Abstract• What is it? • Abstracts: – Brief summary of the contents of the manuscript  Begin the abstract on a new – Provides quick information page about the topic, research  Identify it with the running methodology, etc head and page number 2• Qualities of a good abstract (p. 26):  Label “Abstract” should – Accurate appear in upper and lower – Non-evaluative case letters – Coherent and readable  Centered • Active voice  At top of the abstract • Present verb tense to describe  Abstract itself is single- conclusions • Past verb tense to describe spaced paragraph without specific variables manipulated paragraph indentation or outcomes measured – Concise• Typical word limits: 150-250 wordsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 16
  17. 17. Abstracts for • Literature Review or Meta- Analysis Types of Studies – Problem under investigation • Methodological papers• Empirical Article – Describes general class of methods being discussed – Problem under investigation – Essential features of the – Participant characteristics proposed method – Essential features of the study’s – Range of application of the methods proposed method – Basic findings • Abstract for a case study should – Conclusions or implications describe:• Theory-oriented papers – Subject or relevant – Describe how the theory or characteristics of the individual, organizational, or principles on which it is based group presented works – Nature of a solution to the problem presented by the case examples – Questions raised for additional Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 17 research or theory
  18. 18. Example of an Abstract Mullen, J., Vladi, N. & Mills, A.J. (2006). Making sense of the Walkerton crisis. Culture and Organization 12 (3), 207-220. Problem Participants The principle of investigating organizational crisis usually involves blame, however, researchers have found that often crisis is precipitated by people trying to make sense of their environment. This research study summarizes a case in which an organizational crisis, a community’s response to tainted water, was examined Methods using sensemaking theory. Using the report of a public account of the Walkerton water crisis of 2000, the researchers apply sensemaking theory to examine and explain how organizational culture and power played a role in this case. The researchers found that in studying organizational crisis using Weick’s sensemaking approach, more needed to be known aboutFindings organization, culture, and power as they apply to and play a role in sensemaking in non-routine situations. ConclusionsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 18
  19. 19. Running head: BRIEF TITLE IN CAPS 1Example: Title Page Title of Paper in Upper and Lower Case: Centered Between Margins Johanna P. Bishop Wilmington University Notice Double- spacing Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 19
  20. 20. NEWCOMER SOCIALIZATION 2Subsequent Pages Note the difference in Note the Newcomer Socialization in the the header bold Workplace from the formatting cover page Organizational newcomers experience a in the title process of becoming socialized into the organization. This socialization process includes completing new hire paperwork, attending mandatory training, being introduced to co-workers, and Use learning how things are done and what is citations expected in the organization (Schein, 1999). For many organizational newcomers, the process of joining an organization is filled with anxiety, hope, expectations, and disorientation. Learning how to become a Use 12 point valued organizational member Times ………………………………………Double-space Use 1” margins Roman font the text all around throughout Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 20
  21. 21. PageOrganizing the Reference References Allen, B. A. (1997). Homeschooling and student achievement. NY: Irwin Books. • Reference pages Pratley, S.L. (2001). Teaching students to write. are organized in alpha order by Chicago: New Books, Inc. the author’s last name Smythe, B.A. (1998). The relationship of student • If there is no cognition and language acquisition. Journal of author, use title Educational and Cognitive Processing, 23(4), 345-367. Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 21
  22. 22. . Writing Guidance (pp. 61-84)Level Format of Headings s 1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 2 Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. 22
  23. 23. Seriation• Use of bulleted lists now permitted for clarity (Caution: use them sparingly)• Within a sentences use lower case letters within parentheses – Ex: Writers may separate items in a series with (a) commas, (b) seriation, or (c) bulleted lists.• Parallel construction should be followed 23
  24. 24. Writing Style• Achieving Continuity – Use proper punctuation to show relationships between ideas • Ex: A recent survey of Behavioral Science and Psychology majors showed that although most students were completing their degrees to get better jobs, and even though they were indecisive as to what they would continue to study, many of the students were also interested in going to graduate school. – Notice how the commas help to clarify the ideas 24
  25. 25. Writing Style: Transitional Words and PhrasesCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 25
  26. 26. Expressing Ideas Clearly & Smoothly• Abruptness in writing is usually caused by: – Monotony in sentence patterns – Sudden shifts in verb tenses – Use of noun strings – Use of synonyms• Can avoid abruptness by varying sentence patternsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 26
  27. 27. Varying Sentence Patterns Examples of Simple Sentences: Each has 1 main idea• The purpose of this research is to understand the reactions of caretakers to their children’s mishaps at the playground.• The proposed research method is ethnography.• Ethnography allows researchers to both observe and question subjects.• I plan to observe and question the subjects at a local playground.• I will observe over a one month time period.Copyright 2009 Johanna P. Bishop, Hockessin, Delaware 27
  28. 28. Sentence Structure• Simple sentence – S-V (and sometimes object) – Example: • The purpose of this research is to understand the reactions of caretakers to their children’s mishaps at the playground. • Some students like to listen to music when they study. • Teachers and students read a lot in order to be knowledgeable scholars. • Students in the social sciences are expected to understand research methods and suggest appropriate methods .• Notice how the subject and verb match in number: Plural subjects take plural verbs and singular subjects take singular verbsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 28
  29. 29. Compound Sentences• Compound sentences – 2 simple sentences connected by a FANBOYS – Example: • I plan to observe and question the subjects at a local playground, and I will observe over a one month time period. • Quantitative research approaches tend to use surveys to collect data which can be generalized to the larger population, but the extended interview method focuses on gathering in-depth knowledge about a phenomena from a small number of participants. • Surveys can yield a great deal of data from many research participants, yet interview data from a few people will provide rich details about the phenomena being studied.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 29
  30. 30. FANBOYS• Coordinating • For conjunctions: • And – Connect two or more • Nor separate thoughts • But • Or • Yet • SoCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 30
  31. 31. Complex Sentences• Complex Sentences – Have 2 or more ideas, but one or more of those ideas is subordinate (less important) to the main idea – Examples: • When I handed in my paper, I forgot to submit the reference page. • I forgot to submit the reference page when I handed in my paper. • Because I wanted to avoid any late penalties, even though I forgot to write the reference page, I handed in my paper.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 31
  32. 32. Compound-Complex Sentences• Compound- Complex Sentence – 2 or more independent clauses with a dependent clause – Example: Joe forgot all about the test, but when he remembered, he crammed quickly in the hopes that he would pass.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 32
  33. 33. Punctuation Pattern Sheet ::::: ;;;;; ,,,,, ::::: ;;;;; ,,,,,Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 33
  34. 34. Varying Sentence Structure• The following sentences have a variety of sentence patterns, thus making this paragraph much easier to absorb: – The purpose of this research is to understand the reactions of caretakers to their children’s mishaps at the playground using an ethnographic approach. The proposed research method will be to use an ethnographic approach because it allows researchers to both observe and question subjects. I plan to conduct naturalistic observations at a local playground over one month period of time, following each observation with a brief survey of the caretaker subjects to determine their relationship to the child.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 34
  35. 35. Use of Appropriate Verb Tenses• Use the past tense (i.e. Bishop showed…) or present perfect tense (i.e. Bishop has shown…) for the literature review and the description of the procedure if the discussion is of past events – Stay within the chosen tense and do not deviate from it• Use past tense (i.e. efficacy significantly increased…) to describe the results• Use the present tense (i.e. these findings indicate…) to discuss the implications and present the conclusionsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 35
  36. 36. Cleaning Up Noun Strings & Synonyms• A noun string is a series of nouns used one after another to modify a final noun – Ex: new employee training outage radiation protection safeguard procedure• A way to fix noun strings is to move the last word to the beginning of the string and use prepositions, etc to create a more coherent phrase – Ex: The procedure, which trains new employees about radiation protection in an outage, must be safely guarded.• Be careful of using synonyms– they can create unintentional confusion and inadvertently change subtle meaningsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 36
  37. 37. Tone: Setting the Right Attitude• Just as spoken words have a tone depending upon the setting or the context of your conversation, your writing also has a “tone”• Business writing or academic writing take on a more formal “tone” than do personal letters, emails, or text messages• Developing the proper “tone” is important in gaining credibility as an academic writer• Think about a specific person to whom you want to write this paper… write to educate and persuade!• Remember why you are writing…Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 37
  38. 38. • In scholarly writingMore on Tone authors often point out different positions• The research reports taken by various published in the scholarly theorists journals you will be – These must be required to read will have presented in a a more formal tone professional, non-• You may also notice combative manner differences in the tone of – Acceptable example: the writings from journal • “Miller did not address…” to journal – Not acceptable: • “Miller completely overlooked…” 38
  39. 39. Economy of Expression: Wordiness & Redundancy• “Say only what needs to be said” (APA, 2009, p. 67)• Do not try to impress readers by being verbose• Write simply, write clearly and above all, avoid these wordy expressions! “Eventually you will get used to this more formal writing style…” 39
  40. 40. Unit Length- Where the Twain Shall Meet? Both Sentences & Paragraphs Constitute a Unit• Writing in short sentences produces a choppiness that makes the writer sound like a third grader• Writing long sentences produces confusion and obscures meaning• Writing ¶ longer than a page confuses readers – Break up ¶ into meaningful unitsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 40
  41. 41. More On Unit Length: So What’s A Unit?• Single sentence paragraphs are too abrupt, and lack depth• Paragraphs that are too long are likely to lose a reader’s attention• “A new paragraph provides a pause for the reader– a chance to assimilate one step in the conceptual development before beginning another” (p. 68)• Avoid paragraphs that run longer than “one double-spaced manuscript page” (p. 68)Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 41
  42. 42. Precision and Clarity• Word choice: make certain that every word means exactly what you intend it to mean – Informal writing: words such as feel are often used by students as substitutes for think or believe: unacceptable in scholarly writing• Colloquial expressions: be careful that you write clearly and do not use spoken expressions that are approximations (ex: practically, very, very few, etc)• Jargon: this is the use of technical vocabulary even where its use is not relevant 42
  43. 43. Clarity…• Pronouns: pronouns such • Comparisons: ambiguous as this, that, these, and or illogical comparisons those can be confusing if occur when key words are readers have to search for missing or when non- their referents in a parallel structures are previous sentence; use used nouns instead or make • Ex: specific references – “Ten-year-olds were more likely to play with age peers than 8-year-olds” (p. 86) – “Her salary was lower than a convenience store clerk” (p. 69) 43
  44. 44. More on clarity…• Attribution: – Inappropriate attribution would be to use the third person, anthropomorphism, and use of the editorial we • Third person: “to avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronoun rather than the third person when describing steps take in your experiment” (p. 69) – Correct: “We reviewed the literature…” – Incorrect: “The authors reviewed the literature…” • Anthropomorphism: do not attribute human qualities to inanimate objects or animals – Experiments cannot “attempt to demonstrate” or “compare” 44
  45. 45. And Finally Clarity…• Editorial “We”: Restrict the use of “we” for only yourself and your coauthors; clarify usage by substituting appropriate nouns, etc – Ex: • Correct: “Researchers usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and temporal structure of the elements.” • Incorrect: “We usually classify birdsong…” (p. 69)Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 45
  46. 46. Linguistic Devices• “Devices that attract attention to words, sounds, or other embellishments instead of to ideas are inappropriate in scientific writing” (p. 70) – Avoid heavy alliteration – Use metaphors sparingly – Avoid mixed metaphors – Use figurative expressions with restraint – Colorful expressions with care• Note that academic writing is not the same as creative writing – Academic writing usually requires writing according to a specific format, uses citations, supports evidence with referenced materials, and uses a more formal tone and language – Creative writing is writing as an expression of the writer; rules and conventions are different from academic writing 46
  47. 47. Reducing Bias in Language• APA advises writers to use specific language – i.e. do not use man to refer to all human beings • Use “men and women”• Be sensitive to issues of labeling when describing ethnic and minority groups – i.e. Chinese Americans or Korean Americans instead of Asian Americans – Use gay men and lesbians – Be careful about terms such as “borderline” or “at risk”Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 47
  48. 48. Reducing Language Bias• Gender is cultural• Sexual is biological• Differences should be mentioned only when it is relevant (p. 71)• Respect people’s preferences; call them what they prefer to be called• Avoid labeling people when possible – i.e. the elderly use instead elderly people – Use adjectival forms such as amnesic patients (put the adjective before the noun) 48
  49. 49. Acknowledging Participation• Use “participants” or • Reducing bias by topic “subjects” – Use specific nouns or• Use the past verb tense pronouns :the subjects completed – Avoid using term “man” the trial” instead of “the to mean both genders; subjects were given the be specific survey” – Recast in the plural• Avoid the term “failed” – Do not use “opposite because it implies sex” but do use “other personal shortcomings sex” 49
  50. 50. Reducing Bias by Gender & Ethnicity• “Sexual orientation” • Racial and Ethnic – Use this term rather Identity than “sexual – Terms like Black and African preference” American are now preferred – Do not use the Black race or – Terms like gay men, the White race as this bisexual men, bisexual perpetuates stereotypes women are preferable – Proper nouns and to homosexual capitalized – When using the word minority preface it with an adjective 50
  51. 51. Reducing Bias by Disability or Age• Disabilities • Age – Avoid language that – Girl and boy are correct for objectifies a person by his/ individuals under 12 years her condition – Young man and young – Use people first language woman for 13-17 years • i.e. “person with – 18 years or older use men paraplegia” or “youth and women with autism” – Do not use generational – Avoid euphemisms such as descriptors unless it is special, physically related to the study or the challenged, handi-capable topic – Older adults is preferred to elderly – Use dementia instead of senility 51
  52. 52. Grammar & Usage• Use the active rather Preferred than passive voice We conducted the• Select tense and mood survey in a controlled carefully setting• Passive voice Not Preferred acceptable only when The survey was you want to focus on conducted in a the recipient of the controlled setting action rather than on the actor 52
  53. 53. The Passive Voice• Passive: • When should the passive – Acceptable when the be used? focus is on the object or 1. When it is more important to draw attention to the recipient of the action person or thing acted upon rather than on the actor 2. When the actor in the – Ex of passive: situation is unimportant • “The participants were • The passive voice is more asked about their appropriately used in the experiences in foster care.” methods section of APA papers (p. 77).Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 53
  54. 54. Select Tense Carefully• The English language uses verb tenses to show time• Basic English verb tenses are present, past and future – It is a nice day (present tense) – It was a nice day yesterday (past tense) – Hopefully, it will be a nice day tomorrow (future tense)Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 54
  55. 55. Select Tense Carefully• Use the past tense to describe an action that occurred in the past at a specific time in the past, whether describing another researcher’s work or your research results – Smith (2003) reported that… – The data indicated…Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 55
  56. 56. The Simple Past Tense• Use the past tense to express an action or a condition that – occurred at a specific, definite time in the past, • as when discussing another searcher’s work, or • when reporting your own results Brown & Smith (2001) reported that …. Thurstdale’s (2003) study showed… 56
  57. 57. Using the Present Perfect Tense• Use the present perfect tense to – express a past action or condition that did not occur at a specific time – Or to describe an action beginning in the past and continuing until the present Examples Incorrect Correct Since that time, several researchers Since that time, several researchers used the qualitative interview have used the qualitative interview method… method…Prepared by Johanna P. Bishop 2009 57This slide show was prepared to accompany the APA Style manual 6th edition and is intended as an introduction to the 6th edition manual. It is notintended to replace the 6th edition in any way. Students are encouraged to read the 6th edition.
  58. 58. Selecting the Appropriate Mood• The subjunctive mood refers to those expressions that are conditional” that is, they are not certain and may consist of wishful thinking, things the speaker may hope or imagines to happen, or events not likely to happen• The subjunctive verb tense: – Use this tense only to describe conditions that are contrary to fact or improbable (conditional) – Do not use this tense to describe simple conditions or contingencies Examples Incorrect Correct If the experiment was not designed If the experiment were not this way, the results could not be designed this way, the results could interpreted properly not be interpreted properlyCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 58
  59. 59. Using “Would”• Use would with care!• Would could be used to mean habitually, as in “the instructor would sternly look about the classroom”• Or it could be used to express a conditional action, as in “I would fix it if I could…”• Do not use would to hedge; for example change “it would appear that…” to “it appears that…” – Hedging is not acceptable in academic writing – Always write statement that can be supported with data or expert opinions 59
  60. 60. Agreement of Subject and Verb• Subjects and verbs must agree in number, regardless of intervening phrases• The plural form of some verbs end in “a” and may cause agreement confusion – “The data indicate that Terrence was correct” 60
  61. 61. Pronouns• Pronouns replace • Problems with nouns pronouns: Gender and – Each pronoun should WHO-THAT refer clearly to its – Use neutral pronouns antecedent and should for animals unless the agree with the animal has been names antecedent in number and the gender is and gender known Each student should do their own work – Use who for human – Each student should do beings his/her own work – Use that for thingsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 61
  62. 62. Pronouns as Subjects & Objects Personal & Relative Pronouns• Subjects • Object – Who is the subject of – Whom is the object of the verb the verb • “Name the participant • “The student whom I who you found achieved identified as a personable score above the median.” young man has dropped• You can determine whether e out of school.” relative pronoun is the subject or object of the verb by turning the sentence around and substituting a personal pronoun “You found he or she achieved scores above the median”Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 62
  63. 63. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers• Adjectives and adverbs are modifiers – Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns • Adjectives tell which one, how many, or what kind a thing is – Adverbs modify verb, adjectives, or other adverbs; often end in “-ly” • Adverbs tell how, to what extend, how much“This longitudinal research study was conducted effortlessly by a team of graduate students.”Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 63
  64. 64. Parallel Construction• Using the same pattern of words or sentences to show that 2 or more ideas have the same level of importance• Within a sentence: – Good students read their books, write papers on time, and attend classes regularly. – Owning a pet means taking care of the animal’s physical needs, providing for the animal’s environmental welfare, and monitoring the animal’s behavior.• Within a paper: parallel construction for main ideas show each idea has equal weight. Below are main points for a paper about newcomer socialization: 1. Understanding the experiences of organizational newcomers will provide information for improving new hire orientation. 2. Identifying the knowledge needs of organizational newcomers can focus new hire training programs.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 200i 64
  65. 65. . Mechanics (pp. 87-124)• Spacing after punctuation marks: – Insert one space after • Commas, colons, and semicolons • Periods that separate parts of a reference citation • Periods of the initials in personal names (i.e. J. P. Bishop)• EXCEPTIONS: – Do not insert a space after the internal periods within abbreviations – Space twice after punctuation marks at the end of a sentence (However, modern technologies uses kerning to increase spaces at ends of sentences) 65
  66. 66. Commas• Use a comma 1. Between elements (including before and and or) in a series of 3 or more items 2. To set off nonessential or restrictive clauses 3. To separate two independent clauses joined by a conjunction 4. To set off the year in exact dates 5. To set of the year in a parenthetical citation 6. To separate groups of 3 digits in most numbers above 1,000 66
  67. 67. Semi-Colon• Use a semicolon – To separate two independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction • The first research study was conducted in 1953; the second was duplicated in 2005. – To separate elements in a series that already contain commas • Initially, the research study was intended to explore the relationship of newcomers in organizations to the newcomer’s success and organization’s productivity. However, as the study progressed , it became obvious to the researchers that other variables such as newcomer previous experience, educational level, and ability to adapt; the supervisor’s prior experience in supervising untrained workers; and the organization’s capacity for dealing with mistakes, were equally important in determining the success of new hires. 67
  68. 68. Colon• Use a colon – Between a grammatically complete introductory clause and a final phrase or clause that extends the original clause – If the clause following the colon is a complete sentence, begin it with a capital letter • For examples, Freud (1930/1961) wrote of two urges: an urge toward union with others and an egoistic urge toward happiness. • They have agreed to the outcome: Informed participants perform better than do uninformed participants. 68
  69. 69. Colon• Use a colon – In ratios and proportions • The proportion of young to old was 1:8 – In references between place of publication and publisher • St. Louis, MO: MosbyCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 69
  70. 70. Simple Apostrophes• Apostrophes are NOT single quotation marks!• They are used to show: – Possessives • The class notes are in Joe’s book bag. • Dr. Chang’s class is really interesting. • Professor Jones’s lectures are really dull. – Missing letters • It’s been a long day. • She’s been studying for the exam all night. • I haven’t been doing well on my statistics quizzes.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 70
  71. 71. Quotation Marks• Use double quotation marks: – To introduce a word or phrase used as an ironic comment or an invented or coined expression – To set of a title or chapter in a periodical or book when the title is mentioned in the text – To reproduce material from a test or verbatim instructions to participantsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 71
  72. 72. Do NOT Use Double Quotation Marks• To identify the anchors of a scale; instead italicize them• To cite a letter, word, or paraphrase as a linguistic examples; instead italicize the term• To introduce a technical or key term; instead italicize the term• To hedge; do not use any punctuation with such expressions 72
  73. 73. Brackets & Parentheses• Use brackets to enclose the values that are the limits of a confidence interval – Ex: 95% CIs [-7.2, 4.3], [9.2, 12.4], and [-1.2, -0.5]• Enclose parenthetical material that is already within parenthesis – Ex: (The results of the control group [n= 8] are also presented in Figure 2).• Enclose material that is already within a quotation by some other person other than the original writer – Ex: “when [his own and others’] behaviors were studied” (Hanisch, 1992, p. 24)Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 73
  74. 74. Capitalization in Titles and Headings• Use an upper case letter for – The first letter of a word beginning a sentence – Major words in titles and headings – Proper nouns and trade names – Nouns followed by numerals or letters – Titles of tests – Names of conditions or groups in an experiment – Names of factors, variables, and effectsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 74
  75. 75. Use of Italics• Use italics for – Titles of books, periodicals, films, TV shows, and microfilm publications – Genera, species, varieties – Introduction of a new, technical, or key term – A letter, word, or phrase cited as a linguistic example – Words that could be misread – Letters used as statistical symbols or algebraic variables – Some test score or scales – Periodical volume numbers in reference lists – Anchors of a scaleCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 75
  76. 76. Abbreviations• Use abbreviations sparingly – Latin abbreviations • Cf (compare); e.g. (for example); etc (and so forth) – Scientific abbreviations • See list of common abbreviations on p. 109 – Chemical compounds – Concentrations – Routes of administration • When paired with a number/ unit combination 76
  77. 77. Plurals of Abbreviations• “APA style permits the use of abbreviations that appear as word entries (i.e., that are not labeled abbr) in Merriam- Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2005). Such abbreviations do not need an explanation in text” (p. 107).• “To form the plural of most abbreviations and statistical symbols, add s alone, but not italicized and without an apostrophe” (p. 110). – IOs Eds. vols. Ms ps ns – To form the plural of the reference abbreviation p. (page), write pp.• Never begin a sentence with a lowercase abbreviation or a symbol that stands aloneCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 77
  78. 78. Numbers• Use numerals to express – Numbers 10 and above – Numbers in the abstract of a paper or in a graphical display within a paper – Numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement – Numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions – Numbers that represent time and dates, ages, scores on a scale, exact sums of money • Exceptions: use words to express approximations (e.g. about three months ago)Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 78
  79. 79. Use Words to Express Numbers • Use words to express numbers – Any number that begins a sentence, title, or text heading – Common fractions – Universally accepted usage • Ex: The Twelve Apostles 79
  80. 80. . Displaying Results (pp. 125-167)• Purposes of data displays – Exploration: the data contain a message and you would like to learn what it is – Communication: you have discovered the meaning in the data and want to tell others about it – Calculation: the display allows you to estimate some statistic or function of the data – Storage: data is stored in a table for later retrieval, or you can display this data for a meta-analysis – Decoration: data displays attract attention and you may choose them to make your manuscript more appealing 80
  81. 81. Design & Preparation of Data Display1. Determine the purpose of the display and relative importance to these purposes2. Design the graphical display with the reader in mind: – Place items to be compared next to each other – Place labels clearly so they abut the elements being labeled – Use fonts large enough to be read without magnification – Include all the info needed to make the display understandable – Keep them free of extraneous materials 81
  82. 82. Table and Figure Numbers• Number all tables and figures with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text• Label them a Table 5, Table 6, Table 7 etc and NOT Table 5a, Table 5b, Table 5c• If the manuscript includes an appendix with tables, identify those elements in the appendix with capital letters and Arabic numerals (e.g. Table A1)• See more about requirements for tables and figures beginning on p. 129 and subsequent pages 82
  83. 83. . Crediting Sources (pp.169-189)• When to cite? – Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research influenced your work – Citation of an article implies that you have read this workCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 83
  84. 84. Definition of plagiarism…• “the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as ones own original work.”• “to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as ones own : use (anothers production) without crediting the source” • Source: Dictionary.com• “to commit literary theft : present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source” • Source: Plagiarize. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 11/01/06 from http://www.m- w.com/dictionary/plagiarizingCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 84
  85. 85. Wilmington University’s Policy…Students of Wilmington College are expected to be honest andforthright in their academic pursuits. It is inappropriate conductto falsify the results of research; include someone else’swords, ideas or data as one’s own as well as one’s ownpreviously submitted work (plagiarism) without proper creditbeing given. It is also inappropriate to intentionally use or inventinformation or the falsification of research or other findings(fabrication). When a student places his or her name onsubmitted work, the student certifies the originality of all worknot otherwise identified by appropriate acknowledgements.Additional information may be found in the WilmingtonUniversity Student Handbook.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 85 85
  86. 86. How to Avoid Plagiarism• CITE while you write!• Prepare an outline of your main ideas• Take notes as you read• Clearly mark material taken from source with quotation marks, highlighter, or underlining in your notes!• Cite your sources- even when in doubt• Avoiding plagiarism, whether intentional or unintentional, is the student’s responsibility!Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 86
  87. 87. Basic APA Citation Style• APA citation is a brief in-text citation (not a footnote) – provides information on a texts author and date of publication• Keyed to a full reference in an alphabetical list of works included at the end of the paper – RED FLAG! If the citations in the text do not match the reference page• A complete bibliographic citation thus has two parts: – (1) the in-text citation in the body of the paper, and – (2) the bibliographic reference in the list of works cited 87
  88. 88. Using Quotes and Paraphrases When to use citations… • Cite when using quoted material • Cite when paraphrasing • Cite when using facts or statisticsCitations are your friend! 88
  89. 89. Quoting & Paraphrasing Short Quotes Quotations fewer than 40 words in the middle of a sentence Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the “therapists in dropout cases Place may have inadvertently validated parental year close to author negativity about the adolescent without adequately responding to the adolescent’s needs or concerns” (p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity. Place page numbers right at the end of quoted materialCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 89
  90. 90. Section 6.06 Accuracy of Quotations• Quotations must be accurate!• If the quoted material contains any spelling, grammar or punctuation errors, insert the word sic in italics and between brackets [sic] immediately after the errorCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 90
  91. 91. Quotations: Changes• Section 6.07: Changes From the Source Requiring No Explanation: – The first letter of the first word may be changed to an upper case or lower case letter – The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence may be changed to fit the syntax (i.e. single quotation marks may be changed to double quotation marks and vice versa)• Section 6.08: Changes From the Source Requiring Explanation – Omitting material: Use 3 spaced ellipsis (…) within a sentence to indicate omitting material • Use 4 to indicate omitting material between 2 sentences (….) • Do not use ellipsis at the beginning or end of a quotation unless, to prevent misinterpretation, you need to emphasize that the quotation begins or ends in midsentence – Inserting material: Use brackets to enclose material such as additional explanations from someone other than the original author – Adding emphasis: if you want to emphasize something in the quotation italicize the key word(s) and insert within brackets the words [emphasis added]Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 91
  92. 92. Short Quotes Quotations less than 40 words Quotations with citation at the end of a sentence• Confusing the issue of overlapping nature of roles in palliative care, whereby “medical needs are met by those with medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed by anyone else on the team” (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112). Notice the use of Notice the end the ampersand punctuation markCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 92
  93. 93. Block Quotes Quotations of 40 or more words• Long quotations (40 or more words) are set off in a freestanding block of text (p. 171)• Omit the quotation marks• Start the block quotation on a new line• Indent the block a half inch from the left margin (same indentation as a new ¶) – If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation indent the first line of each ¶ an additional half inch) – Double-space the entire quotation – At end of block quotation cite the source after the final punctuation markCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 93
  94. 94. Example of a Block Quote According to Greenberg (2001), two different criteria were proposed to determine brain death: the higher-brain and the whole-brain concepts. He describes the higher-brain formulation as follows: A brain-dead person is alleged to be dead because his neo- cortex, the seat of consciousness, has been destroyed. He has thus lost the ability to think and feel — the capacity for personhood - that makes us who we are, and our lives worth Notice the living. indentationof the new ¶ In the Brown case the parents argued that their daughter was responsive through her eye movement, but later medical evidence would shown this was due to an involuntary muscular action. (pp. 37-38) Notice the end- punctuation Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 94
  95. 95. Direct Quotations of Online Material Without Pagination• Many online sources do not have page numbers• If paragraph numbers are visible, then use them in place of page numbers• Use the abbreviation para.• If the online document uses headings and has no pages or paragraph numbers cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following the heading• If the headings is very long, then use a short title for the heading and place it in quotation marksCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 95
  96. 96. Direct Quotations of Online Material Without Pagination- 2 In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that “the level of perceived disability in patients with fibromyalgia seemed best explained by their mental health condition and less by their physical condition” (Discussion section, para. 1). “Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior” (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted,” para. 4).Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 96
  97. 97. Citations Within Quotations• Do not omit citations embedded within the original material you are quoting• The works cited need not be included in the list of references unless you happen to cite them as primary sources elsewhere in your paper “In the United States, the American Cancer Society (2007) estimated that about 1 million cases of NMSC and 59,940 cases of melanoma would be diagnosed in 2007, with melanoma resulting in 8,110 deaths” (Miller, et al., 2009, p. 209).Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 97
  98. 98. Citing References in Text2 kinds of material are cited only in the text (and not on the list of References at the end of the paper) 1. References to classical works 2. References to personal communicationsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 98
  99. 99. Formatting Citations in the Text• Author-date method requires the author’s last name be used followed by the year of publication – Ex: Bishop (2008) examined… • Much of the collective memory of record in an organization resides in in the organization’s documents (Bishop, 2008)…• If the author’s name appears as part of the narrative of the text, then only the year is included in parenthetical citation – Ex: Among collective memory studies, Zerubavel (1996) is noted for the cognitive sociological approach…Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 99
  100. 100. Formatting Citations in the Text- 2• When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text• When a work has 3, 4, 5 authors cite all the authors the first time the reference occurs, but include only the first author, followed by et al. in subsequent citations• Precede the final name in running text by the word “and” but use “&” in tables, captions, and reference listCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 100
  101. 101. Formatting Citations- 3• Authors with the same surnames – Include the author’s initials in all in-text citations• Works with no identified author or with anonymous author – Cite in-text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year • Use double quotation marks around the title of the article, chapter, or webpage • Italicize the title of a periodical, a book, brochure or a report• Two or more works within the same parenthesis – Order citations of two or more works within the same parenthesis alphabetically in the same order they appear on the reference listCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 101
  102. 102. Citing Websites in the Text• How do you cite an entire website (but not a specific document on that site)? – APA says “when citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text.” – Example: • The Nuclear Energy website is a wonderful source for information about nuclear power (http://library.thinkquest.org/3471/nuclear_energy.h tml).Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 102
  103. 103. Citing Website Material With No Author, No Year, No Page Numbers• From APA FAQs: “How do you cite website material that has no author, no year, and no page numbers?”• Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation: – A paragraph number, if provided (count ¶s from the beginning of the document) – An overarching heading plus a ¶ number within that section – A short title in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full• Because there is no date and no author, the in-text citation would include the title, “n.d.” for no date, and ¶ number. – Socialization. (n.d.). In Dictionary. com. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/socialization .Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 103
  104. 104. Citing Email Communications• From APA FAQs: “How do you cite email communications?” – Email communications from individuals should be cited as personal communications. – Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications should not be placed on the reference list. – Examples: • M. S. Berridge (personal communication, March 25, 2010) 104
  105. 105. Paraphrasing & Citing • You cannot present someone else’s work as your own- to do so is theft and constitutes plagiarism • Must use citations for paraphrased materials • Follow the rules for formatting citations just as you would format direct quotes • Note that the paraphrased material must be significantly different in order to count as a paraphrase! 105
  106. 106. Quotation Problems…• Floating quotations areproblems because they appear tobe simply “sprinkled” throughoutthe text of a paper withoutsignaling their purpose• Quotations should be“anchored” using lead-inmaterials 106
  107. 107. What Does It Look Like? Example of a paragraph using floating quotations…• The following ¶ has floating quotations: “The lesson of the Columbia disaster is clear to all but the most diehard supporters” (Cabbage & Harwood, 2004, p. 296). Whether or not NASA will heed recommendations of the CAIB report remains to be seen. “In the absence of a coherent national space strategy, NASA… will remain mired in low Earth orbit” (p. 296). “The Columbia accident has left NASA at a crossroads” (p. 297). 107
  108. 108. Anchoring Floating Quotations Example of correctly anchored quotations in a paragraph…• Whether or not NASA will heed recommendations of the CAIB report remains to be seen as “The lesson of the Columbia disaster is clear to all but the most diehard supporters” (Cabbage & Harwood, 2004, p. 296).• Vaughan’s (1996) sociological perspective and analysis of the Challenger disaster introduced the concept of “normalization of deviance” (p. 119) in which acceptance of equipment specifications that were outside the engineering design boundaries became the norm. 108
  109. 109. Using A Lead-In: A “Lead In” is a phrase that establishes the authority or credibility of the source…Lead-in at the beginning: Lead-in at the end:• World class is defined by • “Unskilled and poorly Rosabeth Moss Kanter, educated workers will face Harvard Business multiple threats in Professor and author of tomorrow’s labor World Class: Thriving markets” according to a Locally in the Global federal government- Economy, as having the funded study published by following characteristic: to the think-tank Hudson be world class is to be a Institute (1997, p. 49). card-carrying cosmopolitan (1995, p. Note that both direct quotes and paraphrased material requires a lead- 22). in. 109
  110. 110. Importance of Introducing Quoted or Paraphrased Material• Signals the reader that the words you are about to use are not your own• Provides information about why this material is important – Ie. Credibility of the study or the author• Listed below are suggested words/phrases to use: acknowledges comments emphasizes reasons adds compares endorses refutes admits confirms grants rejects agrees contends illustrates reports argues declares implies responds asserts denies insists suggests believes disputes notes thinks claims observes writes points out 110
  111. 111. Using Secondary Sources• What is it? – Using cited material from an original source• What is the potential problem? – Unintentional plagiarism – Giving the impression that you have read the original source• What should you do? – Either READ the original source, OR cite it as a secondary source! 111
  112. 112. Secondary Sources• Use secondary sources sparingly – Such as when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English – In the reference list use the secondary source – In the text, name the original source but list the secondary source in the citation • Ex: Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003)Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 112
  113. 113. How to cite secondary sources… in APA Style• …advises you to name the original work in the text and to provide a parenthetical citation for the secondary source• Example: – "This hypothesis was proven by Brown and Clark (as cited in Harris, 1995)." • On your References page, list the source that you actually used, which, in this case, would be Harris. This information was taken from: Dartmouth College copyright © 1998 www.dartmouth.edu/~sources/faq/secondary.html 113
  114. 114. Primary & Secondary Sources• Primary Sources • Secondary Sources – Original material – Analysis, interpretations, or • Autobiographies commentaries on primary • Court cases material • Letters – Biographies (secondary • Newspaper accounts of an courses about people’s event lives) • Official memoranda • Original research articles • Speeches • Statistics • Experimental research data • Empirical research data 114
  115. 115. Classical Works• When a date of publication is unavailable, such as for some very old works, cite the year of translation you used preceded by trans. – (Aristotle, trans. 1931)• Or the year of the version you used followed by version – James (1890/ 1983) 115
  116. 116. . References (pp. 193-223)• Chapter 7 of the 6th edition of the APA style manual provides specific examples of all kinds of references and how they should be formatted• We will cover only the most common types of references: – Books – Magazine articles – Peer reviewed journal article paginated by issue – Peer reviewed journal article with continuous pagination – Internet sourcesCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 116
  117. 117. Section 7.01 Periodicals (p. 198-202)• General reference form: – Author, A. A., Author, B. B.,& Author, C. C. (year). Tile of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx• Include Digital Object Identifier in the reference if one is assigned• If no doi is assigned to the content and you retrieved it online, include the home page for the URL for the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference – Use this format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx• If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parenthesis immediately after the volume numberCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 117
  118. 118. Journal Articles With DOI- Either Hard Copy or OnlineSchorre, C. (2005). Establish medical products trade in Asia. American Marketing Journal, 23, 483-496. doi: 10.1036/0005-7632.56.3.483• NOTE: Even though this article was retrieved from the Business Elite database, no database URL is needed. – The DOI functions as the unique identifier of the object. It also replaces the URL as a link to the content.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 118
  119. 119. Journal Article Paginated by Issue- Hard Copy Smith, D. E. (2001). Change management in rigid systems. The Academy of Management Review, 45(2), 156-165. Paginated by issue means Notice there is no space that each issue of this journal begins with page between the italicized 1, whereas in journals volume number and the with continuous issue number pagination, each issue continues the page numbers where previous issues left offCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 119 119
  120. 120. Journal Article with Continuous Pagination- Hard CopyCourtois, B. J. (2007). Complex trauma complex reactions: Assessment and treatment. Psychotheraphy Practice, 41, 312-334. Note that the volume number is Notice there is no italicized along with issue number after the title of the the volume number journalCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 120
  121. 121. Online Journal Article With No DOI Assigned Schorre, C., & Paasche, J. (2006). Intercultural communication awareness and international marketing success. E-journal of Applied Marketing Research, 2(2), 27-39. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.wilm.edu/index.php/ejap/article/v iew/56/102 • NOTE: No retrieval date is included. The article referenced is the final version.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 121
  122. 122. Article in a Monthly Magazine Notice the order of the year and month Duenwald, W. (2005, January). The psychology of social relationships. Discover, 26(3), 15-18.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 122 122
  123. 123. Online Magazine NOT Found in Print VersionTrate, K. (n.d.). Socialization of new officers. Police Chief of Tomorrow. Retrieved from http://www.polchiedtomm.org/magazine/special s/socializationnewofficersCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 123
  124. 124. Newspaper Articles• Online newspaper articles: Sitler, L.R. (2001, February 28). Changing policies in victim’s rights. The Wilmington Beacon. Retrieved from http://www.wilmbeacon.com• Print version newspaper articles: Author, A. B. (2007, December 12). Title of article. The Wilmington Beacon, pp. A-2, A-7. Note the pp. for page numbers; if the article appears on discontinuous pages, then separate the numbers with a commaCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 124
  125. 125. Newspaper Editorials• Editorial without a signature: Editorial: We can all do our part to protect our children [Editorial]. (2010). Sunday News Journal, p. A-26.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 125
  126. 126. Newsletters• Online newsletter article with no author: Human performance improvement initiatives in high hazard industries. (2004, July/August). HPI At-A-Glance. Retrieved from http//www.hpigov/html/hpinews_at_glance/0708200 4/topstory/html • The exact URL is helpful here because newsletter articles become more difficult to locate over time as they tend to disappear. 126
  127. 127. Section 7.02 Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters• Book with doi: Author, A. A. (2006). Title of work. doi: xxxxxxxxx• Edited book: Author, A. A. (Ed.). (1999). Title of work. Location: Publisher.• Electronic-only book: Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Retrieved from http//www.xxxxxxxxxxxx/xxxCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 127
  128. 128. Book• Book by 1 author… Feldman, L. (1998). You can feel good again. Delaware City, DE: St. George’s Press.• Book by 2 authors… Sitler, L. R. & Trate, K. R. (2009). Dealing with victims of violent crimes. Delaware City, DE: Eastern Criminology Press.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 128 128
  129. 129. Electronic Version of Print Book• For entire books online: Platteschorre, K. (2001). Restoring Endurance class sailboats 3rd edition. [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.eduranceclassdesigns/restoration.com Rottier, J. (1961). A narrative analysis of motherless children. [Adobe Digital version]. doi: 10.1036/0061393722Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 129
  130. 130. Chapter in a Book • Print version Bishop, J.P. & Fuller, S.R. (2006). Chapter 3 Providing elderly palliative care: Making the transition from child to parenting the parent. In J.P. Bishop (Ed.), Role switching across the life cycle (pp. 102-132). Philadelphia: Surlag. • Online version Bishop, J.P. & Fuller, S.R. (2006). Chapter 3 Providing elderly palliative care: Making the transition from child to parenting the parent. In J.P. Bishop (Ed.), Role switching across the life cycle (pp. 102-132). doi: xxxxxx – If there are no page numbers, then the chapter title is sufficient.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 130 130
  131. 131. Online DictionaryTaunting. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/tauntingCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 131
  132. 132. Section 7.03 Technical or Research Reports• Technical and research reports may cover original material but are not necessarily peer-reviewed• Format references to technical and research reports as you would a book• Print version: Author, A. A. (2003). Title of report (Report No. xxxx). Location: Publisher.• Online version: Bishop, J.P., & Domenico, J. E. (2007). Performance indicators for training programs using the SAT method (Report No. INPO 2006-43). Retrieved from Institute for Performance Improvement Statistics: http://inpo.pif.org/pubs2007/200743.pdf Include the agency in the retrieval statement• NOTE: The report number is provided in parenthesis. Some reports may not have report numbers. In that case, no report number would be included in the reference entry.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 132
  133. 133. Corporate Author, Government Report• Report retrieved online: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools. (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhibi.nih.gove/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdfCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 133
  134. 134. Government Document• Report print form: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.(2003). Managing shortness of breath and other lung conditions (NIH Report No. 09- 2345). Washington, DC: Author. Note the use of “Author”Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 134
  135. 135. Webpage With No Author• From the APA FAQs “How do you reference a webpage that lists no author?”• When there is no author for a webpage, the title moves to first position on the reference entry.• Examples: – Climate change. (2010). Retrieved March 25, 2010, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ – Cite in the text the first few words of the reference entry (if it is a long one) and the year. • Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title: (“Climate Change,” 2010). • Use the full title of the webpage if it is short. • Articles found on the web are not italicized in the reference entry and are not italicized but enclosed in quotation marks in the in-text citation, just like a newspaper or magazine article.Copyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 135
  136. 136. Order of the Main Sections of Academic Papers • Title page Most • Abstract Undergrad Papers • Text of the paper – Citations • Reference page • Appendices • Author identification notes Most • Footnotes Graduate • Tables Papers • FiguresCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 136
  137. 137. For Good Measure: just a few things youshould know to help you be a better writer…• Stages of the writing process• Outlining the paper• Unity & Coherence• Structuring A Paper• Paragraph Structure• Rhetorical Modes• The “You” FactorCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 137
  138. 138. Stages of the Writing Process REVISING STAGE: •Rearranging ideas and paragraphs •Adding/deleting information Each stage narrows the topic •Editing/ proofreading the results DRAFTING STAGE: •Writing a draft and arranging ideas PREWRITING STAGE: •Thinking about the topic •Webbing or clustering ideas •Outlining aspects of the topic •Making lists of things to includeCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 138
  139. 139. Pre-Writing Stage: Developing Ideas/ Narrowing the Topic 139
  140. 140. Outlining Your Paper Write 2-4 Main Ideas that will be developed in the body of your paperI. Main idea # 1 A. Divide main idea # 1 into several parts 1. Subsidiary idea to A It is up to the writer to 2. Subsidiary idea to A decide how many ideas B. Divide main idea # 1 into several parts should be developed or sub- 1. Subsidiary idea to B divided in the paper. Each 2. Subsidiary idea to B sub-idea can be developedII. Main idea # 2 using one of the rhetorical A. Divide main idea # 2 into several parts modes, or logic and 1. Subsidiary idea to A reasoning, facts, statistics, et 2. Subsidiary idea to A c. B. Divide main idea # 2 into several parts 1. Subsidiary idea to A 2. Subsidiary idea to AIII. Main idea # 3 (continue dividing as in I & II above) A. Divide main idea # 3 into several parts B. Divide main idea # 3 into several partsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 140
  141. 141. Unity & Coherence Organize ¶ in logical order so that the ideas flow…• First, you must decide • Now choose a pattern or what evidence to put into order of arranging your a ¶: ideas in the ¶: – Examples & Illustrations – Least-important-to-most- – Facts & statistics important – Quotations from experts – Most-important-to-least- – Comparisons & contrasts important – Reasons & results – Chronological (time order) – Details & facts – Spatial order – Definitions of terms – Compare and/or contrast – Explain a process – Explain a cause and effect 141
  142. 142. For Good Measure: (Not in the APA stylemanual, but advice for writing good papers)• Arrange your thoughts in well- organized ¶s• Be sure to include a thesis statement in the introductory ¶• Develop 2-4 main ideas in the essay• Support each main idea with facts, examples, statistics, statements from experts, reasoning, description, etc.• Don’t forget to “wrap things up” with a well-organized conclusionCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 142
  143. 143. Structuring Good Papers Introduction Body Conclusion •Attention-getting •Main ideas (2-4) •Summarize the opener •Each main idea content of the paper •Background supporter with •Rephrase the thesis information paragraphs statement •Thesis statement •Each ¶ organized •End with a around 1 idea or topic compelling statement •Each ¶ begins with a that will make readers topic sentence and remember this paper! developed with rhetorical patterns or facts, statistics, or expert opinionsCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 143
  144. 144. For Good Measure: (Not in the APA style manual, but advice for writing good papers)• Rhetorical Modes: • Argumentation writing strategy and a • Description way to present a topic • Narration• Each is a technique • Extended definition that can be used in a paragraph as a means • Comparison & contrast of paragraph • Cause & effect development • Process analysis • Classification • ExemplificationCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 144
  145. 145. Writing Well-Developed Paragraphs Writing a good paragraph, essay, or longer paper is much like cooking: you need to plan (establish time to work on the assignment), gather the ingredients (do background reading and organize your notes), and then mix the ingredients together in a systematic fashion (write the first draft). • Topic sentence – 3-5 sentences of supporting material • Summarizing, or transitionCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 sentence 145
  146. 146. 4 Roles of Sentences in A Paragraph• Sentences in a paragraph serve the following roles: – As a topic sentence that explains the main idea of the paragraph – As supporting sentences that elaborate on the topic sentence with facts, etc – As explanations of why those facts, etc presented support the topic sentence – As a transition or summary sentenceCopyright Johanna P. Bishop 2009 146