The Use of Instructional Technology in Classroom

Johan Eddy Luaran

Faculty of Education
Universiti Teknologi MARA
2014
First Published 2013
Second Publication 2014
Preface

T

he usage of technology has become increasingly prominent in education these
days, evident by the infrastructur...
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER ..................................................................1
1...
2.8 The Recycle Bin .........................................................................................................
CHAPTER 6 USING SPREADSHEET IN CLASSROOM ..................................................104
6.1 Introduction to Spreads...
CHAPTER 9 e-LEARNING ....................................................................................................1...
13.2 Future Trends of Computer Hardware .....................................................................231
13.3 Elec...
CHAPTER

1

INTRODUCTION TO
COMPUTER

1.1 INTRODUCTION

With the rise of the digital age, computer is an indispensable and...
10 years later, Babbage and his assistant, Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace designed the
“Analytical Engine”. Ada, w...
reprogrammed, which typical ly took several days (sometime even weeks) to complete and several more
days to sheck before t...
The first generation of computers, such as ENIAC shown here, were large and bulky, used vacuum tubes
and had to be physica...
1.3.3 THIRD GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1964-1971)

The replacement of the transistor with integrated circuit (ICs) marked th...
Fourth generation computers, such as the original IBM PC shown here, are based on microprocessors.
Most of today’s compute...
Software
Software refers to a set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do. Software can also have several of
oth...
An input device gives raw data to the processor and the processor processes raw data and turns it into
useful information....
Finally, today most users use the QWERTY style keyboards. Below is a graphic illustration of a QWERTY
style keyboard.



...


Pointing devices

A variety of pointing devices are used to move the cursor on the screen.
The most commonly used ones ...
Game Devices
Cursor motion controlled by vertical stick (joystick) or arrow buttons
(gamepad)

Advantage:

Disadvantage:

...
Digitizers and Graphics Tablets
Converts drawings, photos, etc. to digital signal.
The tablets have special commands

Adva...
Compact Disk - Some compact disks can be
used to put information on. This is called
burning information to a CD.
NOTE: A C...
Headphones - Headphones give sound output
from the computer. They are similar to
speakers, except they are worn on the ear...
RAM

Definition

Random Access Memory or RAM
is a form of data storage that can
be accessed randomly at any
time, in any o...
Storage Devices: Removable Disk
Alternatively referred to as removable storage and removable media, a removable disk is a ...
A CD-ROM or compact disc-read only memory is also one kind of removable storage but, it may only
provide information and c...
Not all the components that can be seen in the above diagram is included as computer. The
actual computer is known as the ...
Hard disk drives are almost as amazing as microprocessors in terms of the technology they use and how
much progress they h...
The operating system (sometimes referred to by its abbreviation OS), is responsible for creating the link
between the mate...


Management of execution of applications: the operating system is responsible for smooth
execution of applications by al...
A word processor (more formally known as document preparation system) is a computer
application used for the production (i...
Database management systems (DBMS) or the data managers are used to create and use
databases.The DBMS manages user request...
often fall under this category - there is a program that does slope stability analysis and nothing
else, for instance.

In...
CHAPTER

2

INTRODUCTION TO
WINDOWS

2.1 INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS
The history of Microsoft Windows dates back to 1985, when...
The desktop is the main working space on your computer screen. It is where the icons for the files
and folders on the hard...
Keeping track on Windows
If more than one program or documents are open at a time, they pile up as windows on the desktop....
Click a window's taskbar button to switch to that window
Note: Clicking taskbar buttons is only one of several ways to swi...
To see how this works, suppose three Paint pictures are opened on the desktop. If the taskbar has
enough room, it displays...
By default, the Quick
Desktop button

Launch toolbar

also contains

two special buttons. Click

the Show

to temporarily ...
The notification area displays a message after new hardware is installed

Click the Close button

in the upper-right corne...
Since the current chapter focuses on the popular "personal computer", the operating system used here
is called Microsoft W...
Shortcuts can be created to allow user access easily to their files and programs from their desktop. A
shortcut is an icon...
Moving icons around
Windows stacks icons in columns on the left side of the desktop but an icon can be moved by dragging i...
2.5 DESKTOP PROPERTIES
To use a picture as a desktop background
1. Open My Pictures
2. Click the picture you want to use a...
Note
• To open Display, click Start, click Control Panel, click Appearance and Themes, and then
click Display.
• The chang...
easily. On some mice, the scroll wheel can be pressed to act as a third button. Advanced mice might have
additional button...
Pointing, clicking, and dragging
Pointing to an item on the screen means moving the mouse so the pointer appears to be tou...
Tip


User who have trouble double-clicking can adjust the double-click speed (the amount of time
acceptable between clic...
Using the scroll wheel
Documents and webpages can be scrolled through with a mouse that has a scroll wheel. To scroll down...
Examples of menu controls
Tips


If a keyboard shortcut is available for a command, it is shown next to the command.



...
How the keys are arranged on a keyboard

Typing text
The cursor, also called the insertion point can be seen as a blinking...
Using keyboard shortcuts
Keyboard shortcuts are ways to perform actions by using the keyboard. They are called shortcuts
b...
underlined letter in a menu item to choose that command. For programs that use the ribbon, such as
Paint and WordPad, pres...
Alt+F4

Close the active item, or exit the active program

Ctrl+S

Save the current file or document (works in most progra...
Home

Move the cursor to the beginning of a line or move to the top of a webpage

End

Move the cursor to the end of a lin...
Numeric keypad
To use the numeric keypad to enter numbers, press Num Lock. Most keyboards have a light that indicates
whet...
document to scroll without changing the position of the cursor or selection. Your keyboard might have a
light indicating w...
Browsing My Computer in Windows 2000
My Computer or Computer can also be accessed through the start menu, as shown in the ...
contains the user’s name. For example, if the username was John, this folder would be named John's
Documents.
Finding file...
2.

Do one of the following:


To restore a file, click it, and then, on the toolbar, click Restore this item.



To res...
Tips
 The Recycle Bin can be emptied without opening it by right-clicking the Recycle Bin and then
clicking Empty Recycle...
Use the Start menu to do these common activities:


Start programs



Open commonly used folders



Search for files, f...
Move the pointer over its icon or name when unsure of what certain program does. A box appears that
often contains a descr...
Besides searching programs, files and folders, and communications, the search box also looks through
usersInternet favorit...
Click the Shutdown button to shut down your computer or click the arrow for more options.

2.10 RUNNING PROGRAM
If the sam...
CHAPTER

3

WORD
PROCESSING

3.1 INTRODUCTION TO WORD PROCCESSING SOFTWARE
MICROSOFT WORD BASICS
Typing Text
To enter text...
BACKSPACE ↔ DELETE
Let’s assume that the vertical line dissecting the word “creative” in the example above is
our cursor. ...
From the Home Tab, the “B” will make your text BOLD, the “ I ” will put it in italics, and the “U” will add an
underline t...
The use of Instructional Technology in Classroom
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The use of Instructional Technology in Classroom
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The usage of technology has become increasingly prominent in education these days, evident by the infrastructure and facilities in schools ranging from tablets to high speed internet connectivity. This book is written to complement the effort of promoting the integration of technology with education, focusing on the basic knowledge of technology which an educator should know.

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The use of Instructional Technology in Classroom

  1. 1. The Use of Instructional Technology in Classroom Johan Eddy Luaran Faculty of Education Universiti Teknologi MARA 2014
  2. 2. First Published 2013 Second Publication 2014
  3. 3. Preface T he usage of technology has become increasingly prominent in education these days, evident by the infrastructure and facilities in schools ranging from tablets to high speed internet connectivity. This book is written to complement the effort of promoting the integration of technology with education, focusing on the basic knowledge of technology which an educator should know. I started this book with a brief history of computers to illustrate the rapid development of technology and how lives are affected and dependent on it. The later chapters help novice learners in understanding the use of technology for educational purposes while guiding readers on the terms commonly used in instructional technology. This book also comprised chapters guiding teachers in utilizing resources available in the internet, with a hope to alleviate teachers’ burden by working efficiently through collaboration and idea sharing. With the integration of technology, there is a need for a different classroom management compared to the traditional ones. Hence, this book also covers on the skills needed by teachers in order to manage an IT classroom promoting more effective classroom management. Realising that integrating technology in education is not all beneficial without a single flaw, I also touched on few issues related to instructional technology such as piracy, unequal access and internet security within the essence of education. Other than that, readers will appreciate the myriad diagrams and screenshots included in this book to help readers navigate themselves in making the most out of the content of this book. With the topics written covered most of the necessary, this book ends with anticipations for instructional technology in the future. I certainly hope that this book will provide a resource to advocate for the best possible ways of how learning can be carried out effectively with technology. My goal is that the ideas in this book will help support educators in deriving effective lessons through instructional technology, while also nurturing their sense of joy in learning alongside their teaching. “Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is most important.” - Bill Gates
  4. 4. Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER ..................................................................1 1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................1 1.2 Early History of Computer.............................................................................................1 1.3 The Five Generations of New Computer .......................................................................3 1.4 Introduction to Computer ...............................................................................................5 1.5 Computer System ...........................................................................................................6 1.5.1 Input ................................................................................................................6 1.5.2 Output ...........................................................................................................12 1.5.3 Storage ..........................................................................................................14 1.5.4 System Unit ...................................................................................................17 1.6 Operating and Application Software ...........................................................................19 1.6.1 Operating Software ......................................................................................19 1.6.2 Application Software ....................................................................................20 1.7 Exercises ......................................................................................................................23 CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS ..................................................................28 2.1 Introduction to Windows .............................................................................................28 2.2 The Desktop .................................................................................................................28 2.3 The Taskbar .................................................................................................................29 2.4 Windows and Icons ......................................................................................................35 2.4.1 Windows .......................................................................................................35 2.4.2 Icons ..............................................................................................................36 2.5 Desktop Properties .......................................................................................................39 2.6 The Mouse and Keyboard ............................................................................................41 2.6.1 The Mouse ....................................................................................................41 2.6.2 Menus ............................................................................................................45 2.6.3 Keyboard…………………………………………………………………...46 2.7 My Computer ...............................................................................................................54
  5. 5. 2.8 The Recycle Bin ...........................................................................................................57 2.8.1Recover Files from the Recycle Bin ..............................................................57 2.8.2 Permanently Delete Files from The Recycle Bin .........................................58 2.9 The Start Menu ............................................................................................................59 2.10 Running Program .......................................................................................................63 CHAPTER 3 WORD PROCESSING .......................................................................................64 3.1 Introduction to Word Processing Software ..................................................................64 3.2 Editing Features ...........................................................................................................66 3.3 Formatting Function.....................................................................................................69 3.4 Creating Tables ............................................................................................................71 3.5 Exercises ......................................................................................................................74 CHAPTER 4 POWERPOINT FOR EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION .................................79 4.1 Introduction to Presentation Software .........................................................................79 4.2 Creating Presentation with a Wizard ...........................................................................80 4.3 Quick Presentation on Wizard with a Blank Publication.............................................81 4.4 Create a New Presentation Based on a template..........................................................83 4.5 Classroom Lesson Plans ..............................................................................................83 4.6 Creating Simple Courseware .......................................................................................85 4.7 Exercises ......................................................................................................................87 CHAPTER 5 DESKTOP PUBLISHING AND WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT ....................90 5.1 Introduction to Desktop Publishing and Website Development ..................................90 5.1.1 Introduction to Desktop Publishing ..............................................................90 5.1.2 Introduction to Website Development ..........................................................91 5.2 Creating a Publication ..................................................................................................92 5.3 Developing Website .....................................................................................................96
  6. 6. CHAPTER 6 USING SPREADSHEET IN CLASSROOM ..................................................104 6.1 Introduction to Spreadsheet .......................................................................................105 6.2 Creating a New Workbook/Worksheet ......................................................................105 6.3 Entering Data .............................................................................................................106 6.4 Editing Data ...............................................................................................................107 6.5 Working with Worksheets .........................................................................................108 6.6 The Formulas .............................................................................................................113 6.7 Integrating Basic Functions of Excel .........................................................................121 6.8 Working With Charts .................................................................................................133 6.9 Create Database and Data Analysis ...........................................................................141 6.9.1 Create a Database ........................................................................................141 6.9.2 Data Analysis ..............................................................................................142 6.10 Protecting Workbook/Worksheet.............................................................................154 6.11Integrating Microsoft Excel into The Classroom......................................................159 6.12Exercises ...................................................................................................................162 CHAPTER 7 NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET ............................................................165 7.1 Telecommunications ..................................................................................................165 7.2 Networking System ....................................................................................................166 7.3 The Development of the Internet ...............................................................................170 CHAPTER 8 WORLD WIDE WEB & EDUCATIONAL WEB PORTALS ......................172 8.1 World Wide Web (WWW) ........................................................................................172 8.2 Web Portals ................................................................................................................173 8.3 Educational Portals ....................................................................................................176 8.3.1Malaysian Educational Portals ..........................................................................177 8.3.2Benefits of Educational Portals .........................................................................179 8.4 Evaluating a Portal .....................................................................................................179
  7. 7. CHAPTER 9 e-LEARNING ....................................................................................................181 9.1 Introduction to e-Learning .........................................................................................181 9.2 e-Learning Features ...................................................................................................184 9.3 Types of e-Learning ...................................................................................................185 9.4 Benefits of e-Learning ...............................................................................................187 9.5 Drawbacks of e-Learning ...........................................................................................190 CHAPTER 10 MANAGING AN IT CLASSROOM ............................................................197 10.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................197 10.2 Educational Hardware and Software .......................................................................197 10.3 Effective Classroom Management ...........................................................................200 10.4 Managing an IT Classroom ......................................................................................201 10.5 Managing IT Skills in the Classroom ......................................................................203 10.6 IT Classroom Problems and Ways of Overcoming .................................................209 CHAPTER 11 WEB 2.0 IN CLASSROOM ...........................................................................193 11.1 Introduction to Web 2.0 ...........................................................................................193 11.2 Examples of Web 2.0 ...............................................................................................193 11.3 Advantages of Web 2.0 ............................................................................................193 11.4 Impact on Education…………………………………………………………...….195 11.5 Issues and Implications…………………………………………………………....195 CHAPTER 12 ISSUES RELATED TO COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION ........................211 12.1 Unequal Access ........................................................................................................211 12.2 Security ....................................................................................................................215 12.3 Software Piracy ........................................................................................................221 12.4 Health Risks using Computers .................................................................................224 CHAPTER 13 FUTURE TRENDS .........................................................................................230 13.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................230
  8. 8. 13.2 Future Trends of Computer Hardware .....................................................................231 13.3 Electronic Books ......................................................................................................232 13.4 Wireless Networks in the School .............................................................................233 13.5 Artificial Intelligence ...............................................................................................234 13.6 Virtual Reality..........................................................................................................238 13.7 Technology Classroom ............................................................................................240 13.8 Implication of Copyrights on Education ..................................................................246 COMPUTER ACRONYMS…………………………………………………………………..234 TERMS USE IN INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY……………………………………236 ANSWER SCHEME…………………………………………………………………………. 254
  9. 9. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER 1.1 INTRODUCTION With the rise of the digital age, computer is an indispensable and important tools in human life. Most of the office tasks or assignments are completed using the computers. Those who are lacking of such knowledge find it challenging even to distinguish parts of the computer and do not know what are softwares or hardwares. It is important to have the knowledge about computer so that we can take charge of ourselves if anything happen to our computer. 1.2 EARLY HISTORY OF COMPUTER The first device that is considered as computer was invented solely for calculating purpose. The first socalled calculator better known as abacus was introduced in Asia about 5000 years ago. However, the use of pencil and paper in later development gradually made people forget about abacus. 12 centuries later, Blaise Pascal invented a numerical wheel calculator called Pascaline in order to help his father, a tax collector in French. This device can only calculate using ‘addition’ using gears and dials. In 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfried Wilhem von Leibniz improved Pascaline so it can also carry out multiplications. Just like before, this creation used the concept of gear and dial. 200 years later, a Frenchman, Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar invented Arithometer, a calculator which can operate the four basic mathematical operations- the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Pascaline Arithometer In 1812, an English mathematics professor, Charles Babbage became the first person to successfully combined machine and mathematics. Aspired by frustrations during his time in Royal Astronomical Society in 1822, Babbage invention called the “Different Engine” which handles differential equation. This locomotive-sized machine powered by steam was able to store programs, do calculations, and printing. 1
  10. 10. 10 years later, Babbage and his assistant, Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace designed the “Analytical Engine”. Ada, who was the first female programmer helped to improve the plan, which led to the creation of instruction routines for computer. This engine was a breakthough as it has never been constructed, introducing the modern computer concept. This device consisted of 50 000 components which can store up to 100 numbers with 50 decimal points. Different engine Analytical engine With the rapid growth of the population in the United States of America at that time, the responsible bureau faced difficulties as it usually takes up 7 years to calculate 1880 census. Herman Hollerith who copied Babbage’s punch card idea, used it to store data and compiled the results mechanically. With this machine, the time was saved to six weeks. This method had save lot of time, stored overwhelming data and reduced errors. He then started to sell his machine and founded Tabulating Machine Company (1896), later known as International Business Machine (IBM) in 1924. In 1931, Vannever Bush developed a calculator that can solve complex differential equation. However, the machine was regarded as too slow in carrying out such operation. In order to overcome this problem, John V. Atanasoff (A professor at Iowa State College) together with Clifford Berry improvised Bush’s idea where they invented an all-electronic computer, adopting Boolean algebra to be applied to its computer circuitry. 1.3 THE FIVE GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS 1.3.1 FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1945-1956) The first computers were enormous, often taking up entire rooms. They were powered by thousands of vacuum tubes - glass tubes that look similar to large, cylindrical light bulbs – which need replacing constantly, required a great deal of electricity and generated a lot of heat. This type of computer could solve only one problem at a time since they needed to be physically rewired with cables to be 2
  11. 11. reprogrammed, which typical ly took several days (sometime even weeks) to complete and several more days to sheck before the computer can be used. Usually paper punch cards and paper tape were used for input and output was printed on paper. What is vacuum tubes? It is is a device controlling electric current through a vacuum in a sealed container. The container is often thin transparent glass in a roughly cylindrical shape. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode, is similar to an incandescent light bulb with an added electrode inside. Vacuum Tubes The purpose of computer during this era was focused on war. During the Second World War, Germany had developed Z3 in 1941 to design missiles and planes. However, British army had developed the Collossus in 1943, a computer built to decode German masseges. In the America on the other hand, an electronic calculator was successfully developed by an IBM engineer in 1944. The Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled calculator or Mark I, was invented to create ballistic charts for U.S Navy. However, it was lamented as too slow, inflexible and only does basic and complex arithmetic. Following that, John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly created ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). This general-purpose computer worked at the speeds of 1000 times faster that Mark I. In 1945, John von Neumann invented the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) which had memory to store programs and data. The central processing unit of this computer can control the machine which allowed it to be more versatile in programming. UNIVAC I (universal Automatic Computer), developed by Remington Rand in 1951 later on used von Neumann’s idea. 3
  12. 12. The first generation of computers, such as ENIAC shown here, were large and bulky, used vacuum tubes and had to be physically wired and reset to run programs. 1.3.2 SECOND GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1056-1963) The second generation of computers began with the transistor – a small device made of semiconductor material that act like a switch open ofr close electronic circuits which started to replace the vacuum tubes. Transistor The existence of transistor has upgraded computers to the second generation; smaller, faster, more reliable and saves more energy. In 1956, Sperry Rand (IBM and LARC) used transistor in the invention of the early supercomputer. It was too expensive and too powerful for business. In this era, they abandoned the use of binary code as they were using abbreviated programming code. During this time, computer was furnished with components that are easily available today, such as printer, disk storage, memory and operating systems. The impetus of computers in this generation is the programs used. Languages such as COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) made programming became easier. In other words, it marks the beginning of the software industry era. 4
  13. 13. 1.3.3 THIRD GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1964-1971) The replacement of the transistor with integrated circuit (ICs) marked the beginning of the third generation of computers. Integrated circuits incorporate many transistors and electronic circuits on a single tiny silicon chips, allowing third generation computers to be even smaller and more reliable than computers in the earlier computer generations. The new operating system; which allowed the computer to run more programs at once had made them better than before. In 1958, IC (Integrated Circuit) made from quartz was invented by Jack Kilby (Texas Instrumant engineer). It is a combination of 3 electronic components. Later on, more components can be fit into a single chip, known as a semiconductor. As a result from the inventions in this era, computer became smaller and lighter. Keyboards and monitors were introduced for input and output; magnetic hard drives were typically used for storage. 1.3.4 FOURTH GENERATION OF COMPUTERS (1971 – 2006) What distinguished this generation from before is the used of LSI or large scale integration. This chip fits hundreds of components. In the year of 1980, VLSI (very large scale integration) and ULSI (ultra large scale integration) were invented and this had decrease the size and price of computer. The computer was also introduced to general consumer, no longer belong to the business industry alone. IBM introduces personal computer (PC) for home, office and schools; which what we can see today, as it is way cheaper now. The size of computer continued to decrease, from PC to laptop to even palmtop (PDA). Other that IBM, Apple’s Macintosh is another famous manufacturer for computer. Computer can be connected to Internet via LAN or WiFi allowing consumers to use applications such as e-mail and search engines. Such facilities connect people from different places with ease. Large Scale Integration (LSI) 5
  14. 14. Fourth generation computers, such as the original IBM PC shown here, are based on microprocessors. Most of today’s computers fall into this category. 1.3.5 FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTERS: 2006 - PRESENT Fifth generation of computers have no precise classification, since experts tend to disagree about the definitionfor this generation of computers. However, one common opinion is that fifth-generation computers will be based on artificial intelligence, allowing them to think, reason and learn. Voice and touch are expected to be a primarily means of input.The size of computers also will continue to decrease. New incredible software is created. Computers today understand voice commands. Smart phones like Blackberry are invented. Apple has introduced iPad, its first fully touch screen computer, leading to even competitive inventions by other manufacturers like Samsung and Research in Motion. What will come next is beyond anticipation. 1.4 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER COMPUTER SYSTEM A computer system is defined as combination of components designed to process data and store files. It consists of four major hardware components which are input devices, output devices, processor and storage devices. A computer system requires hardware, software and a user to fully function. According to Shelly and Cashman (2012), computer is define as “ An electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its on memory units, that can accept data (input), process data arithmetically and logically, produce output from the processing, and store the result for future use” 6
  15. 15. Software Software refers to a set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do. Software can also have several of other functions such as performing computation, communication with other software and human interaction. User refers to a person who uses the computer for any purposes such as work, business and entertainment. Computer use two basic types of software: system software and application software. The differences between these types of software are discussed next. System Software The program that allow a computer to operate are collectively referred to system software. The main system software is the operating system, which starts up the computer and controls its operation. Common operating system task include setting up new hardware, allowing user to run other software and allowing users to manage the document stored on their computer. Common operating systems for personal computers are Windows, Mac OS, Linux and Android. Application Software Application software consists of programs designed to allow people to perform specific tasks using a computer, such as creating letters, preparing budgets, managing inventory and costumer databases, playing games, watching vieos, listening to music, scheduling appointments, editing digital photographs, designing homes and etc. COMPUTER HARDWARE Computer hardware consists of:  input devices  output devices  processor  storage devices Computer Hardware Block Diagram 7
  16. 16. An input device gives raw data to the processor and the processor processes raw data and turns it into useful information. A storage device keeps or stores both process and unprocessed data for later usage. An output device shows or displays the processed data. 1.5 COMPUTER SYSTEM 1.5.1 INPUT Anything being told to the computer by user is regarded as Input. Input refers to any data or instructions that are used by a computer. Data refers to the raw facts, including numbers, words, images and sounds given to a computer during the input operation. Any hardware device that sends data to the computer, without any input devices, a computer would only be a display device and not allow users to interact with it, much like a TV. Types of Input  Data is the raw facts given to the computer.  Programs are the sets of instructions that direct the computer.  Commands are special codes or key words that the user inputs to perform a task, like RUN "ACCOUNTS". These can be selected from a menu of commands like "Open" on the File menu. They may also be chosen by clicking on a command button.  User response is the user's answer to the computer's question, such as choosing OK, YES, or NO or by typing in text, for example the name of a file. Examples of Input Devices  Keyboard One of the main input devices used on a computer, a PC's keyboard looks very similar to the keyboards of electric typewriters, with some additional keys. Below is a graphic of the Saitek Gamers' keyboard with indicators pointing to each of the major portions of the keyboard. 8
  17. 17. Finally, today most users use the QWERTY style keyboards. Below is a graphic illustration of a QWERTY style keyboard.  Barcode readers and scanners A barcode reader or scanner, also known as a point of sale (POS) scanner is a hardware device capable of reading a barcode and printing out the details of the product or logging that product into a database. A perfect example of a barcode reader is a super market barcode scanner that reads and logs the price of a product. Bar Code Bar Code Reader Scanner 9
  18. 18.  Pointing devices A variety of pointing devices are used to move the cursor on the screen. The most commonly used ones have two or three buttons to click and for special functions. Others are elaborated in the table below. Mouse A ball underneath rolls as the mouse moves across the mouse pad. The cursor on the screen follows the motion of the mouse. Buttons on the mouse can be clicked or double-clicked to perform tasks, e.g. to select an icon on the screen or to open the selected document. There are new mice that do not have a ball. They use a laser to sense the motion of the mouse instead. Advantage: Moves cursor around the screen faster than using keystrokes. Disadvantage: Requires moving hand from keyboard to mouse and back.Repeated motion may lead to carpal tunnel syndrome Trackball Instead of moving the whole mouse around, the user rolls the trackball only, which is on the top or side. Advantage: Does not need as much desk space as a mouse. Is not as tiring since less motion is needed. Disadvantage: Requires fine control of the ball with just one finger or thumb. Repeated motions of the same muscles are tiring and can cause Carpal Tunnel syndrome. Glidepad Uses a touch sensitive pad for controlling cursor. The user slides finger across the pad and the cursor follows the finger movement. For clicking there are buttons, or you can tap on the pad with a finger. The glidepad is a popular alternate pointing device for laptops. Advantage: Disadvantage: Does not need as much desk space as a mouse. Can readily be built into the keyboard. Has finer resolution. That is, to achieve the same cursor movement onscreen takes less movement of the finger on the glidepad than it does mouse movement. Can use either buttons or taps of the pad for clicking. The hand tires faster than with a mouse since there is no support. Some people do not find the motion as natural as a mouse. 10
  19. 19. Game Devices Cursor motion controlled by vertical stick (joystick) or arrow buttons (gamepad) Advantage: Disadvantage: A joystick gives a more natural-feeling control for motion in games, especially those where you are flying a plane or spaceship. Both have more buttons for special functions than a mouse and can combine buttons for even more actions. More expensive, bulky. Better ones require an additional peripheral card for best performance. Pen Input Used especially in Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). Pen Input is used for: Data Input: By writing. PDA recognizes your handwriting. Pointing Device: Functions like a mouse in moving a cursor around the screen and clicking by tapping the screen. Command Gestures: Issue commands by moving pen in patterns. A certain kind of swirl would mean to save the file and a different kind of swirl could mean to open a new file. Advantage: Can use handwriting instead of typing. Can use gestures instead of typing commands. Small size. Disadvantage: Must train device to recognize handwriting. Must learn gestures or train device to recognize the ones you create Can lose the pen which is not usually attached to the device Touchscreen Make selection by just touching the screen. Advantage: Disadvantage: It is natural to do - reach out and touch something. It is tiring if many choices must be made. It takes a lot of screen space for each choice since fingers are bigger than cursors. 11
  20. 20. Digitizers and Graphics Tablets Converts drawings, photos, etc. to digital signal. The tablets have special commands Advantage: Disadvantage: Do not have to redraw graphics already created Expensive 1.5.2 OUTPUT What is output? Output is data that has been processed into useful form, now called Information. What is an output device? Output devices are things we use to get information OUT of a computer. There are two types of output: 1. Hard copy – printed on papers or permanent media 2. Soft copy - displayed on screen or by other non-permanent means Categories Of Output: 1. Text documents - including reports, letters and type-written assignments. 2. Graphics – in the form of charts, graphs, pictures 3. Multimedia - combination of text, graphics, video, audio. However, the most used means of Output are printers, monitors and audio-output devices. Here are some examples of output devices. Monitor - A monitor is the screen on which words, numbers, and graphics can be seen. The monitor is the most common output device. 12
  21. 21. Compact Disk - Some compact disks can be used to put information on. This is called burning information to a CD. NOTE: A CD can also be an input device. Printer - A printer prints whatever is on the monitor onto paper. Printers can print words, numbers, or pictures. Speaker - A speaker gives you sound output from your computer. Some speakers are built into the computer and some are separate. Disk Drives - A disk drive is used to record information from the computer onto a floppy disk or CD. Floppy Disk - A floppy disk is used to record information on. The information is stored on the floppy disk and can be used later or used on another computer. 13
  22. 22. Headphones - Headphones give sound output from the computer. They are similar to speakers, except they are worn on the ears so only one person can hear the output at a time. 1.5.3 STORAGE Before describing what storage is, it is useful to understand what is memory. In today’s computer, the two typical memories holding data are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). Random Access Memory (RAM) & Read Only Memory (ROM) When you are working on something, that current work is stored inside RAM which is simply known as ‘memory’. The advantage of using RAM is that you can store the stuffs you’re working at the moment faster. Apparently, there are a lot of things in stored within the hard disk, but eventually, only so little of them will be used. Hence, those stuffs that you are using would be stored in RAM. Then, why do we need hard disk, when RAM could be so simple and a lot faster? The answer is because RAM is volatile, which means that all of data which in stored within RAM would be lost the moment the computer is switched off either intentionally or accidentally. That is why ROM is needed, as it can store everything without losing them even if the computer is powered off. 14
  23. 23. RAM Definition Random Access Memory or RAM is a form of data storage that can be accessed randomly at any time, in any order and from any physical location., allowing quick access and manipulation. Stands for Random Access Memory RAM allows the computer to read Use data quickly to run applications. It allows reading and writing. RAM is volatile i.e. its contents Volatility are lost when the device is powered off. The two main types of RAM are Types static RAM and dynamic RAM. ROM Read-only memory or ROM is also a form of data storage that can not be easily altered or reprogrammed.Stores instuctions that are not nescesary for re-booting up to make the computer operate when it is switched off.They are hardwired. Read-only Memory ROM stores the program required to initially boot the computer. It only allows reading. It is non-volatile i.e. its contents are retained even when the device is powered off. The types of ROM include PROM, EPROM and EEPROM. In computer terms, storage is a technology consisting of components and recording media used to retain digital data. There are two types of storage, known as primary and secondary storage. a. Primary Storage Primary storage is also known as main storage or main memory. It is the main area for data storage in a computer where data can be accessed quickly by computer’s processor.The capacity for primary storage is usually limited as it is driven by RAM. b. Secondary Storage Secondary storage extends the capacity of primary storage in holding data which are usually limited. It refers to storage which are usually and conveniently portable, ranging from external hard disks to cloud storage. The following describes storage devices like hard disks and removable disks. 15
  24. 24. Storage Devices: Removable Disk Alternatively referred to as removable storage and removable media, a removable disk is a media that enables a user to easily move data between computers without having to open their computer. Below is a listing of removable disks that are commonly used:  Floppy Drive  CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW  DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, Blu-Ray Disc  External Hard Disk  Pen Drive, Thumb Drive, Zip Drive Pen Drive CD-ROM Floppy Drive Zip Drive Floppy Disk External Hard Disk Floppy disk used to be one of the most commonly used removable media but now it has become obsolete. Most modern personal computers no longer have the floppy drive built in, thus, showing the end of diskette’s era. This may resulted from the impracticality of floppy disk that can only contain 1.44 megabytes compared to other removable media that can cater until terrabytes. Zip drive is a medium-capacity removable disk storage system that was introduced by Iomega in late 1994. Originally, Zip disks launched with capacities of 100 MB, but later versions increased this to first 250 MB and then 750 MB. Unfortunately, it failed to stay in the market during 2000s as it is not competitive enough to beat other removable devices such as pen drive and thumb drives that are more practical and have much larger storage amount. 16
  25. 25. A CD-ROM or compact disc-read only memory is also one kind of removable storage but, it may only provide information and cannot store new information. A CD-R or compact disc-recordable on the other hand is a type of CD-ROM that can record data however, the data stored cannot be altered once saved in the CD-R. Compact disc-rewritable or better known as CD-RW is a step ahead of CD-R where it enables users to record as well as change the stored data. Nowadays, most computers are built with a DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) drive which can read DVDs, CD-ROMs, CD-Rs, CD-RWs and musical CDs, making it the most versatile hardware currently available for optical (laser–technology) media just like its name suggested. The DVD Video format was first introduced by Toshiba in Japan in November 1996, in the United States in March 1997, in Europe in October 1998, and in Australia in February 1999. And in 2006, two new formats called High Definition DVD and Blu-ray Disc were released as the successor to DVD. HD DVD competed successfully with Bluray Disc in the format war of 2006–2008. A dual layer HD DVD can store up to 30GB and a dual layer Bluray disc can hold up to 50GB. 1.5.4 SYSTEM UNIT Software is the programs installed in your computer, for example, Windows 7 and others. As for hardware, it would be the components of your computers which could be seen and touch, and eventually breaks if thrown out of the window. But, not all of the things that can be seen are considered hardware; hardware are parts which make up the PC. In this case, if one of it is missing, then a PC might not work properly or even would not work. Based from the picture, the components mentioned are called hardware. As for notebook computers, they do not resemble as those of desktop computers. Notebook computers shared the same hardware as desktop computers but they are integrated into a single book-sized portable unit. 17
  26. 26. Not all the components that can be seen in the above diagram is included as computer. The actual computer is known as the system unit. This is the one which operates and carry out the processes within the computer. All of the other hardware that is connected with the system unit is called the peripheral devices. These peripheral devices enable the user to use the computer. Within the system unit, there is a component which is called the hard disk. It is a disk drive apart from the floppy disk drive and the CD or DVD drive in your system unit. The floppy disk drive is used to play the floppy disks, whereas the CD drive is used to play CDs. However, the hard disk is in stored within the system unit. We cannot see it but it is embedded inside it. Everything which is in your computer is actually stored inside the hard disk. Both of the floppy disk drive and CD drive are used as drives with removable media, in which you can always remove and replace the disks with other disks. But you can store anything without the need to replace by storing them inside the hard disk. Removable storage: Hard disk Computers are built with hard disk which is the most commonly used mass storage device for a computer. The hard disk drive, also known as a secondary storage in a computer system is the "data centre" of the PC. It is here that all of the programmes and data are stored between the occasions that you use the computer. The hard disk differs from the others primarily in three ways: size (usually larger), speed (usually faster) and permanence (usually fixed in the PC and not removable). Inside the hard disk drive are a series of stacked metal platters (hard disks) on which data ranging from the operating system, application programmes and most personal data are stored. 18
  27. 27. Hard disk drives are almost as amazing as microprocessors in terms of the technology they use and how much progress they have made in terms of capacity, speed, and price for last 20 years. The first PC hard disks had a capacity of 10 megabytes and a cost of over RM350 per MB. Modern hard disks have capacities approaching 100 gigabytes and a cost of less than 5 cent per MB! This represents an improvement of 1,000,000% in just fewer than 20 years, or around 67% cumulative improvement per year. At the same time, the speed of the hard disk and its interfaces has increased dramatically as well. The table below illustrates the relative sizes of stored data in a computer. Size Character equivalent Example 1 byte 1 alphanumeric character The letter of C or number 3 1 kilobyte Approximately 1,000 characters Slightly less than 1 page of typed, double-spaced text 1 megabyte Approximately 1 million characters 1,000 pages of typed, double-spaced text 1 gigabyte Approximately 1 billion characters 1 million pages of typed, double-spaced text 1.6 OPERATING AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE 1.6.1 OPERATING SOFTWARE For a computer to be able to operate a computer programme (sometimes known as application or software), the machine must be able to perform a certain number of preparatory operations to ensure exchange between the processor, the memory and the physical resources (peripherals). 19
  28. 28. The operating system (sometimes referred to by its abbreviation OS), is responsible for creating the link between the material resources, the user and the applications (word processor, video game, etc.). When a programme wants to access a material resource, it does not need to send specific information to the peripheral device but it simply sends the information to the operating system, which conveys it to the relevant peripheral via its driver. If there are no drivers, each programme has to recognise and take into account the communication with each type of peripheral. The operating system thus allows the "dissociation" of programmes and hardware, mainly to simplify resource management and offer the user a simplified Man-machine interface (MMI) to overcome the complexity of the actual machine. Roles of the operating system The operating system has various roles:  Management of the processor: the operating system is responsible for managing allocation of the processor between the different programmes using a scheduling algorithm. The type of scheduler is totally dependent on the operating system, according to the desired objective.  Management of the random access memory: the operating system is responsible for managing the memory space allocated to each application and, where relevant, to each user. If there is insufficient physical memory, the operating system can create a memory zone on the hard drive, known as "virtual memory". The virtual memory lets you run applications requiring more memory than there is available RAM on the system. However, this memory is a great deal slower.  Management of input/output: the operating system allows unification and control of access of programmes to material resources via drivers (also known as peripheral administrators or input/output administrators). 20
  29. 29.  Management of execution of applications: the operating system is responsible for smooth execution of applications by allocating the resources required for them to operate. This means an application that is not responding correctly can be "killed".  Management of authorizations: the operating system is responsible for security relating to execution of programmes by guaranteeing that the resources are used only by programmes and users with the relevent authorizations.  File management: the operating system manages reading and writing in the file system and the user and application file access authorizations.  Information management: the operating system provides a certain number of indicators that can be used to diagnose the correct operation of the machine. 1.6.2 APPLICATION SOFTWARE Application software is a set of instruction that tells the computer how to complete a unique task. Basically, it can be divided into two, namely general-purpose and specific-purpose. 1. General-purpose simply means basic applications. It covers browsers, word processor, spreadsheets, database management systems and presentation graphics. Browser is used to connect to the web, open and transfer files and display text and images. It also presents a simple interface to the Net and Web. Image above is the compilation of today’s popular web browsers such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer and so on. 21
  30. 30. A word processor (more formally known as document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material. Examples of word processors are OpenOffice Writer that can be used by all kind of operating systems and Microsoft Word which is commonly used by Windows. Spreadsheets were one of the first commercial uses of the computer, using financial data. Spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel or Open Office enable the user to enter data (text, numbers or symbols) into rows and columns. Not to mention, spreadsheet programmes is used to organize, analyze and graph numeric data. It can manipulate, format and calculate those numerical data and arrange them in a display called a worksheet. 22
  31. 31. Database management systems (DBMS) or the data managers are used to create and use databases.The DBMS manages user requests (and requests from other programs) so that users and other programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located on storage media and, in a multi-user system, which may also be accessing the data. Basically, they provide an environment in which large quantities of data can be entered, stored, manipulated, queried and reported. Other than that, presentation graphics is also one of the most commonly used general-purpose software. This software combines a variety of visual objects to create attractive, interesting presentation or slide shows which can be included with special effects such as sound and animation. Example of presentation software is Microsoft Office’s Power Point. 2. Specific-purpose is also known as advanced applications, which include multimedia, Web authoring, graphics, virtual reality, artificial intelligence and many more. Engineering programs 23
  32. 32. often fall under this category - there is a program that does slope stability analysis and nothing else, for instance. In general, special purpose software is intended to perform a very specific function, while general purpose software is intended to perform a broader class of functions. However, both applications have similar features such as windows, menus, help and toolbars. 1.7 EXERCISE 1. Define hardware and software. Then with your own words, describe the differences between hardware and software. 2. With your own understanding describe what are Hard Disk, Mouse and Monitor. 3. Online (cloud) storage is widely use by people all over the world. From your opinion, does this service beneficial or not? Why do you feel that way? 4. Define and give at least five (5) examples for input devices. 5. There are two types of storage devices. Explain briefly on the two types of storage devices. 6. Based on your reading, discuss the difference between the primary and secondary storage. 7. Monitor is a crucial output device where without it, it is impossible for a computer to operate. Since the first time it was invented until now, there are many transformations had been done to the monitor. It change from Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) then to plasma monitor. By using your knowledge, explain the major differences between the three of them. 8. Basically, there are four (4) types of output. List them four together with the examples that you can find in daily lives. 24
  33. 33. CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2.1 INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS The history of Microsoft Windows dates back to 1985, when Microsoft released Microsoft Windows Version 1.01. Microsoft’s aim was to provide a friendly user-interface known as a GUI (graphical user interface) which allowed for easier navigation of the system features. Windows 1.01 never really caught on. In 1987 Microsoft revamped the operating system and released Windows 2.03. The GUI was slightly improved but still looked too similar to Windows 1.01. The operating system again failed to capture a wide audience. In 1993 Microsoft divided the operating system into two categories; Business and Home user. In 1995 Windows went through a major revamp and Microsoft Windows 95 was released. This provided greatly improved multimedia and a much more polished user interface. The now familiar desktop and Start Menu appeared with internet and networking support built in. Breaking with its own naming conventions, Microsoft released Windows 2000 (initially called NT 5.0) for the business market. Although Windows 2000 had a greatly improved user interface, the best of the enhancements appeared on the server side. Active Directory was introduced which allowed much greater control of security and organization. 2.2 THE DESKTOP 25
  34. 34. The desktop is the main working space on your computer screen. It is where the icons for the files and folders on the hard drive is displayed. Most operating systems allow user to choose their desktop background, which can either be a picture or a pattern. The desktop can be customized by right-clickimg anywhere on the desktop background and select "Properties..." from the pop-up menu. From there, the background or entire themes for the computer's interface can be choosen. 2.3 THE TASKBAR The taskbar is the long horizontal bar at the bottom of the screen. Unlike the desktop, which can get obscured by the windows on top of it, the taskbar is visible almost all the time. It has four main sections:  The Start button  The Quick Launch toolbar, which lets you start programs with one click.  The middle section, which shows you which programs and documents you have open and allows , which opens the Start menu. you to quickly switch between them.  The notification area, which includes a clock and icons (small pictures) that communicate the status of certain programs and computer settings. The taskbar is located at the bottom of the screen 26
  35. 35. Keeping track on Windows If more than one program or documents are open at a time, they pile up as windows on the desktop. Because windows often cover each other or take up the whole screen, it is difficult to see what else is underneath or remember what have already been opened. That is where the taskbar comes in handy. Whenever a program, folder, or document is opened, Windows creates a button on the taskbar corresponding to that item. The button shows the icon and name of the item. In the picture below, two programs are open—Calculator and Minesweeper—and each has its own button on the taskbar. Each program has its own button on the taskbar Notice how the taskbar button for Minesweeper appears pressed in. That indicates that Minesweeper is the active window, meaning that it is in front of any other open windows and is ready for user to interact with. To switch to another window, click its taskbar button. In the example provided, clicking the taskbar button for Calculator brings its window to the front: 27
  36. 36. Click a window's taskbar button to switch to that window Note: Clicking taskbar buttons is only one of several ways to switch between windows. Minimize and restore windows When a window is active (its taskbar button appears pressed down), clicking its taskbar button minimizes the window. That means that the window disappears from the desktop. Minimizing a window does not close it or delete its contents—it merely removes it from the desktop temporarily. In the picture below, Calculator has been minimized, but not closed because it has a button on the taskbar. Minimizing Calculator leaves only its taskbar button visible It can also be minimized by clicking the Minimize button, in the upper-right corner of the window: Minimize button (left) To restore a minimized window (make it show up again on the desktop), click its taskbar button. How the taskbar groups similar items As more windows are opened, the existing taskbar buttons shrink in width to let new buttons squeeze in. However, if the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons, then the buttons for the same program will be grouped into a single button. 28
  37. 37. To see how this works, suppose three Paint pictures are opened on the desktop. If the taskbar has enough room, it displays the three Paint windows as separate buttons: Three Paint windows displayed as separate taskbar buttons But if many programs and documents are opened, the taskbar collapses these three buttons into a single button that shows the name of the group (Paint) and the number of items in the group (3). Clicking the button displays a menu listing the files in the group: Three Paint windows grouped into one taskbar button Clicking one of the items in the menu activates its window so you can see it. Tip: To close all of the items in the group, right-click the group's taskbar button, and then click Close Group. The Quick Launch toolbar To the immediate right of the Start button is the Quick Launch toolbar. As its name implies, it lets user launch (start) programs with a single click. For example, Internet Explorer icon can be clicked to start Internet Explorer. The Quick Launch toolbar sits to the right of the Start button The Quick Launch toolbar can be customized by adding user’s favorite programs to it. The program can be located in the Start menu, right-click it, and then click Add to Quick Launch. The program's icon now appears in the toolbar. To remove an icon from the Quick Launch toolbar, right-click it, click Delete, and then click Yes. 29
  38. 38. By default, the Quick Desktop button Launch toolbar also contains two special buttons. Click the Show to temporarily hide all open windows and show the desktop; click the button again to show all windows again. Click the Switch between windows button to switch between open windows using Windows Flip 3D (for computers running Windows Aero). Notes  If the double chevrons instead of the icon added to the Quick Lunch toolbar appeared, it means the icons cannot fit into the toolbar. The double chevrons can be clicked to access the hidden toolbar programs, but it is better to resize the toolbar to preserve one-click access to them. The notification area The notification area, on the far right side of the taskbar, includes a clock and a group of icons. It looks like this: The notification area These icons communicate the status of something on the computer or provide access to certain settings. The set of icons seen depends on which programs or services installed and how the computer manufacturer set up your computer. When the pointer is moved to a particular icon, the icon's name or the status of a setting can be seen. For example, pointing to the volume icon network icon shows the current volume level of the computer. Pointing to the displays information about whether the computer is connected to a network, the connection speed, and the signal strength. Double-clicking an icon in the notification area usually opens the program or setting associated with it. For example, double-clicking the volume icon opens the volume controls. Double-clicking the network icon opens Network and Sharing Center. Occasionally, an icon in the notification area will display a small pop-up window (called a notification) to notify users about something. For example, after adding a new hardware device to the computer, the following can be seen. 30
  39. 39. The notification area displays a message after new hardware is installed Click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the notification to dismiss it. If nothing is done, the notification will fade away on its own after a few seconds. To reduce clutter, icons which have not been used in awhile will be hidden in the notification area when you haven't used them in a while. If icons become hidden, click the Show hidden icons button to temporarily display the hidden icons. Click the Show hidden icons button to display all icons in the notification area 2.4 WINDOWS AND ICONS 2.4.1 WINDOWS To interact with the computer, rectangular objects called windows are used. A window itself is simply one entity that is part of an ensemble called a computer program (program), a computer application (application). All these four words or groups of words mean exactly the same thing. Programs are created by human beings. A person who creates a program is called a programmer, or a program developer, or a developer, or an application developer. After a program has been written, it is made available to people. Some programs are made freely available. Some programs must be purchased. Regardless, the program must be installed in the computer in order to use it. There are various ways the programs get into a computer. However when a program gets in there, it is said to be installed. The Operating System The first and most important program of a computer is called an operating system. All the other programs depend on it. Everything that works in a computer is in accordance with the operating system. 31
  40. 40. Since the current chapter focuses on the popular "personal computer", the operating system used here is called Microsoft Windows. There are various types of Microsoft Windows. A type of Microsoft Windows is referred to as a version. Examples of versions are  Microsoft Windows 3.3  Microsoft Windows 95  Microsoft Windows NT Workstation  Microsoft Windows NT Server  Microsoft Windows 98  Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition  Microsoft Windows Millennium  Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional  Microsoft Windows 2000 Server  Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition  Microsoft Windows XP Professional  Microsoft Windows Vista Home Edition  Microsoft Windows Vista Home Premium  Microsoft Windows Vista Business  Microsoft Windows Vista Ultimate  Microsoft Windows Server 2003  Microsoft Windows Server 2008 2.4.2 ICONS Working with desktop icons Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs, and other items. When Windows starts, at least one icon on the desktop is available: The Recycle Bin (more on that later). The computer manufacturer might have added other icons to the desktop. Some examples of desktop icons are shown below. Examples of desktop icons Note: Double-clicking a desktop icon starts or opens the item it represents. Adding and removing icons from the desktop Users can choose which icons appear on the desktop—they can add or remove an icon at any time. Some people like a clean, uncluttered desktop with few or no icons. Others place dozens of icons on their desktop to give them quick access to frequently used programs, files, and folders. 32
  41. 41. Shortcuts can be created to allow user access easily to their files and programs from their desktop. A shortcut is an icon that represents a link to an item, rather than the item itself. When a shortcut is doubleclicked, the item opens. If its deleted, only the shortcut is removed, not the original item. Shortcuts can be identified by the arrow on their icon. A file icon (left) and a shortcut icon (right) To add a shortcut to the desktop 1. Locate the item to create a shortcut for. (For help with finding a file or folder, see Find a file or folder. For help with finding a program, see the Start menu.) 2. Right-click the item, click Send to, and then click Desktop (create shortcut). The shortcut icon appears on your desktop. To add or remove common desktop icons Common desktop icons include Computer, personal folders, the Recycle Bin, and Control Panel. 1. Right-click an empty area of the desktop, and then click Personalize. 2. In the left pane, click Change desktop icons. 3. Under Desktop icons, select the check box for each icon intended to be added to the desktop, or clear the check box for each icon that intended to be removed from the desktop, and then click OK. To move a file from a folder to the desktop 1. Open the folder that contains the file. 2. Drag the file to the desktop. To remove an icon from the desktop Right-click the icon, and then click Delete. If the icon is a shortcut, only the shortcut is removed; the original item is not deleted. 33
  42. 42. Moving icons around Windows stacks icons in columns on the left side of the desktop but an icon can be moved by dragging it to a new place on the desktop. Windows can also automatically arrange the icons. Right-click an empty area of the desktop, click View, and then click Auto arrange icons. Windows stacks the icons in the upper-left corner and locks them in place. To unlock the icons so that they are movable again, click Auto arrange icons again, clearing the check mark next to it. Note: By default, Windows spaces icons evenly on an invisible grid. To place icons closer together or with more precision, turn off the grid. Right-click an empty area of the desktop, point to View, and then click Align icons to grid to clear the check mark. Repeat these steps to turn the grid back on. Selecting multiple icons To move or delete a bunch of icons at once, they must be all selected. Click an empty area of the desktop and drag the mouse. Surround the icons that intended to be selected with the rectangle that appears, then release the mouse button. Now the icons can be dragged or deleted as a group. Select multiple desktop icons by dragging a rectangle around them Hiding desktop icons All the desktop icons can be temporarily hidden without actually removing them. Right-click an empty part of the desktop, click View, and then click Show desktop icons to clear the check mark from that option. Now no icons are displayed on the desktop. They can be made visible again by clicking Show desktop icons again. 34
  43. 43. 2.5 DESKTOP PROPERTIES To use a picture as a desktop background 1. Open My Pictures 2. Click the picture you want to use as a desktop background. 3. Under Picture Tasks, click Set as desktop background. Note • To open My Pictures, click Start, and then click My Pictures OR • Right-click the picture, and then click Set as Desktop Background. • The way the picture is displayed on the desktop can be changed by right-clicking the desktop, and then click Properties. On the Desktop tab, in the Position box, select a display option. To set or change a screen saver 1. Open Display in Control Panel. 2. On the Screen Saver tab, under Screen saver, click a screen saver in the list. Note • To open Display, click Start, click Control Panel, click Appearance and Themes, and then click Display. • After a screen saver is selected, it will automatically start when the computer is idle for the number of minutes specified in Wait. • To clear the screen saver after it has started, move the mouse or press any key. • To view possible setting options for a particular screen saver, click Settings on the Screen Saver tab. • Click Preview to see how the selected screen saver will appear on the monitor. Move the mouse or press any key to end the preview. • Click Related Topics for information about having Windows turn off the monitor when it have been left idle for a period of time. To change the look of Window elements 1. Open Display in Control Panel. 2. On the Appearance tab, click Advanced. 3. In the Item list, click the element wanted to be changed, such as Window, Menu, or Scrollbar, and then adjust the appropriate settings, such as color, font, or font size. 4. Click OK or Apply to save the changes. 35
  44. 44. Note • To open Display, click Start, click Control Panel, click Appearance and Themes, and then click Display. • The changes are saved until further changes or a different theme is choosen. • The Font area will be unavailable for elements in the Item list that do not display text. To change the elapsed time before your monitor automatically turns off A user must be logged on as an administrator or a member of either the Administrators or Power Users group in order to complete this procedure. If the computer is connected to a network, network policy settings might also prevent the user from completing this procedure. 1. Open Power Options in Control Panel. 2. In Turn off monitor, click the arrow, and select the time wanted. . Note • To open Power Options, click Start, click Control Panel, click Performance and Maintenance, and then click Power Options. • If Turn off monitor is not available, it means the monitor does not support this feature. • Using Power Options in Control Panel, any power management option that is supported by the computer's unique hardware configuration can be adjusted. However, these options may vary widely from computer to computer. 2.6 THE MOUSE, MENUS AND KEYBOARD 2.6.1 THE MOUSE Using your mouse Just as hands are used to interact with objects in the physical world, moice can be used to interact with items on the computer screen. Users can move objects, open them, change them, throw them away, and perform other actions, all by pointing and clicking with a mouse. Basic parts A mouse typically has two buttons: a primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button (usually the right button). The primary button is the one which is used most often. Most mice also include a scroll wheel between the buttons to help users scroll through documents and webpages more 36
  45. 45. easily. On some mice, the scroll wheel can be pressed to act as a third button. Advanced mice might have additional buttons that can perform other functions. Parts of a mouse Holding and moving the mouse Type of pointers The mouse should be placed beside the keyboard on a clean, smooth surface, such as a mouse pad. Hold the mouse gently with the index finger resting on the primary button and the thumb resting on the side. To move the mouse, slide it slowly in any direction. As the user moves the mouse, a pointer (see picture) on the screen moves in the same direction. Simply pick up the mouse and bring it back closer when there is a limited space to move the mouse on the mousepad or desk. Hold the mouse lightly, keeping your wrist straight 37
  46. 46. Pointing, clicking, and dragging Pointing to an item on the screen means moving the mouse so the pointer appears to be touching the item. When something is pointed, a small box often appears that describes the item. For example, when the Recycle Bin on the desktop is pointed, a box appears with this information: "Contains the files and folders that you have deleted." Pointing to an object often reveals a descriptive message about it The pointer can change depending on what is being pointed to. For example, when a link in aweb browser is pointed, the pointer changes from an arrow to a hand with a pointing finger . Most mouse actions combine pointing with pressing one of the mouse buttons. There are four basic ways to use the mouse buttons: clicking, double-clicking, right-clicking, and dragging. Clicking (single-clicking) To click an item, point to the item on the screen, and then press and release the primary button (usually the left button). Clicking is most often used to select (mark) an item or open a menu. This is sometimes called singleclicking or left-clicking. Double-clicking To double-click an item, point to the item on the screen, and then click twice quickly. If the two clicks are spaced too far apart, they might be interpreted as two individual clicks rather than as one double-click. Double-clicking is most often used to open items on your desktop. For example, a program or a folder can be started or opened by double-clicking its icon on the desktop. 38
  47. 47. Tip  User who have trouble double-clicking can adjust the double-click speed (the amount of time acceptable between clicks) by following the folowing steps: 1. Open Mouse by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Hardware, and then clicking Mouse. 2. Click the Buttons tab, and then, under Double-click speed, move the slider to increase or decrease the speed. Right-clicking To right-click an item, point to the item on the screen, and then press and release the secondary button (usually the right button). Right-clicking an item usually displays a list of things user can do with the item. For example, right-clicking the Recycle Bin on the desktop displays a menu allowing user to open it, empty it, delete it, or see its properties. Right-clicking the Recycle Bin opens a menu of related commands Dragging Items can be moved around the screen by dragging them. To drag an object, point to the object on the screen, press and hold the primary button, move the object to a new location, and then release the primary button. Dragging (sometimes called dragging and dropping) is most often used to move files and folders to a different location and to move windows and icons around on the screen. 39
  48. 48. Using the scroll wheel Documents and webpages can be scrolled through with a mouse that has a scroll wheel. To scroll down, roll the wheel backward (toward the user). To scroll up, roll the wheel forward (away from the user). Customizing your mouse The mouse settings can be changed to suit personal preferences. For example, the speed of the pointer moving around the screen, or change the pointer's appearance. If the user is left-handed, the primary button can be switched to be the right button by adjusting the setting under Change mouse settings. 2.6.2 MENUS Using menus Most programs contain dozens or even hundreds of commands (actions) that are used to work the program. Many of these commands are organized under menus. Like a restaurant menu, a program menu shows a list of choices. To keep the screen uncluttered, menus are hidden until you click their titles in the menu bar, located just underneath the title bar. To choose one of the commands listed in a menu, click it. Sometimes a dialog box appears, in which further options can be selected. If a command is unavailable and cannot be clicked, it is shown in gray.Some menu items are not commands at all. Instead, they open other menus. In the following picture, pointing to "New" opens a submenu. Some menu commands open submenus If the command wanted is not available, try looking at another menu. Move the mouse pointer along the menu bar will open its menus automatically; there is no need to click the menu bar again. To close a menu without selecting any commands, click the menu bar or any other part of the window. Recognizing menus is not always easy, because not all menu controls look alike or even appear on a menu bar. When an arrow is seen next to a word or picture, it is most probably a menu control. Here are some examples: 40
  49. 49. Examples of menu controls Tips  If a keyboard shortcut is available for a command, it is shown next to the command.  Menus can be operated using your keyboard instead of your mouse. 2.6.3 KEYBOARD Using keyboard Keyboard is the main way to enter information into the computer and also another way to control a computer. Learning a few simple keyboard commands (instructions to the computer) can help users work more efficiently. The current topic covers the basics of keyboard operation. How the keys are organized The keys on the keyboard can be divided into several groups based on function:  Typing (alphanumeric) keys. These keys include the same letter, number, punctuation, and symbol keys found on a traditional typewriter.  Control keys. These keys are used alone or in combination with other keys to perform certain actions. The most frequently used control keys are Ctrl, Alt, the Windows logo key  , and Esc. Function keys. The function keys are used to perform specific tasks. They are labeled as F1, F2, F3, and so on, up to F12. The functionality of these keys differs from program to program.  Navigation keys. These keys are used for moving around in documents or webpages and editing text. They include the arrow keys, Home, End, Page Up, Page Down, Delete, and Insert.  Numeric keypad. The numeric keypad is handy for entering numbers quickly. The keys are grouped together in a block like a conventional calculator or adding machine. The following illustration shows how these keys are arranged on a typical keyboard. 41
  50. 50. How the keys are arranged on a keyboard Typing text The cursor, also called the insertion point can be seen as a blinking vertical line ( ) whenever something is typed in a program, e-mail message, or text box. It indicated where the text which will be typed will begin. The cursor can be moved by clicking in the desired location with the mouse, or by using the navigation keys (see the "Using navigation keys" section of this topic). In addition to letters, numerals, punctuation marks, and symbols, the typing keys also include Shift, Caps Lock, Tab, Enter, the Spacebar, and Backspace. Key name How to use it Shift Press Shift in combination with a letter to type an uppercase letter. Press Shift in combination with another key to type the symbol shown on the upper part of that key. Caps Lock Press Caps Lock once to type all letters as uppercase. Press Caps Lock again to turn this function off. The keyboard might have a light indicating whether Caps Lock is on. Tab Press Tab to move the cursor several spaces forward. Enter Press Enter to move the cursor to the beginning of the next line. In a dialog box, press Enter to select the highlighted button. Spacebar Press the Spacebar to move the cursor one space forward. Backspace Press Backspace to delete the character before the cursor, or the selected text. 42
  51. 51. Using keyboard shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts are ways to perform actions by using the keyboard. They are called shortcuts because they help users to work faster. In fact, almost any action or command which can be performed with a mouse can be performed faster using one or more keys on the keyboard. In Help topics, a plus sign (+) between two or more keys indicates that those keys should be pressed in combination. For example, Ctrl+A means to press and hold Ctrl and then press A. Ctrl+Shift+A means to press and hold Ctrl and Shift and then press A. Find program shortcuts Things in most programs can be done by using the keyboard. To see which commands have keyboard shortcuts, open a menu. The shortcuts (if available) are shown next to the menu items. Keyboard shortcuts appear next to menu items. Choose menus, commands, and options Menus can be opened and commands can be choosen by using keyboards. In a program that has menus with underlined letters, press Alt and an underlined letter to open the corresponding menu. Press the 43
  52. 52. underlined letter in a menu item to choose that command. For programs that use the ribbon, such as Paint and WordPad, pressing Alt overlays (rather than underlines) a letter that can be pressed. Press Alt+F to open the File menu, then press P to choose the Print command. This trick works in dialog boxes too. An underlined letter attached to an option in a dialog box indicated that the opton can be carried out by pressing Alt plus that letter simultaneosly. Useful shortcuts The following table lists some of the most useful keyboard shortcuts. Press this To do this Windows logo key Open the Start menu Alt+Tab Switch between open programs or windows 44
  53. 53. Alt+F4 Close the active item, or exit the active program Ctrl+S Save the current file or document (works in most programs) Ctrl+C Copy the selected item Ctrl+X Cut the selected item Ctrl+V Paste the selected item Ctrl+Z Undo an action Ctrl+A Select all items in a document or window F1 Display Help for a program or Windows Windows logo key +F1 Display Windows Help and Support Esc Cancel the current task Application key Open a menu of commands related to a selection in a program. Equivalent to right-clicking the selection. Using navigation keys The navigation keys allow you to move the cursor, move around in documents and webpages, and edit text. The following table lists some common functions of these keys. Press this To do this Left Arrow, Right Arrow, Up Arrow, or Down Arrow Move the cursor or selection one space or line in the direction of the arrow, or scroll a webpage in the direction of the arrow 45
  54. 54. Home Move the cursor to the beginning of a line or move to the top of a webpage End Move the cursor to the end of a line or move to the bottom of a webpage Ctrl+Home Move to the top of a document Ctrl+End Move to the bottom of a document Page Up Move the cursor or page up one screen Page Down Move the cursor or page down one screen Delete Delete the character after the cursor, or the selected text; inWindows, delete the selected item and move it to the Recycle Bin Insert Turn Insert mode off or on. When Insert mode is on, text that you type is inserted at the cursor. When Insert mode is off, text that you type replaces existing characters. Using the numeric keypad The numeric keypad arranges the numerals 0 though 9, the arithmetic operators + (addition), (subtraction), * (multiplication), and / (division), and the decimal point as they would appear on a calculator or adding machine. These characters are duplicated elsewhere on the keyboard, of course, but the keypad arrangement allows rapid numerical data or mathematical operations entry with one hand. 46
  55. 55. Numeric keypad To use the numeric keypad to enter numbers, press Num Lock. Most keyboards have a light that indicates whether Num Lock is on or off. When Num Lock is off, the numeric keypad functions as a second set of navigation keys (these functions are printed on the keys next to the numerals or symbols). Three odd keys This section explains the three odd keys on the keyboard: PrtScn, Scroll Lock, and Pause/Break. PrtScn (or Print Screen) A long time ago, this key actually did what it says—it sent the current screen of text to the printer. Nowadays, pressing PrtScn captures an image of an entire screen (a "screen shot") and copies it to the Clipboard in the computer's memory. From there it can be pasted (Ctrl+V) into Microsoft Paint or another program and print it from that program when preferred. More obscure is SYS RQ, which shares the key with PrtScn on some keyboards. Historically, SYS RQ was designed to be a "system request," but this command is not enabled in Windows. Tip  Press Alt+PrtScn to capture an image of just the active window, instead of the entire screen. ScrLk (or Scroll Lock) In most programs, pressing Scroll Lock has no effect. In a few programs, pressing Scroll Lock changes the behavior of the arrow keys and the Page Up and Page Down keys; pressing these keys causes the 47
  56. 56. document to scroll without changing the position of the cursor or selection. Your keyboard might have a light indicating whether Scroll Lock is on. Pause/Break This key is rarely used. In some older programs, pressing this key pauses the program or, in combination with Ctrl, stops it from running. 2.7 MY COMPUTER A section of Microsoft Windows that was introduced with the release of Microsoft Windows 95 and included with all versions of Windows after that. My Computer allows the user to explore the contents of their computer drives as well as manage their computer files. In the pictures to the right, are examples of the My Computer icon in Microsoft Windows XP and just Computer, which was introduced with Windows Vista. Although the name has changed, this icon still acts the same as My Computer. How to open My computer 1. Get to the Windows Desktop. 2. Double-click the My Computer icon, this icon is almost always located on the top-left portion of the desktop and should look similar to the icon shown earlier. Below are two examples of what should appear when My Computer is open. Drive listing in My Computer 48
  57. 57. Browsing My Computer in Windows 2000 My Computer or Computer can also be accessed through the start menu, as shown in the following figure. Using My Computer Once My Computer is opened, all available drives on the computer can be seen. Most users will only be concerned with the Local Disc (C:) drive, which is the hard drive and what stores all the files. Double-click this drive icon to open it and view of its contents. Tip: A document such as a word processor file, music file, picture, or other personal file are likely contained in the documents folder. This folder is displayed in My computer as a folder and usually 49
  58. 58. contains the user’s name. For example, if the username was John, this folder would be named John's Documents. Finding files in My Computer The Windows can be used to find a file which is hard to be located. To do this from within My Computer; either click on File and then Search or right-click on the C drive or other folder which are intended to search and click Search. In the Search window, type the name or part of the name of the file. Adjust system settings with your computer If you wish to manage your computer or view other settings and information about your computer instead of double-clicking the My Computer icon to open it, right-click on the My Computer icon and click Properties. Performing these steps will open the System Properties (the same window accessible through the Control Panel). 2.8 THE RECYCLE BIN The Recycle Bin when empty (left) and full (right) 2.8.1 RECOVER FILES FROM THE RECYCLE BIN When you delete a file or folder, it does not actually get deleted right away—it goes to the Recycle Bin. That's a good thing, because in case the user decided that he need the deleted file, it can be retrieved again. To recover files from the Recycle Bin 1. Open the Recycle Bin by double-clicking the Recycle Bin on the desktop. 50
  59. 59. 2. Do one of the following:  To restore a file, click it, and then, on the toolbar, click Restore this item.  To restore all of the files, make sure that no files are selected, and then, on the toolbar, click Restore all items. The files will be restored to their original locations on the computer. Recovering an item from the Recycle Bin Notes  If a file is deleted from a location and not on My Computer (such as a network folder), the file might be permanently deleted rather than stored in the Recycle Bin. 2.8.2 PERMANENTLY DELETE FILES FROM THE RECYCLE BIN The Recycle Bin can be emptied when the users are sure that the files are no longer needed. Doing that will permanently delete the items and reclaim any disk space the files were using. The files can be deleted individually from the Recycle Bin or empty the entire Recycle Bin at once. 1. Open the Recycle Bin by double-clicking the Recycle Bin on the desktop. 2. Do one of the following:  To permanently delete one file, click it, press Delete, and then click Yes.  To delete all of the files, on the toolbar, click Empty the Recycle Bin, and then click Yes. 51
  60. 60. Tips  The Recycle Bin can be emptied without opening it by right-clicking the Recycle Bin and then clicking Empty Recycle Bin.  A file can be permanently deleteed from the computer without sending it to the Recycle Bin by clicking the file and then pressing Shift+Delete. 2.9 THE START MENU The Start menu is the main gateway to your computer's programs, folders, and settings. It is called a menu because it provides a list of choices, just as a restaurant menu does. And as "start" implies, it's often the place that you'll go to start or open things. Start menu 52
  61. 61. Use the Start menu to do these common activities:  Start programs  Open commonly used folders  Search for files, folders, and programs  Adjust computer settings  Get help with the Windows operating system  Turn off the computer  Log off from Windows or switch to a different user account Getting started with the Start menu To open the Start menu, click the Start button the Windows logo key in the lower-left corner of the screen or press on the keyboard. The Start menu has three basic parts:  The large left pane shows a short list of programs on the computer. Computer manufacturer can customize this list, so its exact appearance will vary. Clicking All Programs displays a complete list of programs (more on this later).  At the bottom of the left pane is the search box, which allows user to look for programs and files on the computer by typing in search terms.  The right pane provides access to commonly used folders, files, settings, and features. It is also where user log off from Windows or turn off the computer. Opening programs from the Start menu One of the most common uses of the Start menu is opening programs installed on the computer. To open a program shown in the left pane of the Start menu, click it. The program opens and the Start menu closes. If program wanted is not seen, click All Programs at the bottom of the left pane. The left pane displays a long list of programs in alphabetical order, followed by a list of folders. Clicking one of the program icons starts the program, and the Start menu closes. The folder itself contains more programs. Click Accessories, for example, and a list of programs that are stored in that folder appears. Click any program to open it. To get back to the programs seen previously when the Start menuwas first opened, click Back near the bottom of the menu. 53
  62. 62. Move the pointer over its icon or name when unsure of what certain program does. A box appears that often contains a description of the program. For example, pointing to Calculator displays this message: "Performs basic arithmetic tasks with an on-screen calculator." This trick works for items in the right pane of the Start menu, too. Over time, the lists of programs in your Start menu change. This happens for two reasons. First, when new programs are installed, they get added to the All Programs list. Second, the Start menu detects which programs are used most, and places them in the left pane for quick access. The search box The search box is one of the most convenient ways to find things on the computer. The exact location of the items doesn't matter—the search box will scour your programs and all of the folders in your personal folder (which includes Documents, Pictures, Music, Desktop, and other common locations). It will also search e-mail messages, saved instant messages, appointments, and contacts. The Start menu search box To use the search box, open the Start menu and start typing. The search results appear above the search box in the left pane of the Start menu as typed. A program, file, or folder will appear as a search result if:  Any word in its title matches or begins with the search term.  Any text in the actual contents of the file—such as the text in a word-processing document— matches or begins with the search term.  Any word in a property of the file, such as the author, matches or begins with the search term. Click any search result to open it. Or, click the Clear button to clear the search results and return to the main programs list. You can also click See more results to search the entire computer. 54
  63. 63. Besides searching programs, files and folders, and communications, the search box also looks through usersInternet favorites and the history of websites visited. If any of these webpages include the search term, they appear under a heading called "Files." What is in the right pane? The right pane of the Start menu contains links to parts of Windows that the user use frequently. Here they are, from top to bottom:  Personal folder. Opens the personal folder, which is named for whoever is currently logged on to Windows. For example, if the current user is Molly Clark, the folder will be named Molly Clark. This folder, in turn, contains user-specific files, including the My Documents, My Music, My Pictures, and My Videos folders.  Documents. Opens the Documents library, to access and open text files, spreadsheets, presentations, and other kinds of documents.  Pictures. Opens the Pictures library, to access and view digital pictures and graphics files.  Music. Opens the Music library, to access and play music and other audio files.  Games. Opens the Games folder, to access all of the games on your computer.  Computer. Opens a window where you can access disk drives, cameras, printers, scanners, and other hardware connected to the computer.  Control Panel. Opens Control Panel, where the appearance and functionality of the computercan be customized, install or uninstall programs, set up network connections, and manage user accounts.  Devices and Printers. Opens a window where information about the printer, mouse, and other devices installed on your computer can be viewed.  Default Programs. Opens a window to choose programs preferred to be used by windows for activities such as web browsing.  Help and Support. Opens Windows Help and Support, to browse and search Help topics about using Windows and the computer. At the bottom of the right pane is the Shut down button. Click the Shut down button to turn off the computer. Clicking the arrow next to the Shut down button displays a menu with additional options for switching users, logging off, restarting, or shutting down. 55
  64. 64. Click the Shutdown button to shut down your computer or click the arrow for more options. 2.10 RUNNING PROGRAM If the same programs such as a web browser or an e-mail program are frequentlu used, it might be convenient to have them start automatically when Windows starts. Programs or shortcuts placed in the Startup folder will run whenever Windows starts. 1. Click the Start button , click All Programs, right-click the Startup folder, and then click Open. 2. Open the location that contains the item to create a shortcut to it. 3. Right-click the item, and then click Create Shortcut. The new shortcut appears in the same location as the original item. 4. Drag the shortcut into the Startup folder. The next time Windows starts, the program will run automatically. Note  An individual file, such as a word-processing document, can also be made to open automatically by dragging a shortcut of the file into the Startup folder. 56
  65. 65. CHAPTER 3 WORD PROCESSING 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO WORD PROCCESSING SOFTWARE MICROSOFT WORD BASICS Typing Text To enter text, type just as you would if you were using a typewriter. To capitalize a letter, hold down the SHIFT key while typing the letter or press the CAPS LOCK key on the left-hand side of your keyboard. You will have to press the CAPS LOCK key again—once you are done capitalizing—to remove the lock. You do not need to press ENTER to start a new line—Microsoft Word will automatically wrap your sentence at the end of the line. To move the cursor from its position at the end of your sentence to anywhere else on the page, use the mouse or the arrow keys to move the cursor where you want the letters or spaces to be (left-click the mouse to place the cursor) and then type what you want to add—the text will automatically adjust to include it. Press ENTER to start a new paragraph (this is sometimes called a “carriage return”). Deleting Text While typing a document, sometimes you will make a mistake. Unlike a typewriter, MS Word can delete text on the screen and leave no trace—it is as if you never typed on the page in the first place. There are two different buttons on the keyboard that will allow you to erase text. They are the “Delete” key and the “Backspace” key. The “Backspace” key deletes words to the LEFT of the cursor, and the “Delete” key deletes words to the RIGHT of the cursor. This is my crea | tive sentence. 57
  66. 66. BACKSPACE ↔ DELETE Let’s assume that the vertical line dissecting the word “creative” in the example above is our cursor. Pressing the “Backspace” key will erase “a,” “e,” “r,” “c,” and so on, moving LEFT. The “Delete” key will erase “t,” “i,” “v,” “e,” and so on, moving RIGHT. To delete a whole chunk of text at once, left-click with your mouse and drag to highlight a section of text. Then simply press “Backspace” or “Delete” and all of the highlighted text will disappear. Undoing and Redoing The UNDO and REDO features of Microsoft Windows applications are great tools to rely on (especially in MS Word). The program will keep a list of the last 25 commands that you have performed, and it allows for taking “one step” backwards in order to erase what you have just done. Click on the UNDO button in the Quick Access Toolbar to go back one step (up to 25). Click on the REDO button in the Quick Access Toolbar to go forward one step (up to 25). Formatting Text Changing the look of what you’ve written is called “formatting.” This can include changing the text style, size, color, and more. 58
  67. 67. From the Home Tab, the “B” will make your text BOLD, the “ I ” will put it in italics, and the “U” will add an underline to your text. These features do not have to be used independently of each other- in other words, you can bold, underline, and italicize a single piece of text. The alignment of the text can be altered using the buttons with the horizontal lines on them. You can align text To the LEFT, To the CENTER, And to the RIGHT. In order to apply certain stylistic or formatting changes to text, you must first HIGHLIGHT the text. This is a common procedure in Microsoft Windowsapplications, and because it is so useful, it is a skill worth practising. 3.2 EDITING FEATURES Cutting, Copying and Pasting Text In MS Word, you can CUT or COPY text from one area of the document and save that text to be PASTED elsewhere (these commands are found on the Home Tab). When you CUT text, you actually delete it from where you took it, as opposed to COPYING it, which makes a copy of your selection. When you CUT or COPY text, it is stored on the CLIPBOARD. The Clipboard is a tool in MS Word that stores cuts and copies of your work, to be pasted in other places in the document. Once your selection is on the CLIPBOARD, you can PASTE it as many times as you want. CUTTING a selection will place it on the clipboard, just in case you want to PASTE it elsewhere. To cut a selection, first, HIGHLIGHT it. Then click on the CUT icon from the Home tab. The highlighted text will disappear, as you would have just cut it out but a copy now is available on your clipboard, and MS Word is waiting for you to paste it somewhere else. To PASTE this cut selection, place you cursor where you want the selection to go. Click on the PASTE icon from the Home Tab toolbar, and it will pop the text into place, right where you have your cursor. 59

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