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Basic navigation for flight planning

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  2. 2. INTEREST From NAM Flying School-Airport, there will be a specific object / landmark that we can use to reach the Main Apron. The same is when we are in a journey with a/c. For example, we were going to training area, there will be an iconic landmark to guide us. The process of going from one place to other place is called NAVIGATION. For visual navigation, one of the most important objects for navigation is a landmark, called CHECKPOINT.
  3. 3. NEED Navigation ability is needed in every flight, since we go to other place and we need to know how to get there and come back again. Remember, if you can’t navigate properly, it could lead to something called lost position.
  5. 5. REVISION Before flight, we always use navigation for everyday activities, example: go to school, work, and market. In flight, we must apply what we know from our everyday activities. If we want to go to places, we need : DIRECTION CHECKPOINT DISTANCE TIME FUEL ALTITUDE Navigation is process monitor and controlling A/C from a place to another place.
  6. 6. OBJECTIVE Define Navigation
  7. 7. SCOPE Basic Navigation Navigator Earth Direction Distance Time Altitude Speed
  8. 8. REFERENCES The Air Pilot’s Manual vol. 3 : Air Navigation PHAK chap. 15 : Navigation
  10. 10. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION NAVIGATOR Navigation is process monitor and controlling A/C from a place to another place. We must realize, as a pilot are navigator, since our duty to monitor and control the A/C. As a pilot, to be able to control it correctly, we need to AVIATE. Then, we need to be able to tell where we are going. So the pilot’s role is to NAVIGATE. Last but not least, we must know that a pilot didn’t work alone. Along way, there must be a contact with another aerodrome, i.e. Approach, Tower, and Radar. So, we also need to COMMUNICATE.
  12. 12. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Earth’s Shape Oblate spheroid flattened at the pole bulge around the equator
  13. 13. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Cardinal Heading N E S W : 360 / 000 : 090 : 180 : 270
  14. 14. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH The nature of a sphere is such that any point on it is exactly like any other point. There is neither beginning nor ending as far as differentiation of points is concerned. We use a system of coordinates to locate positions on the earth by means of imaginary reference lines. These lines are known as : parallels of latitude meridians of longitude.
  15. 15. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Parallel of Latitude The earth rotates on its north-south axis, which is terminated by the two poles. The equatorial plane is constructed at the midpoint of this axis. The particular parallel of latitude chosen as 30° N, and every point on this parallel is at 30° N.
  16. 16. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Meridian of Longitude Which is the measurement of this east-west distance. Longitude, unlike latitude, has no natural starting point for numbering. Longitude is counted east and west from this meridian through 180°.
  17. 17. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Latitude and Longitude A circle contain 360° of arc 1° of arc =60’ of arc 1’ of arc =60” of arc Example : 41°10’20” N 10°56’10” S 02°09’29” S 21°54’03” W 122°53’03” E 106°08’05” E
  18. 18. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Latitude and Longitude
  19. 19. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Equator : 0º of Latitude Pole 90º of Latitude North 90º of Latitude South
  20. 20. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Prime Meridian International Date Line
  21. 21. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Earth’s Magnetic Field Generated because of the molten rock in earth’s core keep moving and creating convection flow. The flow resulted in high amount of electricity inside the earth. That caused a magnetic field around the earth.
  22. 22. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH Latitude Longitude
  23. 23. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH JAKARTA Latitude 6°20’00” S Longitude 106°08’00”E
  24. 24. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH JEDDAH Latitude 21°54’33” N Longitude 39°17’28” E
  25. 25. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH DISTANCE Latitude 21°54’33” 6°20’00” + 28° 14’ 33”
  26. 26. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH DISTANCE Longitude 106°08’00” 39°17’28” 66° 50’ 32”
  27. 27. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION EARTH REVIEW Calculate Latitude & Longitude difference between 2 point in the earth X 45º28’01”N 9º10’59”E Y 22º54’29”S 43º11’47”W
  28. 28. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DIRECTION COURSE Course is the intended horizontal direction of travel. HEADING Heading is the horizontal direction in which an aircraft is pointed. TRACK Actual horizontal direction made by the aircraft over the earth. BEARING Horizontal direction of one terrestrial point from another.
  29. 29. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DIRECTION True Direction / Heading The true heading (TH) is the direction in which the nose of the aircraft points during a flight when measured in degrees clockwise from true north
  30. 30. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DIRECTION Magnetic Direction / Heading Since the earth magnetic pole (north magnetic pole is located close to 71° N latitude, 96° W longitude and is about 1,300 miles) displaced from the geographic or true north pole, there will be slight difference in heading when we travel near the pole.
  31. 31. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DIRECTION Variation Variation is the angle between true north and magnetic north. Algonic Line Isogonic line Rule : West Best, East Least
  32. 32. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DIRECTION Variation Effect of variation to the compass
  33. 33. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DIRECTION Deviation Due to magnetic influences within an aircraft such as electrical circuits, radio, lights, tools, en gine, and magnetized metal parts, the compass needle is frequently deflected from its normal reading.
  34. 34. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DIRECTION Compass Heading Is a heading which was indicated in compass. To determine compass heading, a correction for deviation must be made, since deviation caused some disturbance on the magnet we have in the compass.
  35. 35. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DIRECTION REVIEW True Heading Variation Magnetic Heading Deviation Compass Heading 235º 4ºW 239º 1ºW 240º 076º 13ºE 063º 2ºE 061º 354º 9ºW 003º 4ºE 359º 120º 25ºE 095º 3ºW 098º
  36. 36. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DISTANCE Great Circle Earth is a sphere, Imagine it was cut through it core. It will divide the sphere in perfect half. The great-circle is the shortest distance between two points on the surface of the earth, measured along the surface of the sphere.
  37. 37. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DISTANCE Great Circle Distance The earth have spherical shape. A sphere have circumference 360º of arc. 1º of arc = 60’ of arc 1’ of arc = 60” of arc A standard unit of distance in navigation is the Nautical Mile, which is the length of 1 minute of arc of any Great Circle / LATITUDE on Earth. 1 nm = 1,852 m = 6,076 feet
  38. 38. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DISTANCE Calculating Great Circle Distance City A located at 6°20’00” S 106°08’00”E City B located at 2°09’29” S 106°08’05”E Calculate the distance between city A & B ! Since the Longitude distance very small, it can be DISREGARDED. 6°20’00” Remember : 1’ of arc = 1 nm 2°09’29” 4° = 4 x 60 = 240 nm 4°10’31” 10’ = 10 x 1 = 10 nm 31” = 31/60 = 0,5 nm 250,5 nm
  40. 40. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DISTANCE Rhumb Line Rhumb line is a line crossing all meridians of longitude at the same angle. In a map, rhumb line distance will look like this :
  41. 41. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DISTANCE Rhumb Line In reality the rhumb line will make a spiral path on its track. WHY? Because earth is a sphere, there will be a gradient of latitude and longitude as we moved near the pole. The gradient will make the angle that intercept the meridian steeper, so it seems like spiraling around the earth.
  42. 42. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DISTANCE Calculating Rhumb line distance Here we can count the rhumb line distance : Δ longitude x cos (mean Latitude) City A located at 16°20’00” S 46°08’00”E City B located at 44°09’29” S 106°08’00”E Δ longitude = 60 x 60 = 3,600 nm Mean Latitude = (16 + 44) /2 = 30 3,600 x cos (30) = 3,600 x 0.86 = 3,117 nm
  43. 43. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION DISTANCE Difference between Great Circle and Rhumb Line
  44. 44. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION TIME In celestial navigation, navigators determine the aircraft’s position by observing the celestial bodies. The apparent position of these bodies changes with time. Time is measured by the rotation of the earth and the resulting apparent motions of the celestial bodies.
  45. 45. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION TIME As Earth rotate, sun appears to move from east to west. The sun travels at a constant rate, covering 360° of arc in 24 hours. The mean sun transits the same meridian twice in 24 hours. The following relationships exists between time and arc: Time Arc 360° of arc = 24 hours 15° of arc = 1 hour
  46. 46. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION TIME Time Zone The world is divided into 24 zones, each zone being 15° of longitude wide. Since the time is earlier in the zones west of Greenwich, the numbers of these zones are plus. In the zones east of Greenwich, the numbers are minus because the time is later.
  47. 47. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION TIME GMT Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is used for most celestial computations. Also labeled as UTC or Z time.
  48. 48. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION TIME Local Time local mean time (LMT) is mean solar time measured with reference to the observer’s meridian. measured from the lower branch of the observers meridian, westward through 360°
  49. 49. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION TIME Time Conversion Since we can conclude our local time from longitude, we can also count the conversion of time with this rule : 360° of arc = 24 hours 15° of arc = 1 hour 1° of arc = 4 minutes 15‘ of arc = 1 minute 1‘ of arc = 4 seconds 15” of arc = 1 seconds
  50. 50. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION TIME Time Conversion Example : Pangkal Pinang is located at 2°07’59” N 106°07’01” Calculate the local time according to GMT ! HAHA! PAY ATTENTION! USE LATITUDE ! USE LONGITUDE 106°=> hours = 106°: 15° = 7 1/15 hours = 7 hours 4 mins 07’=> minutes = 7’ x 4 (sec) = 28 sec 01”=> second = less than 15” can be disregarded 7 hours 4 mins 28 sec
  51. 51. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION TIME Review Time conversion : Calculate the local time of Quito, Ecuador 0º15’00” S / 78º35’33”W 78° 35’ 33” => hours = 78°: 15° = 5 3/15 hours = 5 hours 12 mins => minutes = 35’ x 4 (sec) = 140 sec = 2 mins 20 sec => second = 33”/15 x1 (sec) = 2 sec 5 hours 14 mins 22 sec
  52. 52. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION ALTITUDE ISA A certain condition where the pressure is calculated at MEAN SEA LEVEL indicated 1,013.25 hPa (or 29.92 In.Hg) with average temperature calculated 15ºC or 59ºF. How could we manage to measure the exact pressure at MSL? We use Barometer. Mercury Barometer Aneroid Barometer
  53. 53. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION ALTITUDE ALTIMETRY – Aneroid Barometer mechanism The altimeter measures the height of the airplane above a given pressure level. Since altimeter is a modification from aneroid barometer, the main component is also the same. It contain sealed aneroid wafers which expand and contract with changes in atmospheric pressure from the static source.
  54. 54. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION ALTITUDE Types of Altitude Indicated Altitude the value of altitude that is displayed on the pressure altimeter. True Altitude The vertical distance of the airplane above sea level. The actual altitude. expressed as feet above mean sea level (MSL). Absolute Altitude The vertical distance of an airplane above the terrain, or above ground level (AGL). Pressure Altitude (PA) The height above the standard datum plane (29.92 "Hg and 15 °C) is PA.
  55. 55. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION ALTITUDE Height (QFE), Altitude (QNH) and FL (QNE) QFE (Q code - Field Elevation ) : Air pressure above an airfield . If an altimeter was set to QFE, it will indicate HEIGHT above runway level / elevation (AGL) QNH (Q code – nautical height ): Air pressure above local mean sea level .If an altimeter was set to QNH , it will indicate ALTITUDE above local Mean Sea Level ( AMSL) QNE (Q code – Nautical Elevation ): Air pressure above mean sea level in ISA condition. If an altimeter was set to QNE , it will indicate ALTITUDE above MSL ISA ( PRESSURE ALTITUDE)
  57. 57. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION ALTITUDE Conversion of 29.92 In.Hg to 1013,2 hPa. 1 inch Hg = 1,000 feet 1 hPa = 30 feet 1 inch Hg = 34 hPa From hPa to In.Hg. 1020 hPa =…. In.Hg Rule of Thumb, always count nearest to 1000, SO : Take the 20 Get 60 Times x3 Add .53 Get Add 1.13 29. Get 60 Get 1.13 Result 30.13 Inch Hg
  58. 58. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION ALTITUDE Review From In.Hg. to hPa 29.41Inch Hg =…. hPa Take the 41 Subtract 53 Get 12 Get Divide :3 Minus Get Get 4 Result 996 hPa 12 4 1000
  59. 59. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED ISA (International Standard Atmosphere ) A certain condition where the pressure is calculated at MEAN SEA LEVEL indicated 1,013.25 hPa (or 29.92 In.Hg) with average temperature calculated 15ºC or 59ºF. Airspeed is the speed of the aircraft in relation to the air mass surrounding that aircraft. It is necessary to know whether we have sufficient dynamic pressure to create lift, but not enough to cause damage, and velocity is necessary for navigation.
  60. 60. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Pitot-Static System Accurate airspeed measurement is obtained by means of a pitotstatic system. The system consists of: 1. A tube mounted parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft in an area that is free of turbulent air generated by the aircraft 2. A static source that provides still, or undisturbed, air pressure.
  61. 61. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Pitot-Static System The heart of the airspeed indicator is a diaphragm that is sensitive to pressure changes. it located inside the indicator case and connected to the ram air source in the pitot tube. The indicator case is sealed airtight and connected to the static pressure source. The differential pressure created by the relative effects of the impact and static pressures on the diaphragm causes it to expand or contract. As the speed of the aircraft increases, the impact pressure increases, causing the diaphragm to expand. Through mechanical linkage, the expansion is displayed as an increase in airspeed.
  62. 62. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Indicated airspeed (IAS) IAS is the uncorrected reading taken from the face of the indicator. It is the airspeed that the instrument shows on the dial.
  63. 63. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Basic airspeed (BAS) Basic airspeed (BAS) is the IAS corrected for instrument error. Each airspeed indicator has its own characteristics that cause it to differ from any other airspeed indicator. These differences may be caused by slightly different hairspring tensions, flexibility of the diaphragm, accuracy of the scale markings, or even the effect of temperature. It is considered negligible or is accounted for in technical order tables and graphs.
  64. 64. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Calibrated Airspeed (CAS) Calibrated airspeed (CAS) is basic airspeed corrected for pitotstatic error or attitude of the aircraft. This can be called position error. As the flight attitude of the aircraft changes, the pressure at the static inlets changes. This is caused by the airstream striking the inlet at an angle. Different types and locations of installations cause different errors. Can also called Rectified Airspeed (RAS)
  65. 65. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) Equivalent airspeed is CAS corrected for compressibility error. Compressibility becomes noticeable when the airspeed is great enough to create an impact pressure that causes the air molecules to be compressed within the impact chamber of the pitot tube. Since the speed of piston engine aircraft is slightly far from reaching Mach speed, the EAS can be regarded the same with IAS.
  66. 66. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED True Airspeed (TAS) TAS is equivalent airspeed that has been corrected for pressure altitude (PA) and true air temperature (TAT) this called density error. How to calculate TAS? RULE OF THUMB : TAS = IAS ( 1+Altitude/1000 ft x 2%) TAS = EAS √ρ̥ /ρ Effect of TAS with altitude?
  67. 67. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Ground Speed (GS) The actual speed of the airplane over the ground. It is true airspeed adjusted for wind. Groundspeed decreases with a headwind, and increases with a tailwind.
  68. 68. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Effect of Altitude with speed (TAS) Calculate TAS ! IAS = 150 knots Altitude = 10,000 feet TAS = IAS ( 1 + altitude/1,000 x 2%) TAS = 150 ( 1+ 10,000/1,000 x 2/100) TAS = 150 ( 1 + 0.2) = 150 x 1.2 = 180 knots = 177 knots Using formula : TAS = EAS √ρ̥ /ρ TAS = 150 x √1.225/0.875 TAS = 150 x 1.18
  69. 69. OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION SPEED Review : Rule of thumb calculating TAS Calculate TAS ! IAS = 250 knots Altitude = 30,000 feet TAS = IAS ( 1 + altitude/1,000 x 2%) TAS = 250 ( 1 + 0.6) = 250 x 1.6 TAS = 250 ( 1+ 30,000/1,000 x 2/100) = 400 knots
  70. 70. CONCLUSION OBJECTIVE : DEFINE NAVIGATION KEY POINTS : Navigator Direction Distance Time Altitude Speed