LIB 630 Classification and Cataloging Spring 2013 Searching for Shamrocks?Access Points for St. Patrick’s Day
2 Access points?access point A unit of information in a bibliographic record under which a person may search for and identify items listed in the library catalog or bibliographic database. Access points have traditionally included the main entry, added entries, subject headings, classification or call number, and codes such as the standard number, but with machine-readable cataloging, almost any portion of the catalog record (name of publisher, type of material, etc.) can serve as an access point.
3 Plain English, please?An access point is a feature (or an attribute) of a work (book, DVD, etc.) that someone might be likely to choose in order to be able to find that work – e. g. Title, author, other names associated with the work (publisher, corporate body, etc.), subject, keyword, classification number, etc.
4 Access point: Main entryComes from card catalog days One card designated as the one to have all the information about a book – ODLIS: “The entry in a library catalog that provides the fullest description of a bibliographic item, by which the work is to be uniformly identified and cited. In AACR2, the main entry is the primary access point.” • main entry
5 Short DigressionWhat is AACR2? The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) are a[n inter]national cataloging code first published in 1967. AACR2 stands for the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition. AACR2 has been succeeded by Resource Description and Access (commonly referred to as RDA), which was released in June 2010. – From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Form of the main entry 6Traditionally by author The most important thing about a book was that there was a person responsible for it. – Thus, card catalogs were arranged first and foremost alphabetically by author (where one could be found) – e.g. Markham, Marion M. The St. Patrick’s Day shamrock mystery / Marion M. Markham ; illustrated by Karen A. Jerome.
7 Main Entry ExampleBunting, Eve S is for shamrock : an Ireland alphabet / written by Eve Bunting ; illustrated by Matt Faulkner. - Chelsea, Mich. : Sleeping Bear Press, c2007. 1 v. (unpaged) : col. ill. ; 27 x 29 cm. See Standard format for a card catalog entry , part of Idaho’s Alternative Basic Library Education (ABLE) Course 5: Introduction to Technical Services and Cataloging for other examples
8 A “real” main entry cardOCLC Catalog Cards 8 Card Appearance and Card Packs
9 Main entry as source for CutterWhat is a “Cutter number”? Cutter numbers primarily distinguish among books by the same author. A librarian uses a table (e.g., the Cutter-Sanborn Three-Figure Author table that the Cutter family [still] owns) to look up the correct Cutter. Cutters usually consist of the first letter of the authors last name and a series of numbers that makes sure books end up placed on shelves alphabetically, usually by title. – Catalogers decide numbers following the Dewey Decimal
10 Cutter numbers Cutter? Among his other contributions to the wonderful world of librarianship, Charles Ammi Cutter [1837-1903] devised a way to assign an alpha-numeric code for authors last names. Use of this system allows all books within a particular Dewey Decimal number to be arranged alphabetically on the shelf, usually by title. Catalogers try to assign distinct numbers for each name. The Cutter Number from Dewey Decimal in the UIUC BookstacksMarch 11, 2013 Classification
11 Let’s go Cuttering!Cutter numbers The cutter number for a book usually consists of the first letter of the authors last name and a series of numbers. This series of numbers comes from a table that is designed to help maintain an alphabetical arrangement of names. Conley, Ellen C767 Conley, Robert C768 Cook, Robin C77 Cook, Thomas C773 What if the library has several works by the same author? How do we keep the call number unique? To do that a work mark or work letter is used to distinguish the various works of a single author. Cook, Robin Acceptable Risk 813.54 C77a Cook, Robin Fever 813.54 C77f http://library.mtsu.edu/dewey/index.php#Cutter
12 Do school librarians go “Cuttering”? Depends on the size of the school library Most often they will use just the 3-letter abbreviation (or something similar).Cutter #
Personal names How do we write them? Concise AACR2:Why do they call –General Rule: it a heading? Rule 31A Choose, as the basis for the Because the heading [i.e. access point], the name by“access point” on which the person is commonly known. a catalog card was the It may be the person’s real heading, or the name, pseudonym, nickname, title, naheader on the top me in religion, initials, or any other of the card, by type of name.which they were filed in the e.g. Saint Patrick (Latin: catalog cabinet. Patricius, Irish: Naomh Pádraig) (from
15 Titles as access pointsProblem of varying titles for the same work:
16 Solution?Create a “uniform title” “A uniform title is the specific title by which all variations of a work that has appeared under varying titles and which has no identifiable author are to be referred to for cataloging purposes. A Uniform Title Main Entry search can be useful in finding such works. Examples include the Bible, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Epic of Gilgamesh, Aesops Fables, the Arabian Nights, etc.” – Uniform Title Main Entry Search: Help
17 Uniform title ruleConcise AACR2: Rule 59 Individual Titles – 59A. If you use a uniform title, choose the title by which the work is best known. Decide this by consulting reference sources (including other catalogues) and other manifestations of the same work. If you are in doubt as to which title is best known, use the earliest title. – 59B. Choose the title in the original language, unless you are cataloguing an older work originally written in a nonroman alphabet language [Greek, Russian, etc.]
18 St. Patrick’s uniform title?Original Latin title:
19 Other access pointsKeywords vs. subject headings Keywords: the actual words used in the record (from the title, author, notes, etc.), where the meaning of the words is less important, just that they’re there. Subject headings: Words selected from an official list that indicate what the record is about, where the meaning is important (the words used in the subject headings may not even appear in the record).
20 DifferencesKeyword search on St. Patrick and snakes Notice the numbers!
21 Using a subject heading searchSaint Patrick as the subject, and keyword snakes Notice the numbers!
22 Subject headings more focused Both St. Patrick and Snakes assubject, one result:
23 Geographical HeadingsDifficulties with geographical names: Firstly, there are a number of homonym geographical proper names – e.g. out of the seven most important cities called London, three are located in the U.S. [ and one in Ontario, Canada] and there is an island called London too Secondly, there is a great variety of types of geographical names Thirdly, the same geographical place can have [different] names in different languages – Geographical names as access points for retrieving database records. Theory and practices of a library regulation Abstract from Hungarian Library Review.
24 An Irish geographical dilemmaIreland, Eire or what? Concise AACR2 rule 46A: –Give the name of the place found in (in this order of preference): 1) current English-language gazetteers and atlases 2) other current English-language reference sources