LIB 601 Libraries and Learning Fall 2011 Models of Information Searching
2 What is the function of an information search model? Ken Haycock: An information process model, as a support structure, fosters the development of research, problem-solving and metacognitive skills through the collaboration of the classroom teacher and teacher-librarian. These concise models inform students of the problem-solving process and provide context for the assignment. When young researchers understand an information process model, they can comprehend the extent of the task facing them and the necessary strategies to complete it. Information Process Models Teacher Librarian 32 no1 34 Oct. 2004
3 Advantages of a school-wide model Haycock: When teachers and students understand an information process model, they use common vocabulary to clarify terminology and label behaviors, each necessary to enhance metacognition. A school-wide information process model allows students to gradually develop expert use patterns that enable them to reduce reliance on the scaffold and to use the model in different contexts, both in and out of school. Information Process Models
4 INFOhio DIALOGUE Model for Information Literacy Skills Define: Explore/Identify the need for the information Determine the basic question Initiate “Distressing ignorance” Assess Identify keywords, concepts, and possible resources Consider information literacy skills “Tapping prior knowledge” and “Building background”
5 INFOhio DIALOGUE Model Locate Identify possible sources of information Develop a search strategy Locate and retrieve available resources Organize Identify the best and most useful information sources Evaluate the information retrieved
7 I-Search Selecting a topic exploring interests, discussing ideas, browsing resources Finding information generating questions, exploring resources Using information taking notes, analyzing materials Developing a final product developing communications, sharing experiences Read A Process Approach: The I-Search with Grade 5: They Learn! by Carol Bowen in Teacher Librarian (Dec 2002, Vol, 29, Issue 2, p14, 4p).
8 Pathways to Knowledge Appreciation and Enjoyment Examine the world Presearch Develop an overview; explore relationships Search Identify information providers; select information resources; seek relevant information Interpretation Interpret information
9 Pathways to Knowledge Communication Apply information; share new knowledge Evaluation Evaluate process and product The Pathways to Knowledge website is no longer available Sponsored by Follett Read Harada, V., & Tepe, A. (1998). Pathways to knowledge. Teacher Librarian, 26(2), 9. Retrieved Thursday, October 19, 2006 from the Academic Search Premier database.
10 Ws of Information Inquiry Watching (Exploring) Wondering (Questioning) Webbing (Searching) Wiggling (Evaluating) Weaving (Synthesizing) Wrapping (Creating) Waving (Communicating) Wishing (Assessing) Developed by Annette Lamb in the early 1990s
11 Research Cycle Questioning Planning Gathering Sorting & Sifting Synthesizing Evaluating Reporting * (after several repetitions of the cycle)
Choose a broad topic Get an overview Narrow the topic Develop thesis statement Formulate questions Plan for research Find, analyze, evaluate Evaluate evidence Establish conclusions Create and present final product Barbara Stripling and Judy Pitts 12 Stripling and Pitts Research Process Model Barbara Stripling, professor of practice at Syracuse University School of Information Studies (iSchool) from 1/1/2012
Carol Kuhlthau’s ISP Information Search Process The Information Search Process (ISP) is a six stage model of the users’ holistic experience in the process of information seeking. The ISP model, based on two decades of empirical research, identifies three realms of experience: the affective (feelings), the cognitive (thoughts) and the physical (actions) common to each stage. Abstract 13
Guided Inquiry Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Centuryby Carol C. Kuhlthau, Leslie K. Maniotes, and Ann K. Caspari. Libraries Unlimited, 2007 Guided Inquiry is an approach based on Kuhlthau’s ISP, enhanced to offer “an integrated unit of inquiry planned and guided by an instructional team of a school librarian and teachers, together allowing students to gain deeper understandings of subject area curriculum content and information literacy concepts. It combines often overlooked outside resources with materials in the school library. The team guides students toward developing skills and abilities necessary for the workplace and daily living in the rapidly changing information environment of the 21st century. ” Introduction to Guided Inquiry – what is it, what’s new, why now? 15
Need for inventory of expertise Building Guided InquiryTeams for 21st-Century Learners Teachers and school librarians experienced in collaborative team teaching have a good basis for implementing this flexible team approach. They can effectively build on what is already in place. The first step is for participants to take inventory of the expertise at the school—where are the strengths? What areas need to be developed? How will gaps be filled? Carol C. Kuhlthau and Leslie K. ManiotesSchool Library Monthly/Volume XXVI, Number 5/January 2010 16
17 Big6™ Skills What is the Big6? Developed by educators Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz, the Big6 is the most widely-known and widely-used approach to teaching information and technology skills in the world. Some people call the Big6 an information problem-solving strategy because with the Big6, students are able to handle any problem, assignment, decision or task. Here are the six stages we call the BIG6.
21 The Savvy Seven Research Model Developed by Nancy Miller and Connie Champlin What is the Question? What Resources Should I Use? How Do I Find the Information? How Do I Gather the Information? Which Information Do I Use? How Do I Share What I Learned? How Do I Evaluate My Work?
22 So Many Research Models Research Models The library media specialist should have numerous examples of research process models available for consideration by the faculty and can take the lead in teaching this concept to the faculty as a whole. [The website is no longer available]