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  • 1. LIB 620 Library ManagementFall 2010
    Wrapping the Gift?
    Evaluating the School Library Program
  • 2. What are school libraries for?
    The Mission of the School Library
    The school library provides information and ideas that are fundamental to functioning successfully in today’s information and knowledge-based society. The school library equips students with life-long learning skills and develops the imagination, enabling them to live as responsible citizens.
    IFLA/UNESCO School Library Manifesto
  • 3. AASL Mission
    The mission of the school library media program is to ensure that the students and staff are effective users of ideas and information. The school library media specialist empowers students to be critical thinkers, enthusiastic readers, skillful researchers, and ethical users of information . . .
    Empowering Learners (2009).
  • 4. What about school librarians?
    Roles and Responsibilities of the School Library Media Specialist
    Instructional Partner
    Information Specialist
    Program Administrator
  • 5. More on the role of the LMS
    Guiding principles
    Principle One: School libraries have no boundaries.
    Principle Two: Library and information professionals should be flexible.
    Principle Three: Ensure that students are effective users of ideas and information.
    Principle Four: Information is everywhere, essential, and central.
    Lowe, C. A. The Role of the School Library Media Specialist in the 21st Century. ERIC Digest. 2000-11-00
  • 6. Another way to look at it
    Three critical areas of services
    Information access and delivery
    The school library media specialist who has a solid foundation in evaluating information, has technological expertise in retrieving and organizing information, and maintains a commitment to intellectual freedom, is able to create an information-rich learning environment within the school.
    Program Standards for School Library Media Specialist Preparation (2003), p. 7.
  • 7. More from NCATE Standards
    Three critical areas of services
    Teaching and learning
    Earlier versions of the school library media specialist program focused on a consultancy role and stressed locational guidance, but current practice demands a true partnership role, in which the school library media specialist and classroom teacher are engaged together throughout the instructional process.
    Program Standards for School Library Media Specialist Preparation (2003), p. 7.
  • 8. More from NCATE Standards
    Three critical areas of services
    Program administration
    The school library media specialist must understand management and change, must communicate clearly, and must be prepared to take tactical risks. In addition, librarians must advocate for support and must create an environment that contributes to student achievement. . . . Therefore, the effective school library media specialist will exhibit leadership skills among colleagues . . .
    Program Standards for School Library Media Specialist Preparation (2003), p. 7.
  • 9. LMS Leadership
  • 10. Leadership
    Are there many types of leaders?
    Appointed Leaders
    Expert Leaders
    Interpersonal Leaders
    Social/Informal Leaders
    Are you a “born leader”? If not, you can develop skills to help you become an effective leader. Just as you become a better teacher through experience, you'll become more comfortable as a leader over time.
    The Teacher Librarian as Manager
  • 11. 11
  • 12. The Kentucky Department of Education recommends the following resources:
    Characteristics of Highly Effective Teaching and Learning (Library)
    School Library Media Program Rubric
    School Media Librarian Evaluation Instrument
  • 13. Evaluation of School Library Programs
  • 14. Based in part on:
    Preemptive Action:
    The busy librarian’s guide to
    program evaluation
    A workshop developed by thePennsylvania School Librarians Association Professional Development Committee(No longer available online)
    indicates the slide was originally from the above presentation
  • 15. What is evaluation?[1]
    As defined by the American Evaluation Association:
    evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.
    Evaluation is the systematic collection and analysis of data needed to make decisions
    Evaluation Definition: What is Evaluation?
  • 16. What about school library program evaluation?
    Evaluation of school library media centers:
    When you examine something or someone, you examine the subject and make a judgment about the quality, significance, or condition of whatever is to be evaluated.
    Emanuel T. Prostano and Joyce S. Prostano, The School Library Media Center 5th ed. (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999), 44.
  • 17. Purposes of evaluation
    To find out what is right
    To find out what is wrong
    Summary of definition in Blanche Woolls, The School Library Media Manager 2nd ed. (Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 1999).
  • 18. What can you evaluate?
    Library Layout
    Curriculum collaboration
    Reference service/collection:
    Interview skills
    Quality of the answers provided
    Satisfaction of your patrons
    Students or teachers—or other school staff
  • 19. What should you evaluate?
    That depends . . .
    On your priorities
    On your economic needs and situation
    On the policies and procedures established by your school, school district and/or state
    On how much time you have left over from your other duties to devote to planning and executing an evaluation project
  • 20. Why evaluate?
    Because you have to
    Continuous assessment of services can be an ongoing requirement for accreditation/funding, etc.
    Because you want to
    You want to find out how well you’re doing
    You want to find out how well others think you’re doing
    You want to find ways to improve your service
  • 21. Why Evaluate?
    Schools are being evaluated by student academic achievement in reading, writing and math.
    Recent studies show student achievement correlates positively with effective school library programs.
  • 22. Why Evaluate?
    Studies show the positive correlation with student achievement occurs when there is an effective school library program [and]:
    School librarians are full time and
    Librarians collaborate with teachers on instructional planning.
  • 23. Why Evaluate?
    Studies also show an effective school library program includes the following attributes:
    Quality collections;
    Increased hours of access beyond school day;
    Professional development for teachers and librarians;
    Student access to technology; and
    Collaboration with other types of libraries.
  • 24. Why Evaluate? Because. . .
    To improve, the librarian must have baseline data about the program.
    To be relevant, the librarian must know if the library services and resources are aligned with the school’s goals for student achievement.
    To build a case for better support, the librarian needs data that demonstrates the value of the program.
  • 25. What Can an Evaluation Do?
    An evaluation enables you to:
    Determine success in attaining program goals.
    Determine students’ and teachers’ needs so they can be incorporated into the program.
    Provide a basis for resource allocation.
    Recognize strengths and accomplishments.
    Examine the impact of the program on student learning.
    • Nancy Everhart,Evaluating the School Library Media Center, 1998)
  • It makes sense—
    • Focus data collecting and evaluation on those components of a school library program that the research shows correlate with student achievement.
  • Types of Evaluation
  • Evaluation requires standards
    How do you know if the media center is “good”/ “not good” or even “good enough”?
    “Good enough” for what? For whom?
    Guidelines or rubrics or objectives for collections, performance, etc. can be found in:
  • 33. Types of Data
    Students’ success rate in locating appropriate resources in OPAC searches
    Number of OPAC searches
    Size of collection
    Collection supports the curriculum
    Number of lessons planned with teachers
    Comprehensive and collaborative planning is in place
  • 34. Standards require interpretation
    Quantitative: relatively easy
  • 35. Standards require interpretation
    Qualitative: more difficult
  • 36. Interpretation means operationalization
    To define a concept in a way that can be measured. In evaluation research, to translate program inputs, outputs, objectives, and goals into specific measurable variables.
    Program Evaluation Glossary http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/glossary/o-esd.htm
  • 37. Interpretation means creating goals and objectives
    The purpose and study goals should determine the types of methods and measures you use to conduct the evaluation
    Objectives will define your standard of excellence--the minimum level of appropriate service for your particular clientele
    Jo Bell Whitlach, Evaluating Reference Services
  • 38. Methods of Evaluation
    People are aware of the evaluation
    data collection that does not require intrusion into the lives of participants by investigators
    Glossary for Responsible Conduct in Data Management
    People are unaware of the evaluation
    Unobtrusive measures of physical facilities
    Use of proxies—“mystery patrons”
  • 39. Obtrusive reference evaluations in a school library context
    Questionnaires or interviews of students or teachers
    Numbers gathering:
    Reference question counts
    Numbers/types of reference books used
    Circulation statistics
    By external observer
    Self-observation: Journal
  • 40. Evaluation Model
    Define the question.
    Collect data--determine needed data and method of collection.
    Analyze the data.
    Formulate recommendations.
    Develop an action plan.
  • 41. Evaluation Model Step 1.
    Define the Question
    Research Finding
    The Question
    Students whose school librarian plays an instructional role tend to achieve higher than average scores.
    What data are needed to determine whether or not the school librarian plays an instructional role in the school?
  • 42. Look at the rubric
  • 43. Empowering Learners
    Building collaborative partnerships:
    The school library media program promotes collaboration among members of the learning community and encourages learners to be independent, lifelong users and producers of ideas and information
    Empowering learners, p. 20.
  • 44. Addressing multiple literacies:
    The school library media program provides instruction that addresses multiple literacies, including information literacy, media literacy, visual literacy, and technology literacy.
    p. 23.
    According to Empowering Learners
  • 45. Evaluation Model Step 2.
    Collect data
    Determine the type needed.
    Determine the method of collection.
    Existing statistic
    Survey, questionnaire, focus group, observation
  • 46. Evaluation Model Step 3.
    Analyze the data
    • How can the data be analyzed to determine whether or not the librarian plays an effective instructional role in the school?
    Identify areas of agreement and disagreement among groups.
    Identify areas of strength and areas that need improvement.
    Identify areas where more data is needed.
  • 47. Agreement Example--
    Target Indicator: Information Literacy Standards are integrated into content learning.
    Library Staff Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Administrative Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Teaching Staff Response
    12% Basic 88% Proficient ____ Exemplary
  • 48. Disagreement Example--
    Target Indicator: Curriculum development is modeled and promoted.
    Library Staff Response
    100% Basic _____ Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Administrative Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Teaching Staff Response
    82%Basic 18% Proficient ____ Exemplary
  • 49. Strength Area Example--
    Target Indicator: Collaborative planning is modeled and promoted.
    Library Staff Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Administrative Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Teaching Staff Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
  • 50. Weakness Area Example--
    Target Indicator: Students are engaged in reading, writing, speaking, viewing & listening for enjoyment, enrichment, & understanding.
    Library Staff Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Administrative Response
    100% Basic ____ Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Teaching Staff Response
    82% Basic 18% Proficient ____ Exemplary
  • 51. Contradictory Data Example—
    Target Indicator:Effective teaching modeled & promoted.
    Library Basic ____ Prof. 100% Exemplary
    Admin. ____ Basic ____ Prof. 100% Exemplary
    Teacher Basic 60% Prof. 40% Exemplary
    Target Indicator: Student achievement is assessed.
    Library 100% Basic Prof. Exemplary
    Admin. 100% Basic ____ Prof. Exemplary
    Teacher 90% Basic 10% Prof. Exemplary
  • 52. Back to Step 2Collecting More Data – Focus Groups
    How are student products and performances assessed in units involving use of the library?
    How do you determine the products and performances to demonstrate mastery of content in units involving use of the library?
    What is the role of reflection in student work involving use of the library?
  • 53. Evaluation Model Step 4.
    Analyze the data
    • Role of an Advisory Committee of stakeholders—
    • 54. Review the data, formulate recommendations.
    • 55. For example:
    • 56. Because of the strong correlation between the school librarian’s instructional role and student achievement, the Advisory Committee establishes a three year goal of reaching the Exemplary level in all target indicators in the Teaching and Learning Rubric
  • Example:Recommendations for First Year
    • Standards for the 21st Century Learner
    Review the Standards for the 21st Century Learner to ensure they align with content standards and set student expectations for analysis, evaluation and inquiry.
    Meet with teaching teams to solicit recommended revisions.
    Convene a workshop for new teachers to review the standards.
    Adapted from
  • 57. Example:Recommendations for First Year
    Collaborative Planning
    Establish regular common planning time for teachers with the library media staff.
    Curriculum Development
    Review school policies to remove any barriers that prevent librarians from participating in building and district curriculum sessions.
  • 58. Example:Recommendations for First Year
    Reading, Writing, Speaking, Viewing
    Provide a series of author workshops and develop plans with teachers for student reading, writing, speaking, and viewing responses to the author workshops.
    Involve Parents.
    Effective Teaching
    Clarify conflicting feedback through focus groups targeting use of assessment, differentiation, & inquiry in instruction.
    Develop recommendations based on new data.
  • 59. Evaluation Model Step 5.
    Develop an actionplan
    Library staff develop an action plan for each recommendation.
    The Advisory Committee of Stakeholders reviews and approves the action plans.
  • 60. Action Plan Example:Target Indicator: Curriculum development is modeled and promoted
  • 61. This example of an evaluation was…
    Type (which one?)
    Data collection methods:
    Rubric-based questionnaire
    Focus Group
    Data type:
  • 62. Unobtrusive evaluation in schools 1
    Unobtrusive measures of physical facilities
    “The basic premise . . . is that you can learn a great deal . . . by looking at how things wear (‘erosion’), how things are left in the building (‘traces’) and how things are rearranged (‘adaptations for use’).”
    Nancy Everhart, Evaluating the School Library Media Center: Analysis Techniques and Research Practices. Libraries Unlimited, 1998.
  • 63. Unobtrusive evaluation in schools 2
    Use of proxies—“mystery patrons”
    Technique used more often in academic libraries and government documents reference services
    Half-right reference: the 55% rule
    5-minute rule
    Peter Hernon and Charles R. McClure, “Unobtrusive Reference Testing: The 55 Percent Rule” Library Journal April 15, 1986, 37-41.
    “It’s not true, and now we know why . . . the so-called “55% rule” has never been tested against a truly representative field sample.”
    John V. Richardson, Jr., “Reference Is Better Than We Thought,” Library Journal April 15, 2002, 41-42.
  • 64. Importance of a sophisticated model
    “The reference service performance model [that led to the 55% rule] was overly simplistic, samples were way too small, and the test questions were not representative of real-world reference questions.”
    “Students of reference service should learn about the existence of multiple performance outcomes (i.e., accuracy, utility, and satisfaction) and to recognize that each outcome is driven by different factors.”
    “Reference Is Better Than We Thought.”
  • 65. Characteristics of good models
    Measures of reference service must be
    They “accurately reflect the concept being studied.”
    They “are stable and dependable, and provide consistent results with each repeated use.”
    They “require that data be relatively easy to collect.”
    They “provide information that can be used to improve reference services.”
    Whitlach, Evaluating Reference Services.
  • 66. Problems of Evaluation in School Context
    Often the school librarianisthe only one working in the library
    An evaluation project can be time-consuming to plan and to put into action
  • 67. Solutions to evaluation problems
    Depends on your local situation
    Your resources:
    Time, money, available warm bodies
    You and your creativity
    Make evaluation part of your routine
    As you plan/prepare your program(s), include an evaluation component
    Appropriate, affordable, accessible, accountable
    Seek collaborative partners whenever possible
  • 68. Find out more in LIB 604!
    LIB 604 Libraries in the School Curriculum
    An approach to understanding the role of the library media specialist and the media center in the school curriculum, with the aim of developing the school as a learning community, stressing collaboration between administrators, teachers and librarians in planning learning experiences.
    Offered Spring semesters
    Includes a Collaborative Action Research assignment.
    See What is Collaborative Action Research?
  • 69. http://www.animationfactory.com