Information Seeking Information Literacy: What is all this?
LIB 640 Information Sources and Services Summer 2012InformationSeekingInformationLiteracy: Finding a wayWHAT throughIS ALL the wordTHIS? maze
2What is information seeking? What Is Information Seeking? • In the simplest terms, information seeking involves the search, retrieval, recognition, and application of meaningful content. This search may be explicit or implicit, the retrieval may be the result of specific strategies or serendipity, the resulting information may be embraced or rejected, the entire experience may be carried through to a logical conclusion or aborted in midstream, and there may be a million other potential results. • Kingrey, K. P. (2002, Spring). Concepts of information seeking and their presence in the practical library literature. Library Philosophy and Practice, 4, 2
3 Why Seek? Theory 1ASK Hypothesis developed byNicholas Belkin (Rutgers) • ―. . . Anomalous States-of-Knowledge (abbreviated to ASK). . . . Situations Nicholas Belkin in which the patrons‘ knowledge are incomplete or limited in some way, and they need further information to get on, the patrons are seen to be in an anomalous state of knowledge.‖ • Ammentorp, S. and Hummelshøj, M. (2001). Ask a librarian: Web- based reference question services: a model for development. Paper presented at 11th NI&D Conference. Spring for information. Reykjavik, 30 May–1 June 2001. Retrieved 22. September, 2004. http://www.murraylib640.org/Ammentorp.doc
4 Why Seek? Theory 2The Uncertainty Principle developed by Carol Kulthau (Rutgers) • Uncertainty initiates the process of information Carol Kuhlthau seeking • Kuhlthau, C. C. (2004, May). ISP Presentation Retrieved June 14, 2007. http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/recent_presentations /loex/loex_presentation.ppt
5 Why Seek? Theory 3The Gap that does not make sense (“Sense- making” hypothesis) • “. . . Dervin presents to us a picture of a man walking along a road, when he comes upon an impassable hole in the ground. In this situation, he is obviously facing a gap. What Brenda Dervin is he to do now?‖ • Kari, J. (1998, November). Making sense of sense-making: From metatheory to substantive theory in the context of paranormal information seeking. Paper presented at Nordis- Net workshop (Meta)theoretical stands in studying library and information institutions: individual, organizational and societal aspects, November 12–15 1998, Oslo, Norway. Retrieved September 22, 2004. See also Dervin‘s Sense-Making Methodology Site
6 Who Seeks? Theory 1Anomalous State of Knowledge (ASK) hypothesis (Belkin): • “. . . patrons in problematic situations.‖ • Ammentorp, S. and Hummelshøj, M. Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development.‖ Steen Ammentorp Marianne Hummelshøj Both were formerly at the Royal Danish School of Library and Information Science
7 Who Seeks? Theory 2Kulthau’s Information Search Process: • People experience the ISP [Information Search Process] holistically with an interplay of thoughts, feelings, and actions. • Kuhlthau, Carol C. ―An Overview of the Information Search Process.‖ Retrieved June 14, 2007. http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/information_search_process.htm Carol Kuhlthau
8 Who Seeks? Theory 3Sense-Making Hypothesis: • ―. . . [a] patron [who] is seen as being locked in a situation unable to move further because of some kind of gap in his knowledge.‖ • Ammentorp and Hummelshøj, Ask a librarian: web-based reference question services: A model for development. Brenda Dervin
9How Do They Seek? Theory 1Belkin’s ASK: • ―. . . users performing some activity feel that they have a knowledge gap that cannot be filled directly, and consequently they engage into an information seeking process. . .” • Brajnik, G. (1999, June). Information seeking as explorative learning. Retrieved Sept. 7th, 2003. http://www.bcs.org/upload/pdf/ewic_mi99_paper2.pdf Giorgio Brajnik Assistant Professor in Computer Science, University of Udine, Italy
10 How Do They Seek? Theory 2Kuhlthau’s ISP: • ―The critical component of the ISP is the person‘s own formulation of a focus that involves gaining a personal perspective of the topic or subject while using a variety of sources of information. In other words, users are constructing their own understandings through inquiry.‖ • Kuhlthau, C. ―Research Interests.‖ Last Updated January 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012. • http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/research_interests.htm
11How Do They Seek? Theory 3 Dervin’s Sense-Making: • ― . . . the patron is seen as being locked in a situation unable to move further because of some kind of gap in his knowledge. However the patron tries to bridge this gap by asking questions and using the answers to closing the gap, making new sense. As Belkin, Dervin sees the nature of the information need as something situational changing as the patrons tries to bridge the gap.‖ • Ammentorp and Hummelshøj, “Ask a Librarian: Web- Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development.”
12 Who, How, Why? “person-in-context” “active search for information” “stress/coping model” Professor Tom • Wilson, Tom and Christina Walsh. ―A revised general model of information Wilson behaviour‖ ch. 7 of ―Information Behaviour: An Inter-Disciplinary Biography Perspective.‖ British Library Research Research and Innovation Report 10. A report to the Cats British Library Research & Innovation Centre on a review of the literature. Retrieved Sept. 8th, 2003. http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/infbehav/Formerly at the Postgraduate School of Librarianship and Information Science (now The Information School) at the University of Sheffield, England
13Another Why to Consider Self-Generated or Imposed? • internally motivated by personal context OR • thought up by one person then given to someone else to resolve • Gross, M. (2001, January). Imposed information seeking in public libraries and school library media centers: a common behaviour? Information Research, 6, 2. Retrieved Sept. 8th, 2003. http://informationr.net/ir/6-2/paper100.html
14Process of SearchingKulthau’s ISP: • Carol C. Kuhlthau, Jannica Heinström and Ross J. Todd, ―The ‗information search process‘ revisited: is the model still useful?‖ Information Research VOL. 13 NO. 4, DECEMBER, 2008.
15Information Literacy information literacy (IL) • Skill in finding the information one needs, including an understanding of how libraries are organized, familiarity with the resources they provide (including information formats and automated search tools), and knowledge of commonly used research techniques. More • ODLIS
18 Why teach information literacy? 21st-Century learners may be tech-savvy, but they still can be overwhelmed: • . . . Today‘s learners have grown up in a ―wired‖ world. They have constant access to global information resources through computers and mobile devices, and they expect to be able to retrieve information instantly. This bold new generation questions the concept of cognitive authority as mob indexing an Wikipedia permeate the web. Learners are now surrounded by information, whether in print, online, or in sound bites of information. • Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs. Chapter 1: Developing Visions for Learning. IV. The 21st-Century Learner, p. 11.
20Another conceptWhat is Information Competence? • information competence is the fusing or the integration of library literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, technological literacy, ethics, critical thinking, and communication skills • Information Competence in the CSU. A Report Submitted to Commission on Learning Resources and Instructional Technology Work Group on Information Competence CLRIT Task 6.1. Susan C. Curzon, Chair December 1995 • http://www.calstate.edu/ls/Archive/info_comp_report.shtml#What Is
22Or is it Information Competency? What is Information Competency? • ―Information Competency is the ability to find, evaluate, use, and communicate information in all its various formats. It combines aspects of library literacy, research methods and technological literacy. Information Competency includes consideration of the ethical and legal implications of information and requires the application of both critical thinking and communication skills.‖ • Information competency definition adopted by the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges at its 1998 Spring Plenary Session. Available at: www.AcademicSenate.cc.ca.us • Note: Information competency is also referred to as information literacy and information competence.
23 Adding to the confusion of terms! Several other terms and combinations of terms have been also used by different authors: • ‗infoliteracy‘, ‗informacy‘, ‗information empowerment‘, ‗information competence‘, ‗information competency‘, ‗information competencies‘, ‗information literacy skills‘, ‗information literacy and skills‘, ‗skills of information literacy‘, ‗information literacySirje Virkus competence‘, ‗information literacy competencies‘, ‗information competence skills‘, ‗information handling skills‘, ‗information problem solving‘, ‗information problem solving skills‘, ‗information fluency‘, ‗information mediacy‘ and even ‗information mastery‘ • Sirje Virkus: ―Information literacy in Europe: a literature review‖ Information Research, Vol. 8 No. 4, July 2003
24 Now also as Information Literacies Why the plural? • The use of the term ―information literacies‖ emphasizes the complexity and multiplicity of skills and strategiesDr. Dianne Oberg involved in finding and using information. • Dianne Oberg: “Promoting Information Literacies: A Focus on Inquiry.‖ 70th IFLA General Conference and Council, 22-27 August 2004, Buenos Aires, Argentina http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla70/papers/088e-Oberg.pdf
25 A related term often used outside library media circlesInquiry-based learning What is inquiry-based learning? • An old adage states: ―Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand.‖ . . . Inquiry implies involvement that leads to understanding. Furthermore, involvement in learning implies possessing skills and attitudes that permit you to seek resolutions to questions and issues while you construct new knowledge. •
26Project, Problem, and Inquiry-based Learning Explore the Approaches • Project-based learning, problem-based learning, and inquiry-based learning all three closely relate to the information processing approach. They all fit well with technology-rich learning environments where the focus is not on the hardware and software, but on the learning experience. • Project, Problem, and Inquiry-based Learning http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic43.htm
27Another Related TermResource-Based Learning • Resource-based learning actively involves students, teachers and teacher-librarians in the effective use of a wide range of print, non print and human resources . . . Students who use a wide range of resources in various mediums for learning have the opportunity to approach a theme, issue or topic of study in ways which allow for a range of learning styles and access to the theme or topic via cognitive or affective appeals. More • Resource-Based Learning: Approaches
28Yet another related termLifelong learning • Lifelong learning is the process of acquiring and expanding knowledge, skills, and dispositions throughout your life to foster well-being. It isnt about taking an adult pottery class or reading a nonfiction book occasionally. Its about the decisions you make and the problems you solve in everyday life. From enrolling in an structured, formal education program to considering whether to believe an infomercials gimmick, lifelong learning takes many forms.
29And another! 21st Century Literacies21st Century Literacies • 21st Century Literacies refer to the skills needed to flourish in todays society and in the future. Today discrete disciplines have emerged around information, media, multicultural, and visual literacies. It is the combination of literacies that can better help K-12 students and adult learners address and solve the issues that confront them. • http://www.kn.sbc.com/wired/21stcent/index.html
33 How do we put it all together?Use the school library media center!
34 After all, why are we doing this? Dr. Ross Todd, Rutgers University: • The destination is not an information literature student, but rather, the development of a knowledgeable and knowing person, one who is able to engage effectively with a rich and complex information world, and who is able to develop new understandings, insights and ideas. • School Libraries as Knowledge Spaces: Connections and Actions; Outcomes and Evidence Powerpoint presentation for SLAV conference, Victoria, Australia The School Library Association of Victoria
35 Shifting the focus of School Libraries From: collections, position and advocacy Through: connections, actions and evidence-based practice centering on a shared philosophy andDeveloping knowledge process of inquiry learning and understanding To: making a realA thinking community difference to student learning outcomes From Ross Todd‘s PPT School Libraries as Knowledge Spaces: Connections and Actions; Outcomes and Evidence
36The Library as a KnowledgeSpace, not an Information Place Ross Todd
37Evidence for the benefits Student Learning through Ohio School Libraries (2004) • Students appear to indicate that the school library – not as a passive supply agency, but as an instructional agency – helps them substantially in their learning. • What is clearly perceived to be of help is the library’s part in engaging students in an active process of building their own understanding and knowledge – the library as an agency for active learning. • Review of the Findings Powerpoint presentation. • Researchers: Dr. Ross Todd and Dr. Carol Kuhlthau, Rutgers
38Keith Curry Lance What Research Tells Us About the Importance of School Libraries • At this point . . . there is a clear consensus in the results now  available for eight states*: School libraries are a powerful force in the lives of Americas children. The school library is one of the few factors whose contribution to academic achievement has been documented empirically, and it is a contribution that cannot be explained away by other powerful influences on student performance. • White House Conference on School Libraries • *Now 19 states and 1 Canadian province—see
39 Another summary of impact studieshttp://library.mansfield.edu/impact.asp
40 Mission of the school library? Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Program • The mission of the school library media program is to ensure that students and staff are effective users of information. The school library media specialist (SLMP) empowers students to be critical thinkers, enthusiastic readers, skillful researchers, and ethical users of information . . . • Empowering Learners, p. 8.
41A European view School Library and School Librarianship • The stream of information from TV channels, Internet, CD-ROMs, computer programmes etc. is unending. If the students, when they become adult citizens, are not to feel lost and helpless in the face of such rich sources of information, they must learn [to] devise personal strategies for information retrieval while they are still at school. Information Literacy and ―strategies for independent learning skill development‖ are key components of any school library. • From a White Paper by Gert Larsen, School Library Advisor, Albertslund, Denmark, p. 7 • Part of Project GrandSlam - General Research and New Development in School Libraries As Multimedia Learning Centres A previous project in the same series
42The Key Concept? Competence and comfort with information and information sources • Have you ever heard of Data Smog? A term coined by author David Shenk, it refers to the idea that too much information can create a barrier in our lives. • Information literacy is the solution to Data Smog. It allows us to cope by giving us the skills to know when we need information and where to locate it effectively and efficiently. It includes the technological skills needed to use the modern library as a gateway to information. It enables us to analyze and evaluate the information we find, thus giving us confidence in using that information to make a decision or create a product. • Introduction to Information Literacy, Association for College and Research Libraries (a division of the American Library Association)