On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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In the simplest terms, information seeking involves the search, retrieval, recognition, and application of meaningful content. This search may be explicit or implicit, the retrieval may be the result of specific strategies or serendipity, the resulting information may be embraced or rejected, the entire experience may be carried through to a logical conclusion or aborted in midstream, and there may be a million other potential results.
Kelly Patricia Kingrey , Concepts of Information Seeking and Their Presence in the Practical Library Literature . Library Philosophy and Practice Vol. 4, No. 2 (Spring 2002)
“ . . . Anomalous States-of-Knowledge (abbreviated to ASK). . . . Situations in which the patrons’ knowledge are incomplete or limited in some way, and they need further information to get on, the patrons are seen to be in an anomalous state of knowledge.”
Steen Ammentorp and Marianne Hummelshøj , “ Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .” Paper presented at 11th NI&D Conference. Spring for information. Reykjavik, 30 May–1 June 2001. Retrieved 22. September, 2004. http://www.murraylib640.org/Ammentorp.doc
Uncertainty initiates the process of information seeking
Kuhlthau, Carol C. ISP Presentation Retrieved June 14, 2007. http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/recent_presentations/loex/loex_presentation.ppt
Why Seek? Theory 3
The Gap that does not make sense
“ . . . Dervin presents to us a picture of a man walking along a road, when he comes upon an impassable hole in the ground. In this situation, he is obviously facing a gap. What is he to do now?”
Jarkko Kari, “ MAKING SENSE OF SENSE-MAKING: From metatheory to substantive theory in the context of paranormal information seeking .” Paper presented at Nordis-Net workshop (Meta)theoretical stands in studying library and information institutions: individual, organizational and societal aspects , November 12–15 1998, Oslo, Norway. Retrieved September 22, 2004. http://www.paranet.fi/paradocs/tutkimuksia/kari1998a.pdf
Who Seeks? Theory 1
Anomalous State of Knowledge (ASK) hypothesis:
“ . . . patrons in problematic situations.”
Steen Ammentorp and Marianne Hummelshøj , “ Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .”
Marianne Hummelshøj Holm Steen Ammentorp
Who Seeks? Theory 2
Kulthau’s Information Search Process:
People experience the ISP [Information Search Process] holistically with an interplay of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Kuhlthau, Carol C. “ An Overview of the Information Search Proces s .” Retrieved June 14, 2007. http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/information_search_process.htm
Who Seeks? Theory 3
“ . . . [a] patron [who] is seen as being locked in a situation unable to move further because of some kind of gap in his knowledge.”
Steen Ammentorp and Marianne Hummelshøj , “ Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .”
How Do They Seek? Theory 1
“ . . . users performing some activity feel that they have a knowledge gap that cannot be filled directly, and consequently they engage into an information seeking process. . .”
Brajnik, Giorgio “ Information Seeking as Explorative Learning .” Retrieved Sept. 7 th , 2003. http://www.bcs.org/upload/pdf/ewic_mi99_paper2.pdf
Giorgio Brajnik Assistant Professor in Computer Science, University of Udine , Italy
How Do They Seek? Theory 2
“ The critical component of the ISP is the person's own formulation of a focus that involves gaining a personal perspective of the topic or subject while using a variety of sources of information. In other words, users are constructing their own understandings through inquiry.”
Carol Kuhlthau, “ Research Interests .” Last Updated March 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
“ . . . the patron is seen as being locked in a situation unable to move further because of some kind of gap in his knowledge. However the patron tries to bridge this gap by asking questions and using the answers to closing the gap, making new sense. As Belkin, Dervin sees the nature of the information need as something situational changing as the patrons tries to bridge the gap.”
Ammentorp and Hummelshøj, “ Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model for Development .”
Who, How, Why?
“ active search for information”
“ stress/coping model ”
Wilson, Tom and Christina Walsh. “ A revised general model of information behaviour ” ch. 7 of “ Information Behaviour: An Inter-Disciplinary Perspective .” British Library Research and Innovation Report 10. A report to the British Library Research & Innovation Centre on a review of the literature. Retrieved Sept. 8 th , 2003. http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/infbehav/
Professor Tom Wilson Biography Research Cats
Another Why to Consider
Self-Generated or Imposed?
internally motivated by personal context
thought up by one person then given to someone else to resolve
Gross, Melissa. “ Imposed information seeking in public libraries and school library media centers: a common behaviour? ” Information Research 6.2 (January 2001). Retrieved Sept. 8 th , 20003. http://informationr.net/ir/6-2/paper100.html
Process of Searching
Carol C. Kuhlthau , Jannica Heinström and Ross J. Todd , “The ‘information search process’ revisited: is the model still useful? ” Information Research VOL. 13 NO. 4, DECEMBER, 2008.
information literacy (IL)
Skill in finding the information one needs, including an understanding of how libraries are organized, familiarity with the resources they provide (including information format s and automated search tools), and knowledge of commonly used research techniques.
What is Information Literacy?
And why should I care?
Information literacy skills are skills you will need through your life. We are always seeking information. . . . Information helps us reach conclusions, make our choices, and communicate more effectively. But the good stuff is often buried in heaps of junk. We need to continue to improve our searching, evaluating and communication skills in a changing information environment.
Remember computer literacy is not information literacy. For a comparison, read this article .
Why teach information literacy?
The information explosion has provided countless opportunities for students and has dramatically altered the knowledge and abilities they will need to live productively in the twenty-first century. Students must become skillful consumers and producers of information in a range of sources and formats to thrive personally and economically in the communication age.
American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning . Chicago: American Library Association, 1998.
What is information literacy?
If you are information literate, you are able to
know when you have a need for information
find the information you need
evaluate the information you find and use it effectively to meet your needs
INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION LITERACY: THE PROCESS http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/ody/library/information%20literacy.htm
What is Information Competence?
information competence, at heart, is the ability to find, evaluate, use, and communicate information in all of its various formats.
the fusing or the integration of library literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, technological literacy, ethics, critical thinking, and communication skills.
Literacy, Competence or Competency?
also known as information competence or information competency is a set of skills that helps students sift through the mass of information now available to them in order to locate and retrieve what is relevant and reliable for their research needs.
Simply put, an information literate student understands how to find , retrieve , analyze , and use information effectively. 
Teaching Information Literacy at Pasadena City College
Adding to the confusion of terms!
Several other terms and combinations of terms have been also used by different authors:
‘ infoliteracy’, ‘informacy’, ‘information empowerment’, ‘information competence’, ‘information competency’, ‘information competencies’, ‘information literacy skills’, ‘information literacy and skills’, ‘skills of information literacy’, ‘information literacy competence’, ‘information literacy competencies’, ‘information competence skills’, ‘information handling skills’, ‘information problem solving’, ‘information problem solving skills’, ‘information fluency’, ‘information mediacy’ and even ‘information mastery’
Sirje Virkus: “ Information literacy in Europe: a literature review ” Information Research , Vol. 8 No. 4, July 2003
Now also as Information Literac ies
Why the plural?
The use of the term “information literacies” emphasizes the complexity and multiplicity of skills and strategies involved in finding and using information.
Dianne Oberg : “ Promoting Information Literacies: A Focus on Inquiry .” 70th IFLA General Conference and Council, 22-27 August 2004, Buenos Aires, Argentina http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla70/papers/088e-Oberg.pdf
Dr. Dianne Oberg
A related term often used outside library media circles
What is inquiry-based learning?
An old adage states: “Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand.” . . . Inquiry implies involvement that leads to understanding. Furthermore, involvement in learning implies possessing skills and attitudes that permit you to seek resolutions to questions and issues while you construct new knowledge.
Project, Problem, and Inquiry-based Learning
Explore the Approaches
Project-based learning, problem-based learning, and inquiry-based learning all three closely relate to the information processing approach. They all fit well with technology-rich learning environments where the focus is not on the hardware and software, but on the learning experience.
Project, Problem, and Inquiry-based Learning http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic43.htm
Another Related Term
Resource-based learning actively involves students, teachers and teacher-librarians in the effective use of a wide range of print, non print and human resources . . . Students who use a wide range of resources in various mediums for learning have the opportunity to approach a theme, issue or topic of study in ways which allow for a range of learning styles and access to the theme or topic via cognitive or affective appeals. More
Resource-Based Learning: Approaches
Yet another related term
Lifelong learning is the process of acquiring and expanding knowledge, skills, and dispositions throughout your life to foster well-being. It isn't about taking an adult pottery class or reading a nonfiction book occasionally. It's about the decisions you make and the problems you solve in everyday life. From enrolling in an structured, formal education program to considering whether to believe an infomercial's gimmick, lifelong learning takes many forms.
21 st Century Skills
21st Century Literacies
21st Century Literacies refer to the skills needed to flourish in today's society and in the future. Today discrete disciplines have emerged around information , media , multicultural , and visual literacies. It is the combination of literacies that can better help K-12 students and adult learners address and solve the issues that confront them.
How do we put it all together?
Use the school library media center!
After all, why are we doing this?
Dr. Ross Todd, Rutgers University:
The destination is not an information literature student, but rather, the development of a knowledgeable and knowing person, one who is able to engage effectively with a rich and complex information world, and who is able to develop new understandings, insights and ideas.
School Libraries as Knowledge Spaces: Connections and Actions; Outcomes and Evidence Powerpoint presentation for SLAV conference, Victoria, Australia
The School Library Association of Victoria
Shifting the focus of School Libraries
From: collections, position and advocacy
Through: connections, actions and evidence-based practice centering on a shared philosophy and process of inquiry learning
To: making a real difference to student learning outcomes
Developing knowledge and understanding A thinking community From Ross Todd’s PPT School Libraries as Knowledge Spaces: Connections and Actions; Outcomes and Evidence
The Library as a Knowledge Space , not an Information Place
Evidence for the benefits
Student Learning through Ohio School Libraries (2004)
Students appear to indicate that the school library – not as a passive supply agency, but as an instructional agency – helps them substantially in their learning.
What is clearly perceived to be of help is the library ’ s part in engaging students in an active process of building their own understanding and knowledge – the library as an agency for active learning.
Review of the Findings Powerpoint presentation.
Researchers: Dr. Ross Todd and Dr. Carol Kuhlthau , Rutgers
Keith Curry Lance
What Research Tells Us About the Importance of School Libraries
At this point . . . there is a clear consensus in the results now  available for eight states*: School libraries are a powerful force in the lives of America's children. The school library is one of the few factors whose contribution to academic achievement has been documented empirically, and it is a contribution that cannot be explained away by other powerful influences on student performance.
White House Conference on School Libraries
*Now 19 states and 1 Canadian province—see
A European view
School Library and School Librarianship
The stream of information from TV channels, Internet, CD-ROMs, computer programmes etc. is unending. If the students, when they become adult citizens, are not to feel lost and helpless in the face of such rich sources of information, they must learn [to] devise personal strategies for information retrieval while they are still at school. Information Literacy and “strategies for independent learning skill development” are key components of any school library.
From a White Paper by Gert Larsen, School Library Advisor, Albertslund, Denmark, p. 7
Part of Project GrandSlam - General Research and New Development in School Libraries As Multimedia Learning Centres (see project website http://www.gslam.net )
A previous project in the same series
Competence and comfort with information and information sources
Information literacy is the solution to Data Smog . It allows us to cope by giving us the skills to know when we need information and where to locate it effectively and efficiently. It includes the technological skills needed to use the modern library as a gateway to information. It enables us to analyze and evaluate the information we find, thus giving us confidence in using that information to make a decision or create a product.
Introduction to Information Literacy , Association for College and Research Libraries (a division of the American Library Association)