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Evaluate: 2007 version


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  • 1. LIB 620 Library ManagementFall 2009
    Evaluating School Media Services
  • 2. Based in part on:
    Preemptive Action:
    The busy librarian’s guide to
    program evaluation
    A workshop developed by thePennsylvania School Librarians Association Professional Development Committee(No longer available online)
    indicates the slide was originally from the above presentation
  • 3. Evaluate?
    What do we mean by evaluate?
    verb (used with object), -at⋅ed, -at⋅ing.
    to determine or set the value or amount of; appraise: to evaluate property.
    to judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of; assess: to evaluate the results of an experiment.
    Mathematics. to ascertain the numerical value of (a function, relation, etc.).
    The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • 4. What is evaluation?[1]
    As defined by the American Evaluation Association:
    evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.
    Evaluation is the systematic collection and analysis of data needed to make decisions
    Evaluation Definition: What is Evaluation?
  • 5. What about school library media center evaluation?
    Evaluation of school library media centers:
    When you examine something or someone, you examine the subject and make a judgment about the quality, significance, or condition of whatever is to be evaluated.
    Emanuel T. Prostano and Joyce S. Prostano, The School Library Media Center5th ed. (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999), 44.
  • 6. Purposes of evaluation
    To find out what is right
    To find out what is wrong
    Summary of definition in Blanche Woolls, The School Library Media Manager 2nd ed. (Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 1999).
  • 7. What can you evaluate?
    Library Layout
    Curriculum collaboration
    Reference service/collection:
    Interview skills
    Quality of the answers provided
    Satisfaction of your patrons
    Students or teachers—or other school staff
  • 8. What should you evaluate?
    That depends . . .
    On your priorities
    On your economic needs and situation
    On the policies and procedures established by your school, school district and/or state
    On how much time you have left over from your other duties to devote to planning and executing an evaluation project
  • 9. Why evaluate?
    Because you have to
    Continuous assessment of services can be an ongoing requirement for accreditation/funding, etc.
    Because you want to
    You want to find out how well you’re doing
    You want to find out how well others think you’re doing
    You want to find ways to improve your service
  • 10. Why Evaluate?
    Schools are being evaluated by student academic achievement in reading, writing and math.
    Recent studies show student achievement correlates positively with effective school library programs.
  • 11. Why Evaluate?
    Studies show the positive correlation with student achievement occurs when there is an effective school library program [and]:
    School librarians are full time and
    Librarians collaborate with teachers on instructional planning.
  • 12. Why Evaluate?
    Studies also show an effective school library program includes the following attributes:
    Quality collections;
    Increased hours of access beyond school day;
    Professional development for teachers and librarians;
    Student access to technology; and
    Collaboration with other types of libraries.
  • 13. Why Evaluate? Because. . .
    To improve, the librarian must have baseline data about the program.
    To be relevant, the librarian must know if the library services and resources are aligned with the school’s goals for student achievement.
    To build a case for better support, the librarian needs data that demonstrates the value of the program.
  • 14. What Can an Evaluation Do?
    An evaluation enables you to:
    Determine success in attaining program goals.
    Determine students’ and teachers’ needs so they can be incorporated into the program.
    Provide a basis for resource allocation.
    Recognize strengths and accomplishments.
    Examine the impact of the program on student learning.
    • Nancy Everhart,Evaluating the School Library Media Center, 1998)
  • It makes sense—
    • Focus data collecting and evaluation on those components of a school library program that the research shows correlate with student achievement.
  • Types of Evaluation
  • Evaluation requires standards
    How do you know if the media center is “good”/ “not good” or even “good enough”?
    “Good enough” for what? For whom?
    Guidelines or rubrics or objectives for collections, performance can be found in:
    Beyond Proficiency: Achieving a Distinguished Library Media Program. Kentucky Department of Education. August 2001
    Administering the Library Media Program
    The library media specialist:
    Evaluates the Library Media Program through regular surveys for the purpose of enhancing services
  • 22. Types of Data
    Students’ success rate in locating appropriate resources in OPAC searches
    Number of OPAC searches
    Size of collection
    Collection supports the curriculum
    Number of lessons planned with teachers
    Comprehensive and collaborative planning is in place
  • 23. Standards require interpretation
    Quantitative: relatively easy
    Library Media Staffing (Beyond Proficiency)
    * ** * **
    Under 200 1 0 1 .5
    200 - 500 1 .5 1 1
    501 - 800 1 1 1 1.5
    801 - 1200 1 1.5 1.5 1.5
    1201 - 1600 1.5 1.5 2 2
    1601 - 2000 2 2 2 2
    2001 and Up 2.5 2 3 2
    * Certified Library Media Specialist
    **Library Clerk - Classified
  • 24. Standards require interpretation
    Qualitative: more difficult
    Program Evaluation Rubric, “Beyond Proficiency,” pp. 20-26.
    Standard 2:
    “The Library Media Program promotes and supports student learning and achievement through its policies, programs and collection.”
    “Students are empowered to use the media center to access information and reading for pleasure.”
  • 25. Interpretation means operationalization
    To define a concept in a way that can be measured. In evaluation research, to translate program inputs, outputs, objectives, and goals into specific measurable variables.
    Program Evaluation Glossary
  • 26. Interpretation means creating goals and objectives
    The purpose and study goals should determine the types of methods and measures you use to conduct the evaluation
    Objectives will define your standard of excellence--the minimum level of appropriate service for your particular clientele
    Jo Bell Whitlach, Evaluating Reference Services
  • 27. Methods of Evaluation
    People are aware of the evaluation
    People are unaware of the evaluation
    Unobtrusive measures of physical facilities
    Use of proxies—“mystery patrons”
  • 28. Obtrusive reference evaluations in a school library context
    Questionnaires or interviews of students or teachers
    Numbers gathering:
    Reference question counts
    Numbers/types of reference books used
    Circulation statistics
    By external observer
    Self-observation: Journal
  • 29. For example. . .
    Research finding:
    Students whose school librarian plays an instructional role tend to achieve higher than average test scores. This is also dependent on collaboration between school librarians and teachers and the inclusion of the library materials in the curriculum.
  • 30. Evaluation Model
    Define the question.
    Collect data--determine needed data and method of collection.
    Analyze the data.
    Formulate recommendations.
    Develop an action plan.
  • 31. Evaluation Model Step 1.
    Define the Question
    The Question
    Research Finding
    Students whose school librarian plays an instructional role tend to achieve higher than average scores.
    What data are needed to determine whether or not the school librarian plays an instructional role in the school?
  • 32. Look at the rubric
    Beyond Proficiency:
    3. The Library Media program supports
    collaborative planning with the staff for
    the enhancement of instruction and support of student achievement.
    The LMS teams with teachers in the formal planning of student-centered authentic learning and project-based teaching and is a teaching partner.
  • 33. According toInformation Power--
    Instructional role is determined by:
    Collaboration between school librarians and teachers that results in the inclusion of library materials in the curriculum.
  • 34. According toInformation Power--
    Instructional role is defined by:
    Information literacy standards
    Collaborative planning
    Effective teaching
    Differentiated learning options
    Student Engagement
  • 35. According to Empowering Learners
    Guideline 1:
    The school library media program promotes collaboration among members of the learning community and encourages learners to be independent, lifelong users and producers of information.
  • 36. Guideline 3:
    The school library media program provides instruction that addresses multiple literacies, including information literacy, media literacy, visual literacy, and technology literacy.
    According to Empowering Learners
  • 37. Evaluation Model Step 2.Collect data
    Determine the type needed.
    Determine the method of collection.
    Existing statistic
    Survey, questionnaire, focus group, observation
  • 38. One method to collect data--
    Use Information Power’s Teaching and Learning Rubric as a questionnaire.
    Administer it to
    School Library staff,
    Administrative staff,
    Teaching staff.
    Summarize each group; determine where perceptions differ and agree.
  • 39. Data collected from the Teaching and Learning Rubric are qualitative--
    Principal puts librarian on weekly faculty meeting agenda to encourage library use and promote curriculum-oriented library materials. Math teacher does not see an easy connect and tunes out.
    When completing the questionnaire--
    School librarian & principal:  EXEMPLARY!
    Math teacher: 0 NOTHING!
  • 40. Evaluation Model Step 3.Analyze the data
    How can the data be analyzed to determine whether or not the librarian plays an effective instructional role in the school?
    Identify areas of agreement and disagreement among groups.
    Identify areas of strength and areas that need improvement.
    Identify areas where more data is needed.
  • 41. Agreement Example--
    Target Indicator: Information Literacy Standards are integrated into content learning.
    Library Staff Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Administrative Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Teaching Staff Response
    12% Basic 88% Proficient ____ Exemplary
  • 42. Disagreement Example--
    Target Indicator: Curriculum development is modeled and promoted.
    Library Staff Response
    100% Basic _____ Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Administrative Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Teaching Staff Response
    82%Basic 18% Proficient ____ Exemplary
  • 43. Strength Area Example--
    Target Indicator: Collaborative planning is modeled and promoted.
    Library Staff Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Administrative Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Teaching Staff Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
  • 44. Weakness Area Example--
    Target Indicator: Students are engaged in reading, writing, speaking, viewing & listening for enjoyment, enrichment, & understanding.
    Library Staff Response
    ____Basic 100% Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Administrative Response
    100% Basic ____ Proficient ____ Exemplary
    Teaching Staff Response
    82% Basic 18% Proficient ____ Exemplary
  • 45. Contradictory Data Example—
    Target Indicator:Effective teaching modeled & promoted.
    Library Basic ____ Prof. 100% Exemplary
    Admin. ____ Basic ____ Prof. 100% Exemplary
    Teacher Basic 60% Prof. 40% Exemplary
    Target Indicator: Student achievement is assessed.
    Library 100% Basic Prof. Exemplary
    Admin. 100% Basic ____ Prof. Exemplary
    Teacher 90% Basic 10% Prof. Exemplary
  • 46. Back to Step 2Collecting More Data – Focus Groups
    How are student products and performances assessed in units involving use of the library?
    How do you determine the products and performances to demonstrate mastery of content in units involving use of the library?
    What is the role of reflection in student work involving use of the library?
  • 47. Evaluation Model Step 4.Formulate recommendations
    Role of an Advisory Committee of stakeholders—
    • Review the data, formulate recommendations.
    • 48. For example:
    • 49. Because of the strong correlation between the school librarian’s instructional role and student achievement, the Advisory Committee establishes a three year goal of reaching the Exemplary level in all target indicators in the Teaching and Learning Rubric
  • Example:Recommendations for First Year
    Standards for the 21st Century Learner
    Review the Standards for the 21st Century Learner to ensure they align with content standards and set student expectations for analysis, evaluation and inquiry.
    Meet with teaching teams to solicit recommended revisions.
    Convene a workshop for new teachers to review the standards.
    Adapted from
  • 50. Example:Recommendations for First Year
    Collaborative Planning
    Establish regular common planning time for teachers with the library media staff.
    Curriculum Development
    Review school policies to remove any barriers that prevent librarians from participating in building and district curriculum sessions.
  • 51. Example:Recommendations for First Year
    Reading, Writing, Speaking, Viewing
    Provide a series of author workshops and develop plans with teachers for student reading, writing, speaking, and viewing responses to the author workshops.
    Involve Parents.
    Effective Teaching
    Clarify conflicting feedback through focus groups targeting use of assessment, differentiation, & inquiry in instruction.
    Develop recommendations based on new data.
  • 52. Evaluation Model Step 5.Develop an action plan
    Library staff develop an action plan for each recommendation.
    The Advisory Committee of Stakeholders reviews and approves the action plans.
  • 53. Action Plan Example:Target Indicator: Curriculum development is modeled and promoted
  • 54. This example of an evaluation was…
    Data collection methods:
    Rubric-based questionnaire
    Focus Group
    Data type:
    Type (which one?)
  • 55. Unobtrusive evaluation in schools 1
    Unobtrusive measures of physical facilities
    “The basic premise . . . is that you can learn a great deal . . . by looking at how things wear (‘erosion’), how things are left in the building (‘traces’) and how things are rearranged (‘adaptations for use’).”
    Nancy Everhart, Evaluating the School Library Media Center: Analysis Techniques and Research Practices. Libraries Unlimited, 1998.
  • 56. Unobtrusive evaluation in schools 2
    Use of proxies—“mystery patrons”
    Technique used more often in academic libraries and government documents reference services
    Half-right reference: the 55% rule
    5-minute rule
    Peter Hernon and Charles R. McClure, “Unobtrusive Reference Testing: The 55 Percent Rule” Library Journal April 15, 1986, 37-41.
    “It’s not true, and now we know why . . . the so-called “55% rule” has never been tested against a truly representative field sample.”
    John V. Richardson, Jr., “Reference Is Better Than We Thought,” Library Journal April 15, 2002, 41-42.
  • 57. Importance of a sophisticated model
    “The reference service performance model [that led to the 55% rule] was overly simplistic, samples were way too small, and the test questions were not representative of real-world reference questions.”
    “Students of reference service should learn about the existence of multiple performance outcomes (i.e., accuracy, utility, and satisfaction) and to recognize that each outcome is driven by different factors.”
    “Reference Is Better Than We Thought.”
  • 58. Characteristics of good models
    Measures of reference service must be
    They “accurately reflect the concept being studied.”
    They “are stable and dependable, and provide consistent results with each repeated use.”
    They “require that data be relatively easy to collect.”
    They “provide information that can be used to improve reference services.”
    Whitlach, Evaluating Reference Services.
  • 59. Problems of Evaluation in School Context
    Often the school library media specialist is the only one working in the library
    An evaluation project can be time-consuming to plan and to put into action
  • 60. Solutions to evaluation problems
    Depends on your local situation
    Your resources:
    Time, money, available warm bodies
    You and your creativity
    Make evaluation part of your routine
    As you plan/prepare your program(s), include an evaluation component
    Appropriate, affordable, accessible, accountable