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communication skills

communication skills



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    communication skills communication skills Presentation Transcript

    • CONCEPT OF COMMUNICATION Encoding: The process by which an idea is transformed so that it can be transmitted to, and recognized by, a receiver (e.g., a written or spoken message). Channels of Communication: The pathways over which messages are transmitted (e.g., telephone lines, mail). Decoding: The process by which a receiver of messages transforms them back into the sender’s ideas. Feedback: Knowledge about the impact of messages on receivers. Noise: Factors capable of distorting the clarity of messages at any point during the communication process.
    • DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION What is communication? the process of sending and receiving messeges The process by which a person, group, or organization (the sender) transmits some type of information (the message) to another person, group, or organization (the receiver).
    • Characteristics of successfulcommunication Seven Cs – Candidness (frank, open) – Clarity – Completeness – Conciseness – Concreteness – Correctness – Courtesy
    • OBJECTIVES To direct action To achieve coordinated action To share information To develop friendships To build trust and acceptance
    • Communication Process Model Communication process model breaks down communication into parts Message Encodes Decodes Sender/ Receive Receiver r/ Sender Decodes Feedback Encodes
    • Communication Process Sender: originates a communication message Receiver: destination of the communication Encoding: sender changes thoughts into symbols Decoding: receiver assigns meaning to symbols
    • Communication Process Model Message: idea, thought, feeling or opinion to be communicated (clear or unclear) Channel: medium through which the message travels from sender to receiver Feedback: receiver’s response to the message/indicates the message is seen, heard and understood
    • Communication Process Model1. Sender (Encoder) Initiates the communication If both good and bad news will be given, the good news should be given first If both a simple and a complex message will be given, the simple one should be given first
    • Communication Process Model2. Message Verbal (part of the message that is heard) and nonverbal (body language and the surrounding environment)
    • Communication Process Model3. Channel Means used to convey the message
    • Communication Processa. Immediate feedback Oral communicationb. Other party may not understand verbal channelsc. Other party may be reluctant verbal channels
    • Communication Processd. Need to document the communicationwritten channelse. Message should have detailed accuracy written channelsf. Message must be delivered to many people written channels
    • Communication ProcessTypes of channels within an organisationa. Downward Channels: passing information from superior to subordinate to;• give job instructions• bring about understanding of the job• provide information about procedures• provide feedback about performances of subordinates
    • Communication Processb. Upward Channels: provides subordinates to convey information to their superiors to;• gain feedback and learn about problems that affect efficiency,• evaluate employee attitudes and perceptions
    • Communication Processc. Lateral Channels: conveying information between individuals and units on the same hierarchical level for;• the coordination of tasks• sharing of information,• problem solving• conflict resolution This type of communication is persuasive and suggestive rather than directive or authoritative
    • Communication Processd. Informal Channels: message grapevine A BSingle-strand: Each message messageperson recieves information Cfrom one person andpasses it on to one more AGossip: one individual passesthe news to all others B C D
    • Communication Process / Channeld. Informal Channels: Probability: Information is passed on randomly Cluster: Channel members selectively choose their informal communication links
    • Cont… Not cooperating confidently. Not staying mentally on track. Not listening to what you don’t want to hear. Not remaining patient and calm while driving in crowded talk traffic.
    • Barriers to CommunicationLoss by transmission NoisePoor retention Lack of planningPoor listening Unclarified assumptionGoal conflicts Semantic problemsOffensive style CulturalTime and distance Socio-psychologicaLAbstracting FilteringSlanting Perceptioninferring Information overloaded
    • COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Internal Noise – Occurs inside the sender and receiver – Beliefs and values – Faulty assumptions can lead to emotion – Trigger or hot button words can evoke emotion – Defensiveness
    • COMMUNICATION BARRIERS External Noise – Occurs outside the sender and receiver – Can be easier to control than internal noise – Includes technology Semantic Noise – Occurs when the receiver doesn’t understand a word or gesture – Can happen with different cultures – Technicians using jargon with laypeople
    • Barriers to Communication / Problemscaused by the sender Not much information Too much knowledge Indecission regarding how to present the information The order of the presentation Lack of familiarity with the audience Emotional conflict Lack of experience in speaking or writing
    • Barriers to Communication / Problems intransmission Illegible material as a result of poor typing, poor photocopying, poor handwriting Poor acustics Use of too many transmission links Transmission of conflicting messages
    • Barriers to Communication / Problems inreception The surrounding environment Receiver’s physical condition Receiver’s failure to pay attention to the message – Simultaneous receipt of two or more messages – Receiver is bored
    • Barriers to Communication / Problems inreceiver comprehension Receiver may not understand some of the words used Personal interests Emotional responses
    • OVERCOMING COMMUNİCATİONBARRİERS Maintaining similiarity Emphasize Description Empathy Be patient Establish rules Respects Ask Questios
    • Cont…. Written word Time Humor Always check Be positive Self respect Working hypothesis
    • ROLE OF VERBAL SYMBOLS INCOMMUNICATION Symbols Define Symbols Evaluate Symbols Organise perceptions Symbols allow self-reflection
    • ROLE OF NON-VERBAL SYMBOLSIN COMMUNICATION Express Emotions Express interpersonal attitude Accompany Speech Self-presentation of one’s personality Rituals(Greetings)
    • NON VERBEL COMMUNICATION NON VERBAL Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional.
    • NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Components Examples Meanings Communicated Image Clothing, hygiene Values, competence Facial Expressions Frown, smile, sneer Unexpressed feelings Eye Movements Looking away, staring Intentions, state of mind Posture Leaning in, slumped Attitude Gestures Handshake, wave Intentions, feelings
    • ORAL COMMUNICATION Meetings Conference calls Phone calls Presentations Video or audio recordings Other forms of oral communication
    • WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Letters Memos Email Reports/White Papers Web sites Promotional Materials Other written documents