CONCEPT OF COMMUNICATION Encoding: The process by which an idea is transformed so that it can be transmitted to, and recognized by, a receiver (e.g., a written or spoken message). Channels of Communication: The pathways over which messages are transmitted (e.g., telephone lines, mail). Decoding: The process by which a receiver of messages transforms them back into the sender’s ideas. Feedback: Knowledge about the impact of messages on receivers. Noise: Factors capable of distorting the clarity of messages at any point during the communication process.
DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION What is communication? the process of sending and receiving messeges The process by which a person, group, or organization (the sender) transmits some type of information (the message) to another person, group, or organization (the receiver).
OBJECTIVES To direct action To achieve coordinated action To share information To develop friendships To build trust and acceptance
Communication Process Model Communication process model breaks down communication into parts Message Encodes Decodes Sender/ Receive Receiver r/ Sender Decodes Feedback Encodes
Communication Process Sender: originates a communication message Receiver: destination of the communication Encoding: sender changes thoughts into symbols Decoding: receiver assigns meaning to symbols
Communication Process Model Message: idea, thought, feeling or opinion to be communicated (clear or unclear) Channel: medium through which the message travels from sender to receiver Feedback: receiver’s response to the message/indicates the message is seen, heard and understood
Communication Process Model1. Sender (Encoder) Initiates the communication If both good and bad news will be given, the good news should be given first If both a simple and a complex message will be given, the simple one should be given first
Communication Process Model2. Message Verbal (part of the message that is heard) and nonverbal (body language and the surrounding environment)
Communication Process Model3. Channel Means used to convey the message
Communication Processa. Immediate feedback Oral communicationb. Other party may not understand verbal channelsc. Other party may be reluctant verbal channels
Communication Processd. Need to document the communicationwritten channelse. Message should have detailed accuracy written channelsf. Message must be delivered to many people written channels
Communication ProcessTypes of channels within an organisationa. Downward Channels: passing information from superior to subordinate to;• give job instructions• bring about understanding of the job• provide information about procedures• provide feedback about performances of subordinates
Communication Processb. Upward Channels: provides subordinates to convey information to their superiors to;• gain feedback and learn about problems that affect efficiency,• evaluate employee attitudes and perceptions
Communication Processc. Lateral Channels: conveying information between individuals and units on the same hierarchical level for;• the coordination of tasks• sharing of information,• problem solving• conflict resolution This type of communication is persuasive and suggestive rather than directive or authoritative
Communication Processd. Informal Channels: message grapevine A BSingle-strand: Each message messageperson recieves information Cfrom one person andpasses it on to one more AGossip: one individual passesthe news to all others B C D
Communication Process / Channeld. Informal Channels: Probability: Information is passed on randomly Cluster: Channel members selectively choose their informal communication links
Cont… Not cooperating confidently. Not staying mentally on track. Not listening to what you don’t want to hear. Not remaining patient and calm while driving in crowded talk traffic.
Barriers to CommunicationLoss by transmission NoisePoor retention Lack of planningPoor listening Unclarified assumptionGoal conflicts Semantic problemsOffensive style CulturalTime and distance Socio-psychologicaLAbstracting FilteringSlanting Perceptioninferring Information overloaded
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Internal Noise – Occurs inside the sender and receiver – Beliefs and values – Faulty assumptions can lead to emotion – Trigger or hot button words can evoke emotion – Defensiveness
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS External Noise – Occurs outside the sender and receiver – Can be easier to control than internal noise – Includes technology Semantic Noise – Occurs when the receiver doesn’t understand a word or gesture – Can happen with different cultures – Technicians using jargon with laypeople
Barriers to Communication / Problemscaused by the sender Not much information Too much knowledge Indecission regarding how to present the information The order of the presentation Lack of familiarity with the audience Emotional conflict Lack of experience in speaking or writing
Barriers to Communication / Problems intransmission Illegible material as a result of poor typing, poor photocopying, poor handwriting Poor acustics Use of too many transmission links Transmission of conflicting messages
Barriers to Communication / Problems inreception The surrounding environment Receiver’s physical condition Receiver’s failure to pay attention to the message – Simultaneous receipt of two or more messages – Receiver is bored
Barriers to Communication / Problems inreceiver comprehension Receiver may not understand some of the words used Personal interests Emotional responses