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  • 1. 1
  • 2. Basic Parameters  Current: Uniform flow of electrons through a circuit is called current.  Ampere is unit of Current . Its denoted by I  Voltage : Potential Difference between two points or Pressure required push the electrons from one point to another.  Measured in terms of Volts . Denoted by V 2
  • 3. Basic Parameters  Resistance : Opposition to flow of electrons in Circuit/Conductor.  Measured in terms Ohms. Its denoted by R  Impedance : Opposition to flow of Electron in a AC circuit .  Denoted by Z 3
  • 4. Ohms Laws Def : At constant temperature, Potential Difference between the two points in directly proportional to current flowing through it . 4
  • 5. Basic Components  Circuits : Combination of Active & Passive Components connected in required fashion to get meaningful result.  PASSIVE COMP: Comp. which doesn't have any internal capacity to change energy format from one form to another.  Types : Resistor, Capacitor, Inductors 5
  • 6. Passive Components  RESISTOR CAPACITOR INDUCTOR 6
  • 7. Resistor & Types Def : A discrete components which oppose the flow of current . Unit is Ohms Wattage is a power dissipation capacity of Resistor. Types: • Fixed Resistor • Variable Resistor Schematic Diagram 7
  • 8. Fixed Types  Def : With irresprective any parameter changing the value resistor remains constant or fixed.  Colour code Resistor Fusable Resistor 8
  • 9. Fixed types WIRE WOUND RESISTOR 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 2 Resistor Network 5 9
  • 10. Resistor Family Tree RESISTORS LEADED SMT CARBON FILM +/-5% GENERAL PURPOSE METAL FILM THICK FILM METAL OXIDE FILM +/-1% HIGHER PERFORMANCE WIREWOUND HIGH POWER >2W HIGH POWER +/-1% +/-5% GENERAL PURPOSE THIN FILM <+/-1% SPECIAL 10
  • 11. Resistor Family Tree RESISTORS LEADED CARBON FILM METAL FILM    Mature Market Flat Pricing Declining Qty’s SMT Higher cost  Lower volumes   Performance applic driven THICK FILM METAL OXIDE FILM WIRE WOUND THIN FILM Lowest cost  Largest Qty’s  Increasing LT & Pricing for larger sizes (>0805) 11 
  • 12. Application of Fixed Types  Feed Back Circuits  Tuner Circuits  Voltage Divider Circutis  Phase Shift Circuits  Tank Circuits  Filter Circuits 12
  • 13. Resistor colour Code Technique 13
  • 14. Variable Resistor & its types Def: If the value of the resistor can be varied within the given limit, then it is known as variable resistor 14
  • 15. Types of variable resistor Preset Rotatory Potentiometer Cermat Sliding Potentiometers Trimpot Rheostat 15
  • 16. Testing Procedure 16
  • 17. Testing procedure of variable Resistor  Before testing the VR know the value of resistor, select suitable range in Multimeter.  Connect the one probe to variable terminal and another to fixed terminal .  Turn the knob of VR in clock wise & Anti clock wise direction .  Observe the value in MM. 17
  • 18. Application of VR  Volume Controller cum On-Off switch in Radio  Tuner Circuits   18
  • 19. Introduction to Capacitor 19
  • 20. Capacitor  Def : Its two terminal device, consisting of two parallel plate separated by dielectric material which has capacity to store energy in the form charges.  Measured in terms of : Farads  Also indicated by volts  Schematic Symbol : 20
  • 21. Description of Capacitor  It Block DC , Pass AC.  Di-electric used are Glass, Paper, Plastic, Mica, Ceramic, Electrolyte, etc.,  Storage capacity of the capacitor depends on area of the plate, distance between them & type of dielectric used.  Voltage rating indicate the maximum voltage which can be applicable. (VDC)  µ =10-6 f, n = 10-9 f, P=10-12f 21
  • 22. Capacitor Family Tree CAPACITORS ELECTROSTATIC CERAMIC FILM ELECTROLYTIC ALUMINUM TANTALUM • Non polarized • Polarized • AC or DC operation • DC operation • Lower Capacitance • Higher Capacitance 22
  • 23. Markets CAPACITORS ELECTROLYTIC ELECTROSTATIC CERAMIC FILM Biggest market  Lowest Cost  1206 Long LT  0603 & 0402 good choices  Better performance at higher cost  SMT longer LT  ALUMINUM TANTALUM Large Cap at low cost  SMT increasing LT  Price flat on TH  Large Cap in Small Sizes  Long LT  Price Increases on C/ D/ E sizes  23
  • 24. Fixed Capacitors  Def : With irresprective any parameter changing the value capacitor remains constant or fixed.  Types : Polarized & Non-Polarized. Polarized Capacitor : In which capacitor is either charged in +ve or -ve direction . Schematic Symbol: 24
  • 25. Polarized Capacitor Axial Electrolytic Capacitor Radial Electrolytic Capacitor Surface Mount Electrolytic Capacitor 25
  • 26. Polarized Capacitor CAN Capacitor Tantalum Capacitor SMD Tantalum Capacitor Application : Power Supply Circuits, Timer, Coupling Capacitor 26
  • 27. Non-Polarized Caps  Def: which can be charged in only direction or doesn’t have any polarities.  Schematic Symbol:  Types : Ceramic Capacitor 27
  • 28. Conversion tables Dielectric Y5F Cap Value 102 = 1000pF Cap Tolerance C = +/-.25pF K = +/-10% D = +/-.5pF M = +/-20% F = +/-1% Z = +80%/-20% G = +/-2% Dielectric J = +/-5% Y5P Voltage 1KV = 1000VDC Cap Value 103 = 0.01uF Voltage 1KV = 1000VDC Example shown P/N: NCD102K1KVY5F Example shown P/N: NCD103K1KVY5PTR 28
  • 29. Metalized Polyester Film Capacitor Metalized Polypropylene Capacitor Transparent Polymer Film Capacitor High Voltage Film Capacitor 29
  • 30. High Voltage Ceramic Capacitor Multi Layer Ceramic Capacitor Application : Phase Shift Ckt, Noise Filter, Snubber, Motor Stators, Signal Processing 30
  • 31. TRIMMER Variable Capacitor GANG Capacitor APPLICATION : Impedance Matching in Radio , Tuned Ckt, TV Tuners , Oscillators 31
  • 32. Introduction to Inductors 32
  • 33. Inductors DEF: is a passive electrical component that can store energy in a magnetic field created by the electric current passing through it. L Schematic Symbol Measured in HENRY Practically available value will be in terms Micro Henry & Milli Henry. Like capacitors, inductors temporarily store energy. Types of Inductance : Self Inductance & Mutual Inductance 33
  • 34. Behavior & Description • Inductors store energy in a magnetic field, not an electric field. • It Pass DC , Block AC. Along with Henry inductance is abbreviated in terms of Current also. • It’s a coil of wire which can be wound on air or on a Magnetic material. • The number of factors affecting inductance value are : Number of coil turns Diameter of coil. Spacing between turns. Size of the wire used. Type of material inside the coil 34
  • 35. Types of Inductor  Fixed Types: With irrespective any parameter changing, value of inductor remains constant or fixed. Ferrite core Air wound inductor toroidal inductor SMT Inductors 35
  • 36. Axial Power Inductor Radial Lead Inductor SMD Power Inductor Beads Inductor36
  • 37. Variable Inductors  DEF : if the value of the inductor can be varied within the specified limit, then its Variable Inductor. Adjustable Air-Wound Inductor Variable Inductor 37
  • 38. Variable Inductor APPLICATION Tuner CKT Impedance matching Adjustable Inductor 38
  • 39. Transformer  Def: it static devices works on the principle of mutual inductance, which transfer the signal from primary winding to secondary winding Schematic Symbol 39
  • 40. Description & Types  Works on the principle of Mutual Inductance.  Basic Type: Step -Down & Step – Up.  Def : If the secondary windings in greater than primary winding, then is know as Step – Up.  Area of application: R&D Lab, Transmission station.  Def : If the secondary winding is lesser than Primary winding, then it is know as Step-Down.  Area of Application: House Hold Appliance, Labs , Adapter, Mobile Chargers. 40
  • 41. Types of Transformer  Isolation Transformer  Pulse Transformer  Auto Transformer or Variac  Current & Voltage transformer  Leakage Transformer  Intermediate Frequency Transformers. 41
  • 42. Testing Procedure  Two Types of Testing Procedures : a) Cold Check b) Hot Check  Cold check : By using ohmmeter in MM , check the resistance of the Primary & Secondary winding by Connecting the probes of MM to both sides of coil .  Note down the reading  For step down: Secondary resistance will be lesser than Primary  For Step Up: Secondary resistance will be more than Primary 42
  • 43. Introduction to Active Components 43
  • 44.  Def: If a components have inner capacity to change energy format from one form to another, then it is known as Active Components  Its actions can be controlled & it require external source to work  All Semi- Conductor Devices like Diode , Transistors, IC 44
  • 45. Diodes  It’s a two terminal & layer devices formed using P-type & N-types SC, which can conduct in only direction. Its consists of terminal like anode & cathode. Other Diode : • PN Junction Diode • Switching / Signal Diode • Zener Diode • Photo Diode • LED • Schottky Diode • Studs 45
  • 46. Types of diode  PN Junction or  Rectifier Diode  Zener Diode : 46
  • 47.  Signal Diode :  LED : 47
  • 48.  Stud :  SMD Diode : 48
  • 49. Bridge Rectifier 49
  • 50. Testing Procedure • Step 1 : Connect the MM +ve terminal of to anode & -ve terminal to cathode, then diode moves into Forward Bias. • MM will show the value between 0.40 to 0.65. • Step 2 : Connect the MM, - ve terminal to anode & +ve terminal to cathode , then diode move into Reverse Bias. • MM will show the value 0.L • If any one of the condition fails, Diode is faulty 50
  • 51. Transistor  DEF: It’s a three terminal & two junctions devices which transfer signal from low resistance to high resistance region.  Emitter, Base, Collector C NPN B E PNP C B E Schematic Symbol 51
  • 52. Types of transistor  Transistor are Classified into three main groups :  Low Power Commonly used : BC 547, 549, 2n 3904,2n3906, BC 337, BC 639, BEL 188 , 187, BF 194 52
  • 53.  Medium Power : E C B  Commonly Used: Sk 100, BEL 100, CD 100, BD 115, BD 139, BD140, 2N2222, 2N2955, HC100,BC109, 53
  • 54.  High Power : B C E Commonly Used : BUX 84, 2N3055, MJE 13005, KSE 13007,13008, TIP 120,121,122, 2N 2955, TIP 42, 2N 6543, 2N 3773, 2N5685 54
  • 55. Testing Procedure 55
  • 56. Applications  Amplifier  Oscillator  Switching Ckt  Comparator  Series Regulator Ckt  Sensors & Photo Transistor 56
  • 57. Field Effect Transistor N – Channel FET P – Channel FET • It four terminal devices consisting of Drain, Source & Gate(G1 & G2) • Space between the Drain & Source is know as Channel. • It a Current Controlled devices . • It has more advantage than transistor . • Commonly available FET: BFW10,11, 2SK2155,2SK241,2SK3955, BF245c, 57
  • 58. Testing Procedure  Select Diode Operation in MM.  On Condition: Connect +ve terminal to gate & -ve to source. MM should show OL  Verifying On: Connect +ve terminal to Drain & -Ve terminal to Source. MM should show short circuit.  OFF condition: Connect +ve terminal to source & -ve terminal to gate .MM should indicate OL  Verifying Off Condition: Connect +ve terminal to Drain & -ve terminal to Source .MM Should indicate OL  Reverse the MM polarity & check, then MM should indicate resistance value. 58
  • 59. Characteristic & Application  Consume Less Power  High Input Impedance  Low Source to Drain Resistance  Constance current Source Application:  Amplifiers  Analog Switch  Oscillators  Comparators  Sensors 59
  • 60. Uni Junction Transistor  Def : Simply two layer Junction devices works on the principles of Avalanche break Down Schematic Symbol Equivalent circuit Commonly available UJT : 2N2646,2N2642,2N491,2N4871,2N4870, 60
  • 61. Testing Procedure Forward Bias condition Reverse Bias condition 61
  • 62. Application  Relaxation Oscillator  Switching Transistor  Saw tooth Generator 62
  • 63. Integrated Chips  Def : An integrated circuit (IC) is a miniature ,low cost electronic circuit consisting of active and passive components fabricated together on a single crystal of silicon. Schematic Symbol 63
  • 64. Advantages  Miniaturization and hence increased equipment density.  Cost reduction due to batch processing.  Increased system reliability due to the elimination of soldered joints.  Improved functional performance.  Matched devices.  Increased operating speeds.  Reduction in power consumption 64
  • 65. Types  Metal Packages : SIP PACKAGE 65
  • 66. Types Dip Package Flat Quad Package 66
  • 67. Types Micro processors PLCC 67
  • 68. IC Regulator  Def : A higher end regulator which gives a Fixed/Constant voltage output for varying Input voltage. Types of regulator :  +ve regulator  -ve regulator  Variable regulator 68
  • 69. Types  +ve Regulator : Always Identified with 7800 series.  Pin 1 = Input  Pin 2 = GND  Pin 3 = Output  Commonly available : 7805,7809,7812,7815, 7818, 7824. 69
  • 70. Types -ve regulator : Always identified with 79 Series Pin 1 = Ground Pin 2 = Input Pin 3 = Output Commonly available: 7905,7912,7915,7918,7924 70
  • 71. Types  Variable Regulator : Always identified with LM series  Area of Application : Power Supply section, DC Adapter, Chopper Circuits. 71
  • 72. T H A N K Y O U 72

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