1. Define nursing informatics and clinical information system.2. Discuss the history of nursing informatics.3. Describe the uses of computers in nursing service andnursing education.4. Discuss the advantages of and concerns aboutcomputerized patient documentation systems.5. Identify computer applications used in direct clientmonitoring and diagnosis.
THE BEGINNING NURSETHE EXPERIENCED NURSEINFORMATICS NURSE SPECIALISTINNOVATOR NURSE
The concept of a computer system – not in thesense of one machine but a network of computers,users, and procedures in an organization – implies thatthere is identifiable input, processing, output, andfeedback.1. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS2. HOSPITAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Computers have become standard instructionaltools in the primary and secondary school system; theyare used extensively in all aspects of nursingeducation. Nursing programs require computerizedlibraries, faculty members use technological teachingstrategies in the classroom and for outsideassignments, and academic record keeping isfacilitated by database programs.
The Computer-Based Patient Record Institute, identifiedfour ways CPR could improve health care:1. Constant availability of client health informationacross the life span2. Ability to monitor quality3. Access to warehoused data4. Ability for clients to share in knowledge and activitiesinfluencing their own health.
The most common are the World Health Organization’sInternational Classification of Diseases:• World Organization of National Colleges InternationalClassification of Primary Care (ICPC)• American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic andStatistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
In nursing also, classifications or taxonomies have beendeveloped.• The Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) contains 16elements of nursing data, along with their definitions,in three categories: nursing care, client demographics,and service.
In the United States, five classification systems areused:• North American Nursing Diagnosis Association(NANDA) taxonomy• Omaha System• Home Health Care Classification Association (HHCC)• Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC)• Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)
Major milestones in nursing informatics history in thePhilippines:• Participation of the Philippine Nurses Association (PNA)in the development of Standards for Health Informationin the Philippines (SHIP) in 1999• Formation of the Master of Science in HealthInformatics (MSHI) which began in 2005• Formation of the Philippine Nursing InformaticsAssociation (PNIA) in 2010 as a sub-specialtyorganization of PNA for nursing informatics
• Since 1998, several faculty members of theUniversity of the Philippines began formal educationand training.• By the year 2003, a Master of Science in HealthInformatics was proposed to be offered by UP-Manila College of Medicine (major in medicalinformatics) and the College of Arts and Science(major in bioinformatics) and was later approved tobe offered starting academic year 2005-2006.
• In 1999, a study group was formed headed by theNational Institute of Health of the University of thePhilippines Manila. This group identifiedinternational standards for health information andtheir adaptability in the Philippines and referred toas the "Standards of Health Information in thePhilippines, 1999 version" or "SHIP99".• Representatives from various sectors collaboratedon this project including the Philippine NursesAssociation (PNA) in the person of Ms. EvelynProtacio.
• Development of training, certification and credentialingprograms are in the pipeline for the Philippine NursingInformatics Association.• Future partnerships with local and international nursingand health informatics organizations have started aswell.• Other programs are expected to be slowly deliveredwith PNIAs CORE X strategic platform which stands forCompetency, Organization, Recognition, Experienceand Expertise.
• It is also a major thrust to support the use of healthinformation standards in the Philippines and to havenursing informatics specialists in every hospital in thecountry.
"KNOWLEDGE OF ANY KIND ...BRINGS ABOUT A CHANGE IN AWARENESS FROMWHERE IT IS POSSIBLE TO CREATE NEW REALITIES."DEEPAK CHOPRA