Nursing Curriculum Development


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Nursing Curriculum Development

  2. 2. • Formal nursing education and curriculum can betraced to the 17th century and the French Sisters ofCharity, according to Em Olivia Bevis and JeanWatson.• Until this time, untrained helpers, mostly servants,were nurses. When the order was formed in 1633,the prescribed course of study was a two-monthprobationary period followed by seven to eightmonths of instruction and supervision. The instructionconsisted lectures, quizzes and religious exercises.
  3. 3. • A significant advance in the nursing curriculum,according to Bevis and Watson, occurred in 1860 dueto the influence of Florence Nightingale.• There was a year of training and a probationaryperiod, followed by three years of hospital service.• Curriculum was based upon the development of 12personal characteristics and 13 functions and skills.Most experts consider it a well-organized and highly-structured curriculum, and it was accepted worldwide.
  4. 4. • Bevis and Watson point to the establishment offormal "Curriculum Guides" as being a turning pointin the history of the development of the nursingcurriculum.• In 1917, the Education Committee of the League ofNursing Education produced its "StandardCurriculum." It was designed to help nursing schoolsimprove their programs and standards, as nursingrequirements were minimal and not uniform.
  5. 5. • The work defined objectives, content and methods foreach course. It provided lists of needed materials andequipment and bibliographies. The work was revisedin 1927 and 1937.
  6. 6. • The most significant advance in the nursingcurriculum came when institutes of higher learningadopted nursing education programs, according toBevis and Watson.• Based on the studies of Mildred Montag, whodesigned a two-year course of study for "technicalnurses" in the late 1940s and 1950s,many two-yearcolleges developed associate of arts degreeprograms.
  7. 7. • Shortly thereafter, colleges introduced baccalaureateprograms that based a professional nursingeducation on two years of prerequisite courses andliberal arts.• College-based programs and expanding curriculasaw a "geometric explosion," or a rapid rise in thenumber of nursing programs in higher education,from the 1950s through 1970s.
  8. 8. • In 1949, Ralph Tyler, a consultant with the Universityof Washington School of Nursing, introduced"Syllabus for Education 360," which was then revisedin 1950 to "Basic Principles of Curriculum andInstruction."
  9. 9. • Tylers model was based on objectives or "goal-attainment," according to Keating. Tyler identified fourprinciples for teaching:1. Defining appropriate learning objectives.2. Establishing useful learning experiences.3. Organizing learning experiences to have amaximum cumulative effect.4. Evaluating the curriculum and revising thoseaspects that did not prove to be effective.
  10. 10. • This is considered the Classic Curriculum Model, onethe earliest ideas in education that leads to themeasurement of outcomes. Other models havefollowed, such as the CIPP and Baldridge EvaluationSystem, but the Tyler Model remains the foundationfor a performance-based nursing curriculum.
  11. 11. • Can a school exist without a curriculum?Why or why not?• How does a strong belief or philosophy influencecurriculum?• As future teachers, how important will a curriculumbe to you?• What are the implications of an ever changingcurriculum to teachers?
  12. 12. • Curriculum, derived from a Latin word currere whichmeans “to run,” over the time it has been translatedto mean “course of study” (Wiles & Bondi, 1989).• Ronald C. Doll (1996) defined curriculum as the“formal and informal content and process by whichlearners gain knowledge and understanding,develop skills and alter attitudes, appreciations andvalues under the auspices of that school”.
  13. 13. • William E. Doll, Jr. (2002), described curriculum inrelation to a shifting paradigm, moving from a formaldefinition to a focus on one‟s multiple interactionswith others and one‟s surroundings.
  14. 14. 1. RECOMMENDED CURRICULUM – proposed byscholars and professional organizations2. WRITTEN CURRICULUM – appears in school, district orcountry documents3. TAUGHT CURRICULUM – what teachers implementand deliver in the classrooms or schools.4. SUPPORTED CURRICULUM – resources, textbooks,computers, audio-visual materials which support andhelp in the implementation of the curriculum
  15. 15. 5. ASSESSED CURRICULUM – tested andevaluated6. LEARNED CURRICULUM – What the studentsactually learn and what is measured.7. HIDDEN CURRICULUM – The unintendedcurriculum( ALLAN GLATTHORN, 2000)
  16. 16. • Subject- centered design model- focuses on thecontent of the curriculumExamples:a. Subject design - centers on the cluster of contentb. Discipline design - focuses on academicdisciplinesc. Correlation design - Subjects are related to oneanother but each subject maintains its identity.
  17. 17. d. Broad field design/interdisciplinary• variation of the subject centered design• Compartmentalization of subjects and integratethe contents that are related to each other
  18. 18. • Who teaches?The Teacher• Who do the teachers teach?The Learners• What do the teachers teach?Knowledge, Skills and Values• How do teachers teach?Strategies and Methods
  19. 19. • How much of the teaching was learned?Performance• With whom do we teach?Community Partners
  20. 20. • The curriculum is continuously evolving• The curriculum is based on the needs of the people.• The curriculum is democratically conceived.• The curriculum is a result of a long-term effort• The curriculum is a complex of details.• The curriculum provides for the logical sequence ofsubject matter.
  21. 21. • The curriculum complements and cooperates withother programs of the community.• The curriculum has educational quality• The curriculum has administrative flexibility.
  22. 22. • Curriculum development describes all the ways inwhich a training or teaching organization plans andguides learning.• This learning can take place in groups or withindividual learners. It can take place inside or outsidea classroom.• It can take place in an institutional setting like aschool, college or training centre, or in a village or afield. It is central to the teaching and learning process(Rogers and Taylor 1998).
  23. 23. • Systematic planning of what is to be taught andlearned in schools as reflected in courses of studyand school programs.• The primary focus of a curriculum is on WHAT is to betaught and WHEN, leaving to the teaching professiondecisions as to HOW this should be done. In practice,• There is no clear distinction between curriculumcontent and methodology - how a topic is taught oftendetermines what is taught.
  24. 24. FOUR STEPS TO CURRICULUM DEV’T.:"The Tyler Rationale"1. What educational purposes should the school seekto attain?2. What educational experiences can be provided thatare likely to attain these purposes?3. How can they be organized?4. How can we determine whether these purposes arebeing attained?
  25. 25. • She believe that those who teach curriculum, theteacher could participate in developing it.• She advocated the teachers take inductive approachthe act or process of inducting somebody into aposition or an organization .
  26. 26. • Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of thelarger society• Formulation of learning objectives• Selection of learning content• Selection of learning experiences• Organization of learning activities• Determination of what to evaluate and the means ofdoing it
  28. 28. • Curriculum conceptualization and legitimation• Curriculum diagnosis• Content selection• Experience selection• Implementation• Evaluation
  29. 29. • Technical - relating to specializing in industrialtechniques or subjects or applied science• Scientific - relating to conforming to science or itsprinciples• It allows us to plan of mind
  30. 30. • To those who believe in approach , it is not thevehicle for dehumanizing education , but rather a wayof planning to optimize students learning and allowthem to increase their output.• According to this point of view, curriculumdevelopment is a plan or blueprint for structuring thelearning environment and coordinating elements ofpersonnel, materials, equipment.
  31. 31. Uses empirical methods wouldanswer the question.WHAT SHALL BE TAUGHT?
  32. 32. • They tress not the outputs of production but ratherthe learner, especially through activity-orientedapproaches to learning• Those favoring this approach note that not all ends ofeducation can be known nor indeed do they need tobe known in all cases• Considered the curriculum evolved rather than beingplanned precisely
  33. 33. • Advocates might well identified themselves aspostmodern, realize that one cannot separatecurriculum development from the people involved inthe process or from those who will experience thecurriculum• View world not a machine but as a living organism• Focus of curriculum activity not the content but theindividual
  34. 34. • Curriculum Development appears to be a living,breathing or organism, rather than a cold, precise,exact and certain machine that dehumanizes thoseinvolved in its development and those whoexperience the products of such development
  35. 35. • He posits technical model the one who accepts theassumption of modernity, also limited by its sensitivityto the politics of curriculum making and thatcurriculum cannot be generated in a manner that isneat systematic, or ends oriented.
  36. 36. • In this process, educators make known their ideasand values as to what is essential for learning andwhat is to be taught, what contents is to be praisedand the very function of itself• It enables individuals to realize that means and endsaffect each other, constantly modifying the very realityabout which one is deliberating
  37. 37. ANALYZE PHASES• in the analysis phase, the instructional problem isclarified, the instructional goals and objectives areestablished and the learning environment andlearners existing knowledge and skills are identified.
  38. 38. DESIGN PHASES• The design phase deals with learning objectives,assessment instruments, exercises, content, subjectmatter analysis, lesson planning and media selection.The design phase should be systematic and specific.
  39. 39. DEVELOP PHASES• The development phase is where instructionaldesigners and developers create and assemble thecontent assets that were blueprinted in the designphases.
  40. 40. IMPLEMENT PHASES• During the implementation phase, a procedure fortraining the facilitators and the learners is developed.The facilitators training should cover the coursecurriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery,and testing procedures.
  41. 41. EVALUATION PHASES• Ongoing cycle of (formative and summative)evaluation of all aspects of the curriculum in order tounderstand how the program works, how successfullyit works, and whether it, in all its complexity, isresponding to students‟ needs, teachers‟ abilities.
  43. 43. 1. Aim: one sentence (more or less) description ofoverall purpose of curriculum, including audience andthe topic2. Rationale: paragraph describing why aim is worthachieving. This section would include assessment ofneeds.3. Goals and objectives: list of the learning outcomesexpected from participation in the curriculum. Thissection includes a discussion of how the curriculumsupports national, state, and local standards.
  44. 44. 4. AUDIENCE AND PRE-REQUISITES: describes whothe curriculum is for and the prior knowledge, skills,and attitudes of those learners likely to be successfulwith the curriculum.5. SUBJECT-MATTER DESCRIPTION: designation ofwhat area of content, facts, arena of endeavor, thatthe curriculum deals with. (This is a furtherelaboration of the "topic" description in the Aim.)
  45. 45. 6. INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN: describes the activitiesthe learners are going to engage in, and thesequence of those activities. Also describes whatthe TEACHER is to do in order to facilitate thoseactivities.7. MATERIALS: lists materials necessary forsuccessful teaching of the curriculum. Includes a listof web pages
  46. 46. 8. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION PLAN: includesplan for assessing learning and evaluating thecurriculum as a whole. May include description of amodel project, sample exam questions, or otherelements of assessment. Also should include planfor evaluating the curriculum as a whole, includingfeedback from learning
  47. 47. Based on the 1987 Philippine Constitution, all schoolsshould aim to:1. inculcate patriotism and nationalism2. foster love of humanity3. promote respect for human rights.4. appreciate the role of national heroes in the historicaldevelopment of the country.5. teach the rights and duties of the citizenship.6. strengthen ethical and spiritual values7. develop moral character and personal discipline8. encourage critical and creative thinking9. broaden scientific and technological knowledge andpromote vocational efficiency
  48. 48. • It is a clear concept of what the institution would liketo become in the future.• It provides the focal point or unifying elementaccording to which the school staff, faculty, studentsperform individually or collectively.• It is a guiding post around which all educationalefforts including curricula that should be directed.• It should be ambitious
  49. 49. • It spells out how it intends to carry out its vision.• It targets to produce the kind of persons thestudents will become after having been educatedover a certain period of time.
  50. 50. • These are translated vision and mission which arebroad statements or intents to be accomplished.• These are called educational objectives.• Objectives direct the change in behavior which isthe ultimate aim of learning.• They provide the bases for the selection of learningcontent and experiences.• They also set the criteria against which learningoutcomes will be evaluated.
  51. 51. • Information to be learned in school.• It is another term for knowledge.• It is a collection of facts, concepts generalization,principles and theories• Two types of curriculuma. SUBJECT CENTERED VIEW – It represents therepository of accumulated discoveries andinventions of man down the centuries, due toman‟s exploration of his world.
  52. 52. b. LEARNER – CENTERED CURRICULUM –relates knowledge to the individuals personaland social world and how he or she definesreality.
  53. 53. EDUCATION EXPERIENCES MUST BE ORGANIZEDTO REINFORCE EACH OTHER.• Continuity - refers to the vertical reiteration of majorcurricular elements.• Sequence - refers to experiences built uponpreceding curricular elements but in more breadthand detail.• Integration - unified view of things. Solving problemsin arithmetic as well as in other disciplines.• We aim for educational effectiveness & efficiency.
  54. 54. • That ordering of the experience had to be somewhatsystematic so as to produce a maximum cumulativeeffect• Organizing elements such as: ideas, concept, valuesand skills showed be a woven as a threads into acurriculum fabric• These elements could serve as organizer and meansand method of instruction and could relate thedifferent learning experiences among differentsubjects
  55. 55. • They have all content, regardless of• Their design or developmental models• How individuals view the content is affected by theirview of knowledge and reality their philosophicalposture
  56. 56. What will lead to student self-sufficiency?What is significant?
  57. 57. Two definitions of "significant":1. having or conveying a meaning; expressive,suggesting or implying deeper or unstatedmeaning important, notable; consequential2. what is valid?3. what is interesting?NOTE: Student may not even KNOW his own interestsWhat is useful? What is learnable? What is feasible?
  58. 58. • The core of the heart of the curriculum• Instructional strategies, methods, educationalactivities like field viewing, conducting experiments,interacting with computer programs, field trips andother experiential learning.
  59. 59. 1. Valid in light of the ways in which knowledge andskills will be applied in out-of-school situations2. Feasible In terms of time, staff expertise, facilitiesavailable within and outside of the school ,community expectations3. Optimal in terms of students learning the content4. Capable of students to develop their thinking skillsand rational powers
  60. 60. 5. Such students can broaden their interest6. Capable of stimulating students greaterunderstanding of their own existence as individual oras a member of a group7. Capable of fostering students an openness to newexperience &tolerance act‟s diversity8. To facilitate learning and motivates students continuelearning
  61. 61. 9. Capable of allowing students to address their needs10.Such that they will foster the total dev‟t. of studentscognitive, affective, psychomotor, social and spiritualdomain
  62. 62. • It may refer to the formal determination of thequality, effectiveness or value of the program,process, product of the curriculum
  63. 63. • Context – refers to the environment of the curriculum.Context evaluation refers to situation analysis• Input – refers to the integration of the curriculum whichinclude goals, instructional strategies, the learners, theteachers, the contents and all the materials needed• Process – refers to the ways and means of howcurriculum has been implemented.• Product – Indicates if the curriculum accomplishes itsgoal. It will determine to what extent the curriculumobjectives have been achieved.
  64. 64. PROCESS OF THE CURRICULUM EVALUATION1. Focus on one particular component of thecurriculum2. Collect or gather information3. Organize the information4. Analyze information5. Report the information
  65. 65. • Upgrading the quality of the teaching - learningprocess• Increasing the capability the teacher• Broadening the delivery of education• Revolutionizing the use of technology to boosteducational paradigm shifts.
  66. 66. • Pilot Testing or Field try out- this process involvesgathering empirical data to support whether thematerial or the curriculum is useful, reliable, relevantand valid• It is a developmental process that gives the signal asto whether the particular curriculum can already beimplemented with confidence.
  67. 67. • Curriculum Monitoring - a periodic assessment andadjustment during the try - out period.• It provides a decision that would even end orterminate the program• Curriculum Evaluation - refers to the systematicprocess of judging the value , effectiveness andadequacy of a curriculum
  68. 68. TWO WAYS OF CURRICULUM EVALUATION1. School Based evaluation- an approach to curriculumevaluation which places the content, design,operation, and maintenance of evaluation procedurein the hands of the school personnel.2. Accreditation- voluntary process of submitting acurricular program to the external accrediting bodyfor review in any level of education.
  69. 69. • Curriculum and Program studies• Classroom Management• Instructional Processes or methodologies• Graduation requirements• Administrative Support for Effective Instruction• Evaluation of Academic Performance of students
  70. 70. • Highlight curriculum expectations• Gather information about what students know andcan do• Motivate student to learn better• Motivate and encourage teachers to meet theidentified needs of students• Provide evidence to tell how well the students havelearned.• Obtain feedback that helps teachers, students andparents make good decisions to guide instruction
  71. 71. • What shall be included for purpose of learning? Afterthat, the deal with HOW to present, and arrange theWHAT that is selected for learning, so that studentscan learn or experience.• First they deal with knowledge & content specificallythey deal with teaching and learning experience• Regardless of their philosophical orientation, thiselements will not ignore
  72. 72. • Meat of curriculum plan but can consider theexperiences planned for students as the heart.• Key factors that shape the learners orientation to thecontent and understanding to it.• TABA noted “perhaps the first important considerationin achieving the wider range of objectives is the factthat the learning experience not the content means ofachieving the all objectives besides those knowledgeand understanding.
  73. 73. • Patrick Slattery noted “ education is a humanactivity that is greatly affected by the environment” Itis a placed in which individual affects their innerexperiences• John Holt pointed out space “creates activity‟‟ itallows students „‟to generate places and moods‟‟.
  74. 74. • Should address social needs, security needsand belongingness, as well as development ofself awareness and empathy for other
  75. 75. HAWKINGS AND VINTON• Stated long ago that classroom can no longer be thesole learning environmentLANG• Noted that “ occupants of classroom must „peek‟ outwith windows, to the world beyond for illuminationand views
  76. 76. He Is referring to educational elements/essential criteriain school for optimal educational space like;• Volume - must consider the scale and shape of theeducational activity ex. Silent reading in classroom,instance of quietness• Acoustic - auditory, audile, sound that conducive tolearning• Illumination - lights present in the educationalenvironment• Temperature - not too cold and not too hot classroom
  77. 77. • In developing the curriculum involves a large numberof persons, both school based, and community based.
  78. 78. POLITICAL PARTICIPANTS• Concerned with providing programs to the learners.• Both educators and non educators, will determinedwhat types of curricula will benefit what students howto select curricula, who will receive the benefit ofparticular curricula and how to deliver those benefits
  79. 79. SCHOOL PARTICIPANTSTEACHER• Most powerful implementers in curriculumdevelopment• Decide the what aspects of curriculum newdeveloped and undergoing, determined the spenttime and how much of it on developing basic skills orcritical thinking skills
  80. 80. • Involved in curriculum committee which organizedcurriculum by grade level, some organized accordingto type of students under considerationex. Gifted child or committee of disabled learning• teaching is implementing curriculum developmentactivity, from formation of goal and aims to theevaluation and maintenance of the curriculum
  81. 81. • “Teacher should be viewed as an intellectual engagedin some form of thinking.• Teacher should not be viewed as a “PerformerProfessionally equipped to realizes effectively anygoals set for them
  82. 82. STUDENTS• Secondary students are more involved in curriculumplanning developmentRONALD DOLL note:• Students are the “consumers” of education and theydeserved to supply input to educators regardingcurricular matters
  83. 83. PRINCIPALS• Curriculum leaders, they restructure the schoolMARY RAYWID note;• considered restructuralists, proposed 2 broadstrategies to attain their goals regarding the changingauthorities and governance• Return authority for decision making to the school siteand to democratize the process of decision making
  84. 84. JOHN GOODLAD “school site management”• School site should be recognized as the primary unitof education• A place of action” with regard to curriculum decisionmaking, then the principal must be a visionary leaderpossessing a clear view of mission of the school anda strong belief on her professional values
  85. 85. • Large school they are facilitator of curriculum:furnishing time for current curricular activitiesarranging for in services training, sitting on curriculumadvisory committee as a resource agent, and refiningthe mission of the school.• In small school principal actively more on curriculuminitiators, developers and implementers
  86. 86. CURRICULUM SPECIALIST• Major role in curriculum development andimplementation• Chairpersons, supervisors, coordinators, directors orcurriculum generalists.• Expert in creating and implementing curricula, nocontent major
  87. 87. ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT• Primary responsible for curriculum activities• Line administrator, report directly to thesuperintendent• Is a chair or serves as advisor to the generalcurriculum advisory committee• Responsible in Informing major trends occurring inthe field of curriculum and how these trends beingtranslated to the school system to the superintendent
  88. 88. SUPERINTENDENT• Chief administrator of school system and keep itrunning• Responds the matter before the school boards,initiate curriculum activities, starts program for inservice training for teacher, informing districtpersonnel of changes
  89. 89. BOARD OF EDUCATION• Legal agents of school & Representative of generalpublic: spokesperson in the community whichresponsible for overall management of the school
  90. 90. Lay Citizens• Non professionals• Few people would contest that the school belongs tothe public• Concerned in general terms but really not interestedin becoming actively engaged in curriculumdevelopment because of little knowledge aboutcourse content
  91. 91. 1. "Curriculum Development & Evaluation in Nursing";Sarah Keating; 20062. "Toward a Caring Curriculum: A New Pedagogy forNursing"; Em Olivia Bevis and Jean Watson; 1989
  92. 92. Good teaching is one-fourthpreparation and three-fourths theater.~Gail Godwin
  93. 93. Who dares to teach mustnever cease to learn.~John Cotton Dana