Musculoskeletal System Lecture

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Musculoskeletal System Lecture

  1. 1. JOFRED M. MARTINEZ, RN
  2. 2. 206 BONES IN THE HUMAN BODYBone categories:LONG BONESSHORT BONESFLAT BONESIRREGULAR BONES
  3. 3. Proxymal epiphysisMetaphysisDiaphysisDistal epiphysisMetaphysisArticular cartilageArteryMedullary cavityPeriosteumCompact boneEndosteumArticular cartilageSpongy boneRed Bone MarrowEpiphyseal line
  4. 4. OsteocytesPeriosteumVolkman’s CanalBlood vessels
  5. 5. ENDOCHONDRALINTRAMEMBRANOUS
  6. 6. RESORPTIONOSTEOGENESIS
  7. 7. FRACTURE HEALING OCCURS IN FOUR AREAS
  8. 8. THREE MAJOR GROUPS OF MUSCLES
  9. 9. THREE BASIC KINDS OF JOINTS
  10. 10. 1. Connective tissue lose elasticity and resilience.2. Muscles lose bulk, tone and strength as amountof physical activity decreases.3. Bone resorption takes place more rapidly thanbone growth.4. Shoulders becomes stooped and narrower.5. The knees and hips may be flexed whenstanding or walking.6. Posture becomes stooped as the body attemptsto compensate for changes in the center ofgravity.
  11. 11. TEST OF SENSATION TEST OF MOVEMENT
  12. 12. TEST OF SENSATION TEST OF MOVEMENT
  13. 13. TEST OF SENSATION TEST OF MOVEMENT
  14. 14. 1. Traction must be continuous to be effectivein reducing and immobilizing fractures.2. Skeletal traction is never interrupted.3. Weights are not removed unless intermittenttraction is prescribed.4. Any factor that might reduce the effectivepull or alter its resultant line of pull must beeliminated:• The patient must be in good body alignmentin the center of the bed when traction isapplied.• Ropes must be unobstructed.
  15. 15. • Weights must hang free and not rest on thebed or floor.• Knots in the rope or the footplate must nottouch the pulley or the foot of the bed.
  16. 16. • Keep the knees apart at all times.• Put a pillow between the legs when sleeping.• Never cross the legs when seated.• Avoid bending forward when seated in a chair.• Avoid bending forward to pick up an object onthe floor.• Use a high-seated chair and a raised toilet seat.• Do not flex the hip to put on clothing such aspants, stockings, socks or shoes.
  17. 17. BMD or BMC that is not more than 1 standarddeviation (SD) below the young adult mean value.BMD or BMC that lies between 1.0 and 2.5 SD belowthe young adult mean value.BMD or BMC that lies between 1.0 and 2.5 SD belowthe young adult mean value.BMD or BMC more than 2.5 SD below the youngadult mean value and presence of fragility fractures.

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