THE MORAL ISSUES OFAND CLAIM TO HEALTH CARECHAPTER 15
Control or alteration of human behavior by thedeliberate use of technology.
Also known as psychosurgery, a lobotomy is thetechnical process of cutting into or across a lobe of thebrain, especially in order to modify or eliminate somefunctions associated with a mental disorder.It involves a surgical removal or destruction of a braintissue for the purpose of altering behavior, moods, ormental states.
CINGULOTRACTOMYIt is a procedure used to treatment depression-anxietystates, obsessional neuroses that have notresponded to other treatments.
THALAMOTOMYIt is a procedure in which parts of the thalamus aresurgically severed or destroyed.
AMYGDALATOMYIt is a procedure in which the parts of the amygdaloidbody are destroyed in a carefully controlled manner.
This is a type of chemotechnology in which chemicaldrugs are used for behavior control, e.g., various kindsof mood and thought disorders.
This deals with the treatment of nervous and mentaldisorders by psychological methods such aspsychoanalysis, hypnosis, reeducation, etc.
This stimulates the brain with electricity and the violentepisodes of the patient are aborted.
This is a form of behavior modification that is basedon the concept of operant conditioning. The latterconsists of the application of positive or negativereinforcements.
Moral principles of Kant, Ross, Rawls, and RomanCatholicism rule out psychosurgery that threatensto destroy individual’s ability to function as aneffective agent. It would undermine his autonomyand destroy his dignity.
Health is necessary for an individual to lead anormal life – no one can adequately carefor his health alone.
INDIVIDUAL’S INHERENT DIGNITYEveryone in society ought to be entitled to healthcare, irrespective of his/her social status, financialcondition, creed, clime or color.Every individual is a person by virtue of whicheveryone has an equal right to medical care.
MEDICAL INDIVIDUALISMTo recognize everyone’s right to health care wouldresult in the violation of the rights of the physiciansand other medical practitioners.
SOCIAL COMMITMENTRights may be limited when they grant some peopleexcessive control over the lives of others.A physician’s medical training is a social commitmentbecause it is society oriented.
TWO KINDS OF CRITERIA1. Criteria of inclusion (selection of candidates)2. Criteria of comparison (selection of recipients)
CRITERIA OF INCLUSIONConstituencyProgress of scienceSuccess
CRITERIA OF COMPARISONLikelihood of successful treatment comparedwith others in the groupLife-expectancy of the personPerson’s family rolePotential of the person in making future contributionsPerson’s record of services and contributions
APPLICATION OF ETHICAL THEORIESNatural Law and Ross would support a randomprocedure. We all have a duty to preserve our lives,but we do sometimes have to risk them in suchsituations as in agreeing to abide by the outcome of arandom procedure to decide who will get medical aidand who should not.
APPLICATION OF ETHICAL THEORIESFor the rule utilitarian, the “first come, first served”procedure would be legitimate, although the principleof utility suggests that we ought to take intoconsideration the consequences of sacrificing somepeople rather than others.
APPLICATION OF ETHICAL THEORIESRawl’s principles of justice would rule out thedistribution of resources based on social worth.Whatever benefits are available, must be ofvalue to all and open to all.