Brameld IV (1984 - 2006)


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This time period is characterized by essentialism and No Child Left Behind. In this slideshow, however, we will also briefly consider the social reconstructionists who are writing and teaching during this period.

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  • EDCI 886 authors and concepts: Essentialism says that there is a core set of knowledge common to a society or culture (retrieved from
  • Educational influences: We focus on essentialism in this time period, but the seeds for Standards-based curriculum and “back-to-basics” were planted in the 1930’s; watered and nurtured in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Ralph W. Tyler was the chair of the Eight-Year Study (published in the 1930’s). Tyler’s textbook, “Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction”, was published in 1949 (retrieved from In addition, his approach to curriculum influenced greatly the educational practices of the time period, 1957-1983.
  • Click on one or both musicians (red text) to listen to their music in YouTube. Fine arts influences: Music is Latin!
  • Political events and influences (international): summarized from
  • The Berlin Wall comes down in 1989 and the Soviet Union ceased to exist in 1991 Did these changes in Europe affect the United States? If so, how? Were there effects on education? Educational policy? Educational practices?
  • Political events and influences (US & Int’l): summary of events during Clinton administration from and
  • Political events and influences (US & Int’l): summary of events taken from and; for more information on NCLB, go to: The image was taken by one of the flight crew above the Globemaster II evacuating Katrina refugees from New Orleans to Georgia (retrieved from
  • Economic and Technological influences: Google Wave (which just came out) is the next big social media application ( Think about the cultural changes that occur because of social media. In addition, think about the control exerted when the IT people in a school district block the Internet. Finally, consider ways that the IT blocking could be overcome (if there are any!).
  • Educational practices: A Nation at Risk changes everything and prepares the way for NCLB Other Educational influences:
  • The Reagan Cabinet (1984) are described as “accidental architects” of No Child Left Behind through the release of “A Nation at Risk.” For more information go to:
  • (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 235-240).
  • Click on the image to view the movie trailer on YouTube. What do you notice about culture and class? Is Pierre Dulaine using any unusual educational practices? What is it about our educational system in a NCLB world that we have a need for Pierre Dulaine’s dance classes? How do you account for their popularity and success?
  • Discuss among yourselves and be prepared to report out in a few minutes.
  • Discuss among yourselves and be prepared to report out in a few minutes.
  • Brameld IV (1984 - 2006)

    1. 1. Explosive Ideas in Education Culture, Class, & Evolution by Theodore Brameld
    2. 2. 1984 - 2006 <ul><li>Essentialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. F. Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walden Two </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>atomistic mode of thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ back-to-basics” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Nation at Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Standards -based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>curriculum movement </li></ul></ul>Image retrieved from B. F. Skinner
    3. 3. <ul><li>Tyler (1902-1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight-Year Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Chicago graduate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook still used today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyler Rationale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>linear-sequential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structuralism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>divide knowledge into distinct subject matter areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no integration allowed! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dominated the curriculum in response to Sputnik </li></ul></ul></ul>1984 - 2006 Image retrieved from Ralph W. Tyler
    4. 4. <ul><li>Afro-Cuban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongo Santamaria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notable styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Bop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid Jazz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth Jazz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retro Swing </li></ul></ul>1984 - 2006 Image retrieved from
    5. 5. <ul><li>Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) </li></ul><ul><li>George H.W. Bush (1989-1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afghanistan (1979-1988) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gorbachev (1985-1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republics (1989-1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apartheid ends (1990-1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandela, Nobel Peace Prize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(1st) Gulf War (1990-1991) </li></ul>1984 - 2006 Image retrieved from Nelson Mandela (1993)
    6. 6. Image retrieved from 1984 - 2006
    7. 7. <ul><li>William J. Clinton (1993-2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAFTA (1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WTO (1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yugoslavia (1992-1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>breaks up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Space Station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare reform (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget surplus (1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web (1993) </li></ul>1984 - 2006 Image retrieved from Artist’s concept of the ISS
    8. 8. <ul><li>George W. Bush </li></ul><ul><li>(2001-2009) </li></ul><ul><li>9/11 Terrorist attack </li></ul><ul><li>Taliban removed (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>NCLB (2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PL 107-110 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2nd) Gulf War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq War begins (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Katrina (2005) </li></ul>1984 - 2006 Image retrieved from
    9. 9. <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic giant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>miniaturization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broadband </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ digital divide” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social media </li></ul></ul>1984 - 2006 Image retrieved from Google Wave
    10. 10. Image retrieved from 1984 - 2006
    11. 11. <ul><li>Essentialism </li></ul><ul><li>A Nation at Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>linked to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>school prayer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vouchers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elimination of the Department of Education </li></ul></ul></ul>1984 - 2006 Image retrieved from
    12. 12. <ul><li>Reconstructionism </li></ul><ul><li>bell hooks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receives her Ph.D. (1983) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>begins to write and teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radical pedagogy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>alternative schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deborah Meier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ron Clark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Perry </li></ul></ul>1984 - 2006 Image retrieved from Deborah Meier
    13. 13. Image retrieved from Our “teacher movie” for this time period is the original “Take the Lead” starring Antonio Banderas and Alfre Woodard. This movie came out in 2006 during what we are calling the “essentialist” era. 1984 - 2006
    14. 14. <ul><li>What were the major cultural characteristics of this era? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the primary class characteristics of this era? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did evolution play a role? </li></ul><ul><li>What educational practices were evident during this period? </li></ul>1984 - 2006
    15. 15. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Educational philosophy website </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>National Achievement of Educational Progress website </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>B. F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Peacemakers and Breakers website, Nelson Mandela page </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>No Child Left Inside, Earth Day Network </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in Hand -- netbooks and cloud computing </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Dancing Classrooms (Pierre Dulaine) </li></ul>1984 - 2006 links