Brameld III (1957 - 1983)


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Although educational practices would be described as mostly essentialist or behaviorist during this time period, the student revolt of the 1960's ushered in social and cultural change. We see in this period the sowing of the seeds of reconstructionism through the influence of Freiere, Brameld and others.

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  • EDCI 886 authors and concepts: We call this time period, the age of Reconstructionism because the seeds of social and cultural change were planted, watered, and nurtured by certain events during this time period. There were also strong essentialist activities within education (Tyler rationale) right after Sputnik. However, the focus of the 4th time period (1984-present) is essentialism.
  • Click on one or both musicians (red text) to listen to their music in YouTube. Fine arts influences: Music is cool and still bopping! What do you notice about the narrator of the Thelonious Monk video? Don’t forget the Beatles “invaded” during this period as well.
  • Political events and influences (international): Sputnik I is launched by the Soviet Union (retrieved from The events on this slide summarized from
  • Political events and influences (US): The Eisenhower years were characterized by economic stability, recovery from the war effort, escalation of the Cold War and responses to Sputnik. The National Education Defense Act (NDEA) was passed in 1958 with the express purpose of making sure that American children caught up with perceived educational deficiencies compared to Soviet children. SMSG = School Mathematics Study Group; PSSC = Physical Sciences Study Committee; BSSC = Biological Sciences Study Committee (summarized from Urban & Wagoner, 2004, pp. 293-297)
  • Political events and influences (US): Events and dates summarized from Apollo Project information retrieved from
  • The Apollo program sent several mission to the moon. Could we say that the curricular reform movement sparked by Sputnik I and the NDEA was successful?
  • "A female demonstrator offers a flower to military police on guard at the Pentagon during an anti-Vietnam demonstration. Arlington, Virginia, USA”. This picture is in the public domain. It was taken October 12, 1967. What do you notice?
  • Political events and influences (US): Events summarized from
  • This is a printed map detailing the locations of structures, troop movements, bullet hole locations, and locations of casualties at the Kent State shooting of May 4, 1970 (retrieved from This image is in the public domain. What can we learn (if anything) from this event?
  • Political events and influences (US & International): Events summarized from In 1982 the CDC began tracking cases of AIDS ( What effect(s) did the rise of the Moral Majority and the AIDS epidemic have on education?
  • Educational practices: This is the era where the Tyler Rationale begins to be played out. However it is also the era when intellectuals and philosophers begin to reconceptualize curriculum theory, Structuralism comes under fire along with behaviorism (Pinar et al., 2004). Educators like Brameld critically analyze educational systems (Brameld, 1965).
  • Other Educational influences: Jerome Bruner was a psychologist who argued for a “carefully structured approach to learning the academic disciplines” (I.e., constructionism) (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 296). Summary of information found at
  • Educational practices (legal influences): President Johnson’s “War on Poverty” had educational components, including the creating of the Job Corps and Head Start. However, the most influential piece of legislation in the 1960’s was the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 329) [note: the ESEA is the precursor to NCLB]. The 1974 Supreme Court case, Lau v. Nichols, brought on behalf of Chinese American students in San Francisco, initiated formal approaches to bilingual education (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 317). The Indian Self-Determination Act of 1974 was a result of the Wounded Knee incident in 1972. It granted the tribes oversight of their own schools among other things (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 319). The Education for All Handicapped Children Act initiated mainstreaming and individual education programs (IEPs) (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 320).
  • Click on the image to view the movie trailer on YouTube. What do you notice about culture and class? What do you notice about educational practices?
  • Discuss among yourselves and be prepared to report out in a few minutes.
  • Brameld III (1957 - 1983)

    1. 1. Explosive Ideas in Education Culture, Class, & Evolution by Theodore Brameld
    2. 2. <ul><li>Reconstructionism </li></ul><ul><li>Paulo Friere (1921-1997) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1973) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perspectival mode of thought </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>bell hooks </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Brameld </li></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from Paulo Freire
    3. 3. <ul><li>Cool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miles Davis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard Bop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thelonious Monk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notable styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern blues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soul blues </li></ul></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from
    4. 4. <ul><li>Sputnik I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 4, 1957 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cuban missile crisis (1962) </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli 6-day war (1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin (1964) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US invades Cambodia (1970) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Vietnam surrenders to North Vietnam (1975) </li></ul></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from Sputnik I
    5. 5. <ul><li>Dwight E. Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans (1953-1961) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NDEA (1958) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on science/math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tied defense budget to education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School curriculum reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SMSG (“new math”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PSSC, BSSC </li></ul></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from PSSC textbook
    6. 6. <ul><li>John F. Kennedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyndon Baines Johnson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats (1961-1969) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace Corps (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo Project (1963-1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Act (1964) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>March on Washington (1963) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hippie movement (1966-1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-war movement (1965-1970) </li></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from Apollo montage
    7. 7. Image retrieved from,_rover,_LM,_Irwin.jpg 1957 - 1983 Apollo 15 was the 4th moon landing in the Apollo program (July-August 1971).
    8. 8. Image retrieved from 1957 - 1983
    9. 9. <ul><li>Richard Nixon (1969-1973) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watergate (1973) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon resigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerald Ford (1974-1977) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth Day (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Kent State massacre (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>EPA established (1971) </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded Knee (1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Indian Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viking 1 & 2 land on Mars (1976) </li></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from
    10. 10. Image retrieved from 1957 - 1983
    11. 11. <ul><li>Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Majority (1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Freedom Act (1978) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Indian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolution in Iran (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Solidarity in Poland (1980) </li></ul><ul><li>GRID and HIV (1982) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gay-related immune deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>syndrome named AIDS </li></ul></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from Jerry Falwell (1933-2007)
    12. 12. <ul><li>Reconstructionism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brameld (1904-1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>vs. Tyler Rationale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structuralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>atomistic mode of thought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. F. Skinner </li></ul></ul>1957 - 1983 Top image retrieved from Bottom image retrieved from
    13. 13. <ul><li>Jerome Bruner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ discovery learning” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ inquiry-based” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constructivist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perspectival mode of thought </li></ul></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from Jerome Bruner
    14. 14. <ul><li>Economic Opportunity Act (1964) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Corps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head Start </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ESEA (1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Lau v. Nichols (1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bilingual education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian Act (1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-determination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Law 94-142 (1975) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education for All Handicapped Children Act </li></ul></ul>1957 - 1983 Image retrieved from Lady Bird Johnson (1966)
    15. 15. Image retrieved from Our “teacher movie” for this time period is “Blackboard Jungle” starring Glenn Ford. This movie came out in 1955 at the end of what we are calling the “reconstructionist” era. 1957 - 1983
    16. 16. <ul><li>What were the major cultural characteristics of this era? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the primary class characteristics of this era? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did evolution play a role? </li></ul><ul><li>What educational practices were evident during this period? </li></ul>1957 - 1983
    17. 17. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Sputnik: the fiftieth anniversary </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Science Study Committee, 1956 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo Project (1963-1972) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing the Kent State shooting and the Boston Massacre </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>HIV resources from the CDC, Origin of HIV </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery Learning at UNC </li></ul>1957 - 1983 links