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Brameld II (1940's to Sputnik)

Brameld II (1940's to Sputnik)



This time period is characterized by World War II and ending with Sputnik. We are attributing perennialism to this time period. Individuals who have driven reconstructionism were born during this ...

This time period is characterized by World War II and ending with Sputnik. We are attributing perennialism to this time period. Individuals who have driven reconstructionism were born during this time. Essentialism gears up through Ralph W. Tyler's influence.



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  • Click on the button in the middle to preview. OR you can just click on the right arrow and advance one slide at a time.
  • EDCI 886 authors and concepts: We call this time period, the age of Perennialism. Robert Maynard Hutchins was President of the University of Chicago from 1930 to 1951 (retrieved from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2075/Hutchins-Robert-1899-1977.html). The University of Chicago was one of the universities where many of the individuals most influential in educational philosophy taught (Pinar et al., 2004). This includes John Dewey, Franklin Bobbitt and Theodore Brameld; yet, the President of that university was a perennialist who believed that certain knowledge was eternal and unchanging. This universal knowledge (and its values) should be taught first and foremost (Brameld, 1965).
  • More on EDCI 886 authors and concepts: W.E.B. DuBois is quoted as saying, “We want to rule Russia and cannot rule Alabama” (retrieved from http://www.duboislc.org/html/DuBoisBio.html) during his time with the American Labor Party. B.F. Skinner’s WALDEN TWO was published in 1948 (Skinner, 1948). Carl Rogers publishes CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY in 1951 (retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html). bell hooks is born in 1952 in a small town in Kentucky (retrieved from http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/contemporaryed/Bell_Hooks/bell_hooks.html).
  • Click on one or both musicians (red text) to listen to their music in YouTube. Fine arts influences: Music is bopping! Jazz and big bands, Rosemary Clooney & Artie Shaw; Dizzy Gillespie, Cab Calloway are innovators of the 1940’s; Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, Perry Como, and Dean Martin (retrieved from http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/40smusic.html)
  • Political events and influences (international): World War II begins when Germany invades Poland on September 1, 1939. Pearl Harbor surprises the U.S., but brings us into the war in the Pacific. The atomic bomb (developed at the University of Chicago!) is used on two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 (retrieved from http://www.animatedatlas.com/timeline.html). Sputnik I is launched by the Soviet Union (retrieved from http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/).
  • Sputnik I was just the first of many satellites, but it was the one that astonished the U.S. military and governmental units (retrieved from http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/index.html). We will return to Sputnik in the next time period, 1957-1983.
  • Political events and influences (US): Truman becomes President when FDR dies, and then is elected a second term (retrieved from http://www.animatedatlas.com/timeline.html). Olivia Brown et al. vs the Board of Education of Topeka is one of five cases heard by the Supreme Court in 1952 (retrieved from http://www.nps.gov/brvb/historyculture/fivecases.htm). Brown II orders “all deliberate speed.” On the Medal of Honor, Briggs v. Elliott is the South Carolina case (retrieved from http://www.nps.gov/brvb/historyculture/plaintiffs.htm).
  • Economic and other influences: According to the Insight into Diversity website (http://www.insightintodiversity.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=106:womens-history-timeline&catid=49:februarymarch-2009-issue&Itemid=109), one-third of women are working outside the home during the 1940’s because of WWII.
  • Women went to work during WWII, but then had to return to “home work” when the veterans returned. What can you say about this picture? What meanings does it have?
  • This is a very famous picture of Joseph McCarthy consulting with his lawyer Roy Cohn during Senate Subcommittee hearings on the McCarthy-Army dispute. Who is deciding the appropriate political affiliations of the times?
  • Educational influences: Although we focus on perennialism in this time period, Ralph W. Tyler was the chair of the Eight-Year Study (published in the 1930’s). Tyler’s textbook, “Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction”, was published in 1949 (retrieved from http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/research/edu20/moments/1949tyler.html). In addition, his approach to curriculum influenced greatly the educational practices of the next time period, 1957-1983. Other educational influences: The GI Bill provided veterans financial support to attend schools and colleges (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 281).
  • The critics of progressivism also did not like the functional curricula that was popular in the late 1940’s, early 1950’s. Essentialists wanted a core curriculum that prepared the high school student for college. The perennialists and essentialists won the day. (summarized from Urban & Wagoner, 2004, pp. 288-293)
  • Click on the image to view the movie trailer on YouTube. Notice that the King believes that Anna must teach only what the King knows. Although the King is “progressive” comparatively speaking, and he has “imported” knowledge in the person of Anna to educate his children, he believes there are certain universal truths that she must teach. What do you notice about culture and class? What do you notice about educational practices?
  • Discuss among yourselves and be prepared to report out in a few minutes.
  • Discuss among yourselves and be prepared to report out in a few minutes.

Brameld II (1940's to Sputnik) Brameld II (1940's to Sputnik) Presentation Transcript

  • Explosive Ideas in Education Culture, Class, & Evolution by Theodore Brameld
  • 1940’s - Sputnik
    • Perennialism
    • Hutchins (1899-1977)
      • University of Chicago
      • “ Great Books” curriculum
      • only a philosopher-king should be the President of a university
      • holistic mode of thought
    Image retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:University_of_Chicago_Bartlett.jpg Bartlett Dining Hall at Univ of Chgo
  • 1940’s - Sputnik
    • W.E.B. DuBois
      • American Labor Party
    • Skinner (1904-1990)
      • Walden Two
    • Rogers (1902-1987)
      • Client-Centered Therapy
    • bell hooks (1952- )
    Image retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B.F._Skinner_at_Harvard_circa_1950.jpg B. F. Skinner
    • Bebop
      • Charlie Bird Parker
      • Dizzy Gillespie
    • Notable styles
      • Rhythm & blues
      • Vocalese
    1940’s - Sputnik Image retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charlie_Parker_lincoln_cemetary.jpg
    • WWII begins (1939)
    • US declares war
      • against Japan (1941)
      • Normandy (1944)
      • Hiroshima/Nagasaki (1945)
    • United Nations (1945)
    • Sputnik I
      • October 4, 1957
    1940’s - Sputnik Image retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eleanor_Roosevelt_at_United_Nations.gif Eleanor Roosevelt at the U.N.
  • Russian stamp image retrieved from http://www.rodrigoorrantia.com/archives/2005_02_01_archiveblog.html Sputnik (satellite in Russian) image retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sputnik_1.jpg Here is the device that changed American education for many decades. 1940’s - Sputnik
    • Harry S. Truman
      • Democrats (1945-1953)
    • Brown vs. BOE Topeka
      • one of 5 cases (1952)
    • Supreme Court (1955)
      • orders school desegregation
      • “ to move with all deliberate speed”
    1940’s - Sputnik Image retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2003_Brown_et_al._v._the_Board_of_Education_of_Topeka_et_al._Congressional_Gold_Medal_front.jpg 2003 Medal of Honor
    • 1/3 of the workforce
      • is female (1940’s)
      • contributing to war effort
    • Crick & Watson
      • DNA molecule (1953)
    • Color TVs (1953)
    • Polio vaccine (1954)
    • McCarthyism (1954)
    1940’s - Sputnik Most of the information on this slide retrieved from http://americasbesthistory.com/abhtimeline1950.html TV image retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1950%27s_television.jpg How did TV change the way we see the world?
  • Image retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/51035743246@N01/212921521 (public domain) 1940’s - Sputnik
  • Image retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:McCarthy_Cohn.jpg 1940’s - Sputnik
    • Tyler (1902-1994)
      • Eight-Year Study
      • University of Chicago graduate
      • Textbook still used today
      • Tyler Rationale
    • GI Bill (1944)
      • for “servicemen” returning home
    1940’s - Sputnik Image retrieved from http://ehe.osu.edu/edtl/about/img/1952_ralph_w_tyler.jpg Ralph W. Tyler
    • Progressive education dies
      • PEA disbanded (1955)
      • Progressive Education journal suspended publication
    • Functional curricula
      • “ life skills” i.e., vocational
      • “ life adjustment”
    • vs. College preparatory
    1940’s - Sputnik Image retrieved from http://www.dubuque.k12.ia.us/cartoons/
  • Image retrieved from http://www.filmsite.org/kingi.html Our “teacher movie” for this time period is “The King and I” starring Yul Brynner and Deborah Kerr. This movie came out in 1956 at the end of what we are calling the “perennialist” era. 1940’s - Sputnik
    • What were the major cultural characteristics of this era?
    • What were the primary class characteristics of this era?
    • Where did evolution play a role?
    • What educational practices were evident during this period?
    1940’s - Sputnik
    • http://www.duboislc.org/html/DuBoisBio.html
    • W.E.B. DuBois
    • http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
    • Carl Rogers
    • http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/contemporaryed/Bell_Hooks/bell_hooks.html
    • bell hooks
    • http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/
    • NASA on Sputnik
    • http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/research/edu20/moments/1949tyler.html
    • Ralph W. Tyler
    • http://www.nps.gov/brvb/historyculture/fivecases.htm
    • Brown v. BOE Topeka
    1940’s - Sputnik links