SPE UTT SC TECHNICAL SESSION #4THE LIFE OF AN OIL & GAS FIELD Where Will You Fit In? PRESENTED BY: SURESH BALRAJ B.Sc. Petroleum Engineering, Year 4 Point Lisas Campus Wednesday 11th March, 2009
OBJECTIVES Life stages of an oil and gas field Chronological order of work performed in each stage Disciplines involved in each stage and their functions Reservoir parameters determined during the stages Keep you awake…
METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION EXPLORATION DECOMMISSIONINGTRINIDAD & APPRAISAL TOBAGO COMPETENCIES RESERVES DEVELOPMENT TRINIDADOIL vs GAS CONCLUSION ACTIVITIES PRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION Field - Area consisting of single/multiple reservoirs all grouped on or related to same individual geological structural feature &/or stratigraphic condition
INTRODUCTION Field - Group of producing oil & gas &/or injection wells - Wells may produce from several reservoirs at different depths FIELD A FIELD C D-1 FIELD B D-2 ST1 D-3 ST3 XX FIELD D
OIL vs GAS OIL GAS Oil Spot Market DCQ Contracts Artificial Lift Compression/Recycling Produced and Stored Produced on Local Demand80 MMSTB Uneconomic 0.5 TSCF Uneconomic Global price Region/Contracted Price BS&W Calorific Value (Wobbe Index) Oil Tankers/Bunkers Pipeline Transport IOR Specified Abandonment Pressure
EXPLORATION Discover Hydrocarbons EVALUATE FORMATION & QUANTIFY AMOUNT OF HC NEAR WELLPETROPHYSICS Well Planning Costing & Contracting Drill Exploration Wells DIRECT INDIRECT Drilling Systems & Equipment Selection INFORMATION Rig Selection Site Preparation Drilling Technique Casing Plan & Cementing Cores Wireline Logs Lithology Identify Drillable Prospects Troubleshooting Drilling Problems Sidewall Samples Logging While Drilling Logs Evaluate Prospects Porosity Mudlogs Define Exploration Play Areas DRILLING & DRILL & TEST WELLS EFFICIENTLY & SAFELY Saturation Seismic HydrocarbonOPERATIONS Develop Play Concepts FormationENGINEERING Pressure Samples Net Reservoir Thickness Global Basin Analysis Fluid Samples Permeability SELECT SELECT FIND NEWGEOLOGY & CONCESSION LOCATION HYDROCARBONSGEOPHYSICS
APPRAISAL Evaluate Discovery for Commercial DevelopmentGeological Logging Coring Fluid Well Test Production IDENTIFY DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS & PREDICT RECOVERY RESERVOIRENGINEERING DESIGN WELL COMPLETIONS &/OR ARTIFICIAL LIFT SYSTEMSPRODUCTIONTECHNOLOGY CHECK WHETHER VENTURE IS ECONOMICALLY JUSTIFIEDECONOMICS Number of Wells, TypesEXTRAPOLATE WELLof Wells, Well Production Rates G+G & INTERPRET & of Wells, Locations DATA TO DESCRIBE RESERVOIR RESERVOIRENGINEERING
DEVELOPMENT Planning DESIGN & CONSTRUCT FACILITIESENGINEERING SELECT MOST PROFITABLE DEVELOPMENT OPTIONECONOMICS ESTIMATE FACILITIES COSTENGINEERING
DEVELOPMENT Execution G&G, RESERVOIR & DRILLING UPDATE RESERVOIR MODEL PLAN & EVALUATE WELLSENGINEERING, IF REQUIREDPETROPHYSICS DRILLING & DRILL & COMPLETE WELLS SAFELY & EFFICIENTLYOPERATIONSENGINEERING
PRODUCTION Produce Hydrocarbons MONITOR RESERVOIR IDENTIFY MEANS TO RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IMPROVE RECOVERYENGINEERING OPTIMISE PRODUCTION ADVISE ON CHEMICALPRODUCTION PEFORMANCE ASPECTS OF PRODUCTIONTECHNOLOGY OPERATE & MAINTAIN WELLS & SURFACE FACILITIES PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
DECOMMISSIONING Planning, approval, implementing removal of oil/gas installations when no longer needed for their current purpose Wells abandoned - Isolation - Containment of over-pressured zones - Aquifer protection - Removal of wellhead equipment Pipelines - Circulated clean - Filled with water/cement - Cutup/reeled Land Facilities - Hazardous compounds removed, scrapped - Cellars, drilling pads, access roads & buildings removed - Environmental restoration Offshore Facilities - Substructures: Recycled/disposal onshore/deepwater disposal/toppling on site/artificial reefs - Topsides: Onshore recycling/refurbishment for re-use
PARAMETERS CLASSIFICATION DATA ACQUISITION TIMING RESPONSIBILITYSeismic Structure, stratigraphy, faults, bed Exploration. Seismologists & Geophysicists. thickness, fluids, interwell heterogeneity.Geological Depositional environment, Exploration, discovery & Exploration & Development diagenesis, lithology, structure, faults, development. Geologists. & fractures.Logging Depth, lithology, thickness, porosity, Drilling. Geologists, Petrophysicists, & fluid saturation, fluid contacts, & well- Reservoir Engineers. to-well correlations.Routine Coring Depth, lithology, thickness, porosity, Drilling. Geologists, Drilling and Reservoir permeability & residual fluid Engineers & Laboratory Analysts. saturation.SCAL Relative permeability, capillary Drilling. Geologists, Drilling and Reservoir pressure, pore compressibility, grain Engineers & Laboratory Analysts. size & pore size distribution.Fluid Formation volume factors, Discovery, delineation, development Reservoir Engineers & Laboratory compressibilities, viscocities, gas & production. Analysts. solubilities, chemical compositions, phase behavior & specific gravities.Well Test Reservoir pressure, effective Discovery, delineation, development, Reservoir & Production Engineers. permeability-thickness, stratification, production & injection. reservoir continuity, presence of fractures/faults, productivity & injectivity indices & residual oil & gas saturation.Production/Injection Oil, water & gas production rates. Production & Injection. Production & Reservoir Engineers. Cumulative production, gas & water injection rates & cumulative injections. Injection & production profiles.
COMPETENCY MATRIX http://www.spe.org/spe-app/spe/career/cert_comp/competency.htm Set of tools used in determining minimum aptitude levels for Petroleum Engineers Structured to assess minimal competency levels required at various stages of Engineer’s career Used to establish future Industry Standards Breadth - Basic knowledge common to all areas of Petroleum Engineering needed by each Engineer to demonstrate minimum competency after four to six years of practical experience Depth - Knowledge needed by Petroleum Engineers to demonstrate minimum competency within their primary area of practice after four to six years of practical experience Petroleum Engineering Sub-Disciplines - Drilling, Formation Evaluation, Production, Reservoir
COMPETENCY MATRIX General Knowledge/Skill Above Minimum Task Minimum Competence Breadth Minimum Competence Depth CompetenceUnderstand & apply Understand geoscience Understand and apply Apply geoscience principlesgeoscience principles (e.g. fracture gradients, geoscience principles within across sub-disciplinesprinciples wellbore stability, pore pressure sub-discipline prediction)Design a directional Understand relationship between Select appropriate kickoff Optimize directionalwell path difficulty & lateral displacement points, build rates, angles & program & casing design to bottom hole assemblies avoid key seating. Evaluate casing wear & develop designs to mitigate problemDetermine formation Determine properties from log Determine properties from log Be able to depth-shift andproperties (porosity, readings in clean sands readings in both clean and shaly normalize in complexsaturation, net pay) sands. State most common lithology, multiwell fieldfrom well logs water saturation modelsNodal Analysis Awareness that the optimum Able to design the appropriate Able to design the producing configuration is a wellbore configuration given appropriate wellbore function of initial reservoir inflow initial and projected reservoir configuration for surface performance… inflow performance… conditions such as subsea or deep water operations or high pressure…Perform reservoir Understand how routine core Apply routine core analysis to Using core and RFT data,characterization. analysis is used to identify net identify net pay and determine integrate reservoir pay and fluid contacts. contacts. Evaluate vertical performance sweep efficiency from core… and well tests…
REFERENCES Dung, T.Q. (Undated). Petroleum Engineering Disciplines – Introduction to the Petroleum Industry. Faculty of Geology and Petroleum Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology. Jahn, F., Cook, M. & Graham, M. (2008). Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production 2nd Ed. TRACS International Consultancy Ltd., Aberdeen, U.K. Elsevier, U.K. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Petroleum Reserves and Resources (2001). SPE/WPC/AAPG. Society of Petroleum Engineers Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries, Trinidad. Geological Society of Trinidad and Tobago (GSTT). UTT, Pt. Lisas Campus.
The University of Trinidad and Tobago SPE Student Chapter
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