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1. 1. Stuck Pipe Prevention Prentice & Hill, LLC First Day
2. 2. Hydrostatic Pressure <ul><li>Where: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MW = Mud Weight (ppg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TVD = True Vertical Depth (ft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P = Hydrostatic Pressure (psi) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MEMORIZE THIS EQUATION!! </li></ul>
3. 3. Hole Volumes V = Hole Volume in BBL/FT D = Hole Diameter in INCHES
4. 4. Pressure - Area Forces F = Force (lbs) P = Pressure (psi) A = Area (sq-in) F f = Force Due to Friction (lbs)  = Coefficient of Friction or Friction Factor F n = “Normal” Force (lbs)
5. 5. Stuck Pipe <ul><li>Most Common “Trouble” in Overspent Wells </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Stuck Pipe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand Different Mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan to Avoid Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize Symptoms Real Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Proper Actions While Drilling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Recovery Procedures, if necessary </li></ul></ul>
6. 6. Solids Induced Pack-off Formation Movement Inadequate Hole Cleaning CAUSES
7. 7. Solids Induced Pack-off <ul><li>Formation Loose w/ Little or No Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Hydrostatic to Hold Back Formation </li></ul>UNCONSOLIDATED FORMATIONS Causes
8. 8. Pack-off Due to Unconsolidated Formations Prevention <ul><li>Gel up Mud / Run Hi Vis Sweeps </li></ul><ul><li>Control Drill </li></ul><ul><li>Spot Gel Pill Prior to TOH </li></ul>Plan / Anticipate:
9. 9. Solids Induced Pack-off <ul><li>Increase Mud Weight, if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Use Under-saturated Water Base Mud </li></ul><ul><li>Pump Fresh Water Sweeps </li></ul><ul><li>Design Casing to Handle Collapse Loads </li></ul>Causes MOBILE / PLASTIC FORMATIONS Formation Extrudes Into Well Bore Due to Overburden Forces. Prevention Proper Well Planning:
10. 10. Solids Induced Pack-off Causes <ul><li>Control Drill & Ream Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate Reaming on Trips </li></ul>FRACTURED / FAULTED FORMATIONS Prevention Loose Chunks of Rock Fall into Well Bore Plan / Anticipate
11. 11. Solids Induced Pack-off Causes <ul><li>Raise Mud Weight, if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Set Casing Appropriately </li></ul>OVER-PRESSURED SHALE COLLAPSE Prevention Shale “Pops” Off Wall Due to Pressure Plan / Anticipate
12. 12. Solids Induced Pack-off Causes <ul><li>Use Inhibited Mud System </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize Exposure Time </li></ul><ul><li>Be Prepared for “Gumbo Attack” </li></ul>REACTIVE FORMATIONS Prevention Mud Filtrate Reacts Chemically with Formation Plan / Anticipate
13. 13. Solids Induced Pack-off Causes <ul><li>Increase Annular Velocities </li></ul><ul><li>Better Mud Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Subject of another section </li></ul>POOR HOLE CLEANING Prevention Not Removing Cuttings From Well Bore
14. 14. Differential Sticking Causes <ul><li>High Differential Pressures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive Mud Weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn Down Formations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Well Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Well Bore Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Filter Cake </li></ul><ul><li>Little or No Pipe Motion </li></ul>
16. 16. Differential Sticking - Prevention <ul><li>Minimize Mud Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Filter Cake </li></ul><ul><li>Select Proper Casing Seat </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize Contact Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Weight Drill Pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiral Drill Collars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep Pipe Moving </li></ul>Plan / Anticipate
17. 17. Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking Causes KEYSEATING <ul><li>Minimize Dog Leg Severity </li></ul><ul><li>Case Off Curves Soon After Building </li></ul><ul><li>Use Keyseat Wiper </li></ul><ul><li>Make Frequent Wiper Trips </li></ul><ul><li>Back Ream Out of Hole </li></ul><ul><li>Abrupt Change in Well Bore Path (Dog Leg) </li></ul><ul><li>Long Hole Section Below Dog Leg </li></ul>Prevention
18. 18. Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking Causes UNDERGAUGE HOLE <ul><li>Always Gauge Bit & Stabilizers IN and OUT </li></ul><ul><li>Run Gauge Protected Bits & Stabilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Ream Suspected Undergauge Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Undergauge Bit and/or Stabilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Coring (Core heads slightly U.G.) </li></ul>Prevention
19. 19. Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking Causes LEDGES & DOGLEGS <ul><li>Run Packed Hole Assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Ream on Trips Through Problem Zones </li></ul><ul><li>Limber BHAs </li></ul><ul><li>Hard - Soft Interbedded Formation </li></ul>Prevention
20. 20. Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking Causes SHOE JOINT BACKS OFF <ul><li>Do Not Overdisplace Cement </li></ul><ul><li>Thread Lock Bottom 3 Joints of Casing </li></ul><ul><li>Drill Out Carefully </li></ul>Prevention
21. 21. Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking Causes GREEN CEMENT <ul><li>Wash Down Carefully to “Top of Cement” </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Treat Mud Before Drilling Green Cement </li></ul>Prevention Run BHA Into Un-set Cement
22. 22. Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking Causes JUNK <ul><li>Good Housekeeping on Rig Floor </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Hole Covered </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect Equipment Frequently </li></ul>Prevention Something Manmade is Loose in the Hole
23. 23. Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking Causes CEMENT BLOCKS <ul><li>Set All Casing As Close To TD As Possible </li></ul><ul><li>Ream Casing Shoe & Open Hole Plugs Before Drilling Ahead </li></ul>Hard Cement Falls In From Casing Shoe or From Open Hole Cement Plug Prevention
24. 24. Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking Causes LINER & SQUEEZE CEMENTING <ul><li>Hazards in Liner Cementing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too Much Excess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overdisplacement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Squeeze Cementing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold Pressure on Back Side, If Possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Cement Retainers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT Cement Up a Squeeze Packer (RTTS) </li></ul></ul>Cementing Yourself in the Hole
25. 25. MUD <ul><li>Mud Types / Constituents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Base Mud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Base Mud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic Base Mud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Functions (Review) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove Cuttings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricate and Cool Bit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Hydrostatic </li></ul></ul>
26. 26. Mud (continued) <ul><li>Filter Cake “2/32” </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>API Fluid Loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Room Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100 psi differential </li></ul></ul></ul>
27. 27. Mud Filter Press
28. 30. Mud (continued) <ul><li>Filter Cake “2/32” </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>API Fluid Loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Room Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100 psi differential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Temperature, High Pressure (HTHP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>300º F or as specified </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>500 psi differential </li></ul></ul></ul>
29. 34. Mud (continued) <ul><li>Rheological Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured with Fann Viscometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funnel Viscosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic Viscosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yield Point </li></ul></ul>
30. 37. Mud (continued) <ul><li>Mud Additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gel (Wyoming Bentonite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost Circulation / Stuck Pipe Preventatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sized Particulate Matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrous Material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asphalt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snake Oil </li></ul></ul></ul>
31. 38. Influence of Mud Properties on Various Stuck Pipe Mechanisms
32. 39. Inadequate Hole Cleaning <ul><li>Near Vertical Wells (Incl < 30 deg) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilize Hole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain Good Annular Velocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Low Shear Rate Viscosities High </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yield Stress = 2 (  6 -  3 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gel Strength </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Not Overload Hole Due to Too High ROP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Hole Prior to Trip </li></ul></ul>
33. 40. Inadequate Hole Cleaning <ul><li>Most Difficult Angle to Clean Hole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable Cuttings Beds Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beds May Avalanche Even With Pumps On </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising Mud Viscosity Alone Will Not Solve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M-I Video of Hole Cleaning </li></ul></ul>Moderate Angle Wells (30° <Incl < 60°)
34. 41. Inadequate Hole Cleaning Moderate Angle Wells (30° <Incl < 60°) <ul><li>Anticipate Problem - Alert for Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erratic Pump Pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Returns at Shaker for ROP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erratic PWD Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Overpull 5-10 Stands Off Bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It Is Possible to Get Stuck In Cased Hole </li></ul></ul>Problem Prevention
35. 42. Inadequate Hole Cleaning Moderate Angle Wells (30° <Incl < 60°) <ul><li>Take Preventive Actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agitate Cuttings Beds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate DP at 150+ RPM if possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocate & Rotate While Circulating Bottoms Up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize Annular Velocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger Drill Pipe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger Jets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Wiper Trips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back Ream Out Of Hole - Carefully! </li></ul></ul>Problem Prevention
36. 43. Inadequate Hole Cleaning High Angle Wells (Incl > 60°) <ul><li>Cuttings Beds Form, But Are Stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hole Cleaning Usually Not A Problem in High Angle Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuttings Beds Potential Problem on Trips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back Ream Out of High Angle Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminder - All High Angle Wells Have a Moderate Angle (Problematic) Section </li></ul></ul>Problem Prevention
37. 44. Inadequate Hole Cleaning <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Mud Flow Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too Low an Annular Velocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuttings Beds in Directional Holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angle < 30º - Minimal Problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angle > 60º - Minimal Problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30º < Angle < 60º Problem Area </li></ul></ul></ul>
38. 45. Inadequate Hole Cleaning <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Mud in Good Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch Shale Shaker for Too Few Cuttings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump More Fluid (Increase AV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run High / Low Viscosity Sweeps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Larger Drill Pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid long 30º to 60º Angle Sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Wiper Trips (Ream Out w/ Top Drive) </li></ul></ul>