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Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education
 

Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education

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This Toolkit for developing international heritage education projects offers guidelines for heritage institutions and schools that wish to convert their project ideas into an actual plan. The Toolkit ...

This Toolkit for developing international heritage education projects offers guidelines for heritage institutions and schools that wish to convert their project ideas into an actual plan. The Toolkit sets out the development process
from the initial idea to the results. It is based on both theoretical principles for project-based activities and the collaboration project Heritage Education for Schools in Indonesia, which was implemented between 2008 and 2010 by the
Indonesian Heritage Trust (BPPI) and the Netherlands Institute for Heritage (Erfgoed Nederland). The theory on which project-based activities are based is derived from a large number of sources. In the present case, use was made of the
Guidelines for Project-based Work [Handleiding Projectmatig Werken] produced by Leiden University’s Faculty of Humanities and the publication Beyond Heritage à la Carte [Voorbij Erfgoed à la Carte].

Texts: Cees Hageman, Astrid Weij, Hasti Tarekat

© Erfgoed Nederland, September 2010

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    Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Document Transcript

    • Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education
    • 2 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education © Netherlands Institute for Heritage, September 2010 This publication is subject to a Creative Commons ‘Attribution – Share Alike’ licence (see creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/nl) The user may: copy, distribute, and pass on the work, remix it and create derived works. The following conditions apply: – Attribution: The User must attribute the work to the Netherlands Institute for Heritage name specified by the author (but not in any way that (Erfgoed Nederland) suggests that the Netherlands Institute for Heritage Herengracht 474 [Erfgoed Nederland] endorses the work or use of the NL-1017 CA Amsterdam work). The Netherlands – Share Alike: If the user alters the work, the user may T +31 (0)20 716 7350 distribute the resulting work only under the same or F +31 (0)20 716 7355 similar licence to the present one. info@erfgoednederland.nl – In the event of re-use or distribution, the user must www.erfgoednederland.nl notify third parties of the licence conditions for this work. The best way of doing this is by creating a link to www.creativecommons.org. – The user may deviate from one or more conditions of this licence with the prior consent of the rightholder. – Nothing in this licence is intended to detract from the moral rights of the authors or to restrict them. – The above shall be without prejudice to the legal restrictions that apply to intellectual property. Indonesian Heritage Trust Jl. Veteran I No. 27 Jakarta 10110 Indonesia T +62 21 703 06 222 F +62 21 351 1127 bppi@bppi-indonesianheritage.org www.bppi-indonesianheritage.org Texts Cees Hageman Astrid Weij Hasti Tarekat Translations Balance Hasti Tarekat Final editing Ellen Snoep Aline Knip Design UNA designers, Amsterdam
    • 3 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Foreword in Indonesia, the teachers involved, and the staff of the BPPI, under the inspiring leadership of Dr. Laretna T. Adishakti (Sita) and Ir. Catrini Pratihari Kubontubuh, MArch (Ari). I would also like to thank Elisabeth Wiessner, Cees Hageman, Richard Hermans and Astrid Weij, who worked on the project from 2008 to 2010 Director Netherlands Institute for Heritage on behalf of the Netherlands Institute for Heritage, and Hasti September 2010 Tarekat, who was indispensable to the collaboration. Finally, I wish to thank the Indonesian Ministry of Education for its enthusiastic support and the Dutch Ministry of Education, Just what is heritage education and why is it interesting? Culture and Science, which made the project possible Heritage education makes a link between pupils and their financially. living environment and background, thus promoting awareness of identity. Heritage education is education with and I recommend the Toolkit to all those involved in cultural about historical monuments, landscapes and archaeological heritage and education. I hope you will find the Toolkit finds, libraries, museums and archives, and the sum total of interesting, and I wish you every success with your heritage customs, traditions, stories, rituals, and habits that is referred education project. to as ‘intangible heritage’ or ‘living heritage’. The basis for heritage education is to be found in cultural heritage, which incorporates traces of various cultures from the past and continues to be influenced in the present by new elements within society. The strength of heritage education lies in teaching children about their living environment, i.e. learning within, from and about the setting in which one lives. Heritage education and living environment education are closely linked to geography and history, but they can also play a role in other humanities subjects and the social sciences. Heritage education involves both schools and heritage institutions. How does one bring these together? That is the subject of this Toolkit, which deals with the development process that is necessary for setting up an effective heritage education project. The Toolkit is one of the results of collaboration between the Indonesian Heritage Trust (Badan Pelestarian Pusaka Indonesia, BPPI) and the Netherlands Institute for Heritage (Erfgoed Nederland). Between early 2008 and January 2010, these two organisations collaborated on a heritage education project in Yogyakarta and its surrounding area (Java, Indonesia), focusing on local primary schools. The project was a success. Long-term links were set up for collaboration with the participating schools and a large body of materials and activities also resulted. This was sufficient reason to make the results available to others so that everyone can benefit from the know-how generated. The experience gained in Indonesia is illustrative in the context of this Toolkit. The main text provides tips to assist interested parties that are considering setting up a heritage education project. The step-by-step plan at the back gives an overview of the various tips. We look back fondly on the collaboration between the BPPI and the Netherlands Institute for Heritage. We also look forward to future initiatives that will allow the Institute to facilitate international collaboration with a variety of partners, as regards both heritage and education. I would like to express our thanks to a number of people involved in creating the Toolkit, in particular the design team
    • 4 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Introduction This Toolkit for developing international heritage education projects offers guidelines for heritage institutions and schools that wish to convert their project ideas into an actual plan. The Toolkit sets out the development process from the initial idea to the results. It is based on both theoretical principles for project-based activities and the collaboration project Heritage Education for Schools in Indonesia, which was implemented between 2008 and 2010 by the Indonesian Heritage Trust (BPPI) and the Netherlands Institute for Heritage (Erfgoed Nederland). The theory on which project-based activities are based is derived from a large number of sources. In the present case, use was made of the Guidelines for Project-based Work [Handleiding Projectmatig Werken] produced by Leiden University’s Faculty of Humanities and the publication Beyond Heritage à la Carte [Voorbij Erfgoed à la Carte]. The Toolkit covers the main steps to be followed in setting up projects in general and heritage education projects in particular. The details of this process are covered in general and summarised, with tips also being given. Under the heading ‘Zoom in’, a brief account is given of the experience gained in Indonesia, in particular working with the partners in and round Yogyakarta (Java). Detailing of the projects was determined in part by such variables as working conditions, the local colour as regards work, and the prevailing educational culture. Details are not therefore given of the project in Indonesia; rather, the Indonesian examples give colour to the Toolkit. The Toolkit concludes with a practical step-by-step plan for setting up and implementing a project. This provides a framework for project–based work and can be used by both heritage institutions and schools.
    • 5 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Definitions Before starting, we need to define three terms: project-based work, cultural heritage, and heritage education/teaching. Project-based work The definition of project-based work that applies is ‘a project is a sum total of activities carried out by specialised groups within a temporary collaborative partnership that focuses on a clearly defined final result that must be achieved within a restricted period with restricted means, and having a definable beginning, end, and capacity.’ A description of the process for this sum total of activities is of a general nature and can be applied to all approaches to project-based work, for example heritage education. One important basic principle is that the process described is applied in situations in which a project-based approach to work is not a matter of course. The purpose of the Toolkit is therefore – emphatically – to contribute to arriving at a line of thinking shared by the persons involved in working out plans. A shared line of thinking is necessary because cultural differences between the parties may play a major role in differing expectations and results as regards a joint project. It is a useful exercise – precisely because of cultural differences – to arrive at a shared line of thinking because it allows one to get to know one’s future colleagues and their ideas regarding cultural heritage and education. Cultural heritage The project is also a pilot for the Besides reaching agreement on the approach to the project, it is important to consider introduction of heritage education in Indonesia, given that heritage education the various different views regarding the concept of heritage within a specific cultural is as yet unknown in that country. It context. It is necessary to gain a clear idea of what the collaborating parties understand is expected that the pilot project in by ‘heritage’. What are their views on material heritage and intangible heritage? Yogyakarta will act as a model for heritage Material heritage comprises museum collections, historical monuments, archives, education practice in Indonesia – in terms of methods, structures, content, etc., while intangible heritage concerns such things as stories, traditions, and customs. and teaching approach – and also as Intangible heritage often says something about material items. Does the project concern an encouragement for the Indonesian a particular local heritage, or does it concern common or shared heritage? government to give heritage education a place in the national policy and curriculum. The collaboration project Heritage Education for Schools in Indonesia – which involved the Indonesian Heritage Trust and the Netherlands Institute for Heritage was aimed at raising awareness of cultural heritage. The intention was to raise awareness among elementary school pupils and the project concentrated on local heritage. The question is: what heritage and whose heritage should be on the agenda? Heritage and education When setting up international heritage education projects, it is extremely important to clarify the local preconditions before being able – or even being permitted – to develop plans for teaching/learning. This demands that a clear analysis be made of how education is organised locally. That analysis provides answers to questions regarding the target groups, the number of pupils concerned, accommodation, rules, powers, the relevant lesson plans, and the place that can be allocated to heritage education within the curriculum, the support for innovation and change, and such difficult to define concepts as ‘educational culture’. All of these must be clarified in order to produce a realistic estimate of aims and results. Clarifying matters in this way can prevent disappointment, and it can also help create the network necessary for ensuring the success of the project.
    • 6 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phases We distinguish between four different phases in the design of a project. The various different phases are explained in greater detail below. 1 The start of the initiative, the creation of a basis of support, and the elaboration of a project idea into a project identity. 2 The design of the project, paying attention to the project plan, the objectives, the collaborating partners, the management, the communication, and the tasks that are consequently specified. 3 Planning and financing. 4 Supervision of the process via monitoring and outcomes.
    • 7 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 1: The start The BPPI is a community-based organisation run entirely by volunteers. In this case, the pilot project was initiated from the bottom up because it was the BPPI that introduced the initiative and Initiative approached other parties to become Always bear in mind who took the initiative for the project. Was it an interest group – involved, including government agencies at all levels. an authority or an NGO – that made the proposal on the basis of policy intentions, or did the initiative arise from a specific need expressed by organisations working ‘in the field’, for example schools or heritage institutions? This primarily determines the basic principle of whether the project is demand-driven or supply-driven. Consideration should also be given to who will deal with the results of the project in the long term. Tip 1 Zoom in Top-down or bottom-up Determine whether the project has been The initiative for the Heritage Education for proposed on a top-down or a bottom-up Schools in Indonesia project came about more basis. This is an important consideration for or less by chance. The relationship between implementing project plans as regards gaining the Netherlands Institute for Heritage (Erfgoed support for an idea. Set out this commitment Nederland) and the Indonesian Heritage in a collaboration agreement signed by all the Trust (BPPI) arose from a contact between interested parties. an employee of the Netherlands Institute for Heritage and a representative of the BPPI who lives and works in the Netherlands. That contact led to the idea of international collaboration. Part of the Institute’s subsidy is intended to fund plans for heritage education for elementary schools in Indonesia. This meant that Netherlands Institute for Heritage could draw on experience gained when working on network projects for heritage education in the Netherlands. A jointly developed project plan was the basis for closer contacts between the Institute and the BPPI in Indonesia. In December 2007, it was decided to arrange for collaboration between the two institutions. That collaboration took the form of definitive adoption of the project plan, arrangements for exchanges, a draft budget, and a collaboration agreement between the two organisations: a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The idea for the project derived from the desire, specifically on the part of the BPPI, to implement a project to raise awareness regarding heritage education for elementary schools in Indonesia.
    • 8 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 1: The start The BPPI carried out an internal study in Indonesia to determine which schools might be interested in the pilot project. Ultimately, twelve elementary schools were chosen in Yogyakarta and the Basis of support surrounding areas which represented The idea for a project can only produce the intended result if it enjoys sufficient support various types of schools, for example: on the part of the interested parties. The main question is whether the idea will help 1 A private school in the city centre attended meet a need or contribute to solving a problem. Is the situation concerned a unique one mainly by children from the middle and or has an answer to the question already been sought and found in a different situation; upper classes; is it possible to acquire information about other initiatives; and can the experience 2 A state school in the city centre which is gained from previous initiatives contribute to developing the proposed project? It is subsidised by the government; 3 Schools with a religious approach, for useful to consider which parties and potential partners can contribute to the ultimate example Islamic or Christian; success of the project, for example teachers, school heads, pupils, employees of heritage 4 State schools in the suburbs attended institutions, and perhaps the authorities? These partners already need to be involved mainly by children from the lower classes. from the initiative phase so as to ensure that the project is a success. The BPPI visited each school and conducted intensive discussions with the directors and teachers in order to reach Tip 2 Zoom in agreement on their involvement in the pilot Preliminary study project, how the pilot project should be implemented, and what the responsibilities would be of each party involved. Determine the demand that forms the basis Fruitful collaboration between diverse for the project idea. Determine whether there partners can only come about if they know The second phase was training for the have been any comparable initiatives. This can one another and are aware of similarities teachers involved. This was given by the BPPI, Netherlands Institute for Heritage, be done partly by means of desk research and and differences in their cultures (specifically and the government agencies responsible partly through interviews with participants their educational cultures). This process of for elementary education. The training in similar projects. It can take the form of a getting to know one another and exploring sessions were conducted at the beginning baseline survey. the options for collaboration was effectuated and in the middle of the pilot project. The training at the beginning mainly involved during an initial working visit to Indonesia by an introduction to what heritage education Determine who the possible parties/partners representatives of the Netherlands Institute actually is, how to implement it at schools, may be for developing the project. for Heritage. The point of the visit was to get and how to prepare the heritage education to know the BPPI, the government bodies teaching materials. Organise an exploratory meeting with the involved, and those responsible in Indonesia The BPPI also identified and involved other aim of presenting the initiative and allowing for education and culture; it also focused on stakeholders: potential collaboration partners to comment involving the relevant partners with a view on it. to implementing the idea for the project and 1 The government agencies responsible getting to know the educational situation. Both for elementary education in the city (Yogyakarta), the province (DI Yogyakarta), Based on the results of that meeting, set up a partners presented their aims and working and at national level (Indonesia) especially steering committee and/or advisory group; this methods. The collaboration agreement was the Centre of Curriculum Development at should be a critical, active, and representative worked out, a budget was drawn up, and there the Department of National Education and group of people. were meetings between representatives of the Department of Culture and Tourism. 2 The press, in this case local and national the ministry of education and the ministry newspapers; of culture. There were also visits to heritage 3 Local universities; institutions such as the National Museum and 4 Local institutions such as the Netherlands the National Archive of Indonesia. Cultural Centre; 5 UNESCO’s Jakarta office; 6 Government agencies from outside The collaboration agreement (i.e. the MoU) was Yogyakarta that are interested in formally signed at the Dutch embassy in the replicating the heritage education project presence of the press. Finally, there was a visit in their areas. to Yogyakarta in order to get to know the BPPI team and the project coordinators, the schools, and the local partners, including universities.
    • 9 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 1: The start Project identity The project plan is always worked out on the basis of an original idea. Creative input means that ideas for projects have a tendency to expand to such an extent that the original idea is lost sight of. It is therefore valuable to continually check the project against the original idea during the course of the development process. The parties involved can make it easier to identify with the project by clarifying, from the very beginning, the need that the project is meant to meet and by highlighting that in the working title for the project. Tip 3 Zoom in A specific name The name or working title of the project must The BPPI organised several meetings, indicate what the project is actually about. concluding that the most appropriate name It is worth taking the necessary time and for the project would be ‘Heritage Education trouble to decide on a clear working title – for Schools in Indonesia.’ Although the pilot one acceptable to all parties – at the earliest project focused on elementary schools, possible stage. The title should be chosen with this was not mentioned in the title because the expert assistance of various parties – the the BPPI hopes that at a later date heritage ministry, local government bodies, etc. – that education can also be implemented at high are not directly involved in the project by schools and in higher education. Yogyakarta asking them ‘What do you think of when you is not mentioned either because it is expected hear…?’ that this initiative will also be implemented in other areas of Indonesia. The chosen name is the most appropriate as regards the continuation of heritage education in the country. After the period of collaboration with the Netherlands Institute for Heritage (2008–2010) is over, the BPPI will continue the heritage education programme in other areas with support from other parties but will still use the original name.
    • 10 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 2: Elaboration Designing the project The project plan is of great importance when designing the project. It clarifies the need that the project is meant to meet, whether it is supported and by which partners, what the aims and benefits are, and which partners will help develop it on the basis of what expertise. When writing project plans, there is a risk of providing too much detail. There should be a summary setting out as specifically as possible what the plan includes and what results it will achieve. Working out the project planning in detail is of course important, but the main outline (the process) should remain clear. Tip 4 Zoom in Formulate clearly The design of the project should be formulated In the course of working out the idea for the clearly, from the start to completion. The project together with the members of the BPPI main outline should be kept in mind. Make a working party in Yogyakarta, it became clear summary and include it in the project plan as that the ambitions exceeded the feasibility of a preamble. the objectives. The BPPI team was made up of professionals who contributed voluntarily to working out the project on the basis of their own particular background. Voluntary efforts based on specific expertise lead in many cases to an expansion as regards the actual content of the project. That would not really seem to be a problem, but it immediately brings one up against the limits of what is actually possible from the point of view of quantity and quality. After some discussion, it was decided that a manual for the teachers involved should be slimmed down.
    • 11 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 2: Elaboration The BPPI decided to concentrate only on children in classes aged 9 to 10. This decision was based on the consideration that children at this age have basic writing and reading skills and are not yet busy The objectives preparing for their final exams. At the One important element in working out a project plan is to formulate the objectives for final stage, the BPPI decided and was able to produce a manual for teachers and 21 the project. These should be as specific as possible in terms of the intended benefits. modules for children; these were prepared Objectives are too often set out in the form of intentions. In fact, they should specify jointly by the teachers and the BPPI’s the intended benefits. The acronym ‘SMART’ is often used in this context: an objective volunteers. should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound. Tip 5 Zoom in Specific objectives Formulate objectives as specific results. The BPPI team had in mind not only a learning Rather than saying ‘We intend working on pathway for heritage education with the the heritage education learning pathways for associated heritage lessons; it also wanted to elementary school pupils’ it is better to say increase teachers’ knowledge of their local ‘In two years time, there will be a heritage heritage. A manual was therefore developed education learning pathway for pupils aged for the teachers but this did not yet include 6 to 12.’ the further didactic step of setting out specific guidelines for teaching/learning activities. In fact, the project had a double objective: an educational design (teaching materials) for actual educational practice and in-service training for teachers (background information about local heritage). The potential risk is that the project as a whole will be felt to be top- heavy. The challenge was therefore to design the detailed version of the project (the process) in such a way as to achieve both the objectives (lessons and in-service training) within a programme acceptable to the target group.
    • 12 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 2: Elaboration Restriction Adopting the SMART approach leads to realistically formulated objectives for the project, with ‘realistic’ being a synonym for ‘restricted’. Trying to do too much all at the same time leads to frustration among both those commissioning the project and those implementing it. Restricting the objectives ensures that the steps envisaged are clear and that they can definitely contribute to more distant goals derived from more extensive programmes. Tip 6 Zoom in Not too much Do not try to achieve too much all in one go It took a while for the BPPI to realise that a and do not hesitate to adjust objectives in period of two years for the pilot project was the course of the project on the basis of the relatively short if all the goals that were experience gained. originally envisaged were to be achieved. The BPPI was very enthusiastic about introducing heritage education in Indonesia and therefore set goals that were not actually feasible given the available resources (time, money, labour). During the pilot project, the goals were adjusted in consultation with all stakeholders. Phase 2: Elaboration The partners Planning a successful project requires efforts on the part of a variety of partners, for example schools, cultural institutions, funding organisations, and authorities. Partners can be involved in various phases of the project – the initiative, elaboration, monitoring and evaluation – but also for management, advice, finances, and maintaining networks. Getting parties interested in the idea for a project often starts on the basis of specific motives regarding actual content. In the case of heritage education, it is ultimately a question of the teachers who will work with materials and activities with their pupils, based on the idea for the project. Their concern will be the actual content. Just as important, or even more so, is the involvement of the school management. Successfully working out a project depends mainly on having a clear structure that indicates which parties will carry out which tasks and who will be responsible. This means that the project coordinators must guide the process and monitor progress, but that they must also keep track of how the actual content is worked out. Depending on the scale for the project – whether it is for a particular city, region, or country – a decision must be taken on whether one or more persons will be responsible. Participation in a project and application of the results can only really be successful if schools are behind the idea ‘across the board’. The party concerned here – the school management – will be motivated not only by educational arguments but above all by the opportunities for school development.
    • 13 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education It is also advisable to involve partners in the project who are responsible for the The Netherlands Institute for Heritage structure and quality of teaching at administrative level. This may mean administrative (Erfgoed Nederland) provided financial support and expertise for the pilot project organisations but also those bearing final responsibility at municipal, regional, or even while the BPPI worked to determine the national level. best methods and materials for heritage education in the Indonesian context. Besides involving partners on the basis of the necessary content-related expertise Although this was a very challenging task, it was important for the BPPI to go through (education and heritage), it is important to involve partners that can deal with all the processes because only in this way evaluation and implementation of the project and the products that it generates. could the BPPI gain the necessary first- hand experience and knowledge to ensure the sustainability of heritage education. Tip 7 Zoom in The BPPI and the schools agreed that a Collaboration agreement number of tasks would be delegated to the schools. The BPPI has a role as a resource Conclude a collaboration agreement with The Netherlands Institute for Heritage and the institution for networking amongst schools, assisting in writing materials, all the parties at management level. The BPPI worked out the follow-up steps jointly and in the evaluation process. The task agreement should set out all the reciprocal with a view to keeping a finger on the pulse of the schools is to identify the subjects expectations and obligations. The actual so as to convert project aims into manageable to be taught, to prepare the materials if conclusion of the agreement should take programmes for those implementing the necessary, and to utilise them in class. the form of an official, ceremonial event. project and for teachers. In the summer of Collaboration also needs to be ‘maintained’. 2008, representatives of Erfgoed Nederland In addition to the development of materials paid a working visit to the BPPI. In Yogyakarta, and their incorporation into the curriculum, the two organisations worked jointly on make sure that the progress of the project is the plan for in-service training for teachers, monitored; do this by appointing a monitor planning for the project at school level, and for the development process. This can involve increasing the level of support for the project ensuring that there are regular meetings for at the level of local interested parties and the parties but also by visiting the schools with those bearing responsibility in the context the same frequency (see also phase 4). of elementary education in Yogyakarta. This created the basis for a five-day conference towards the end of the year for the twelve schools that had become involved. A programme for the conference was drawn up, visits were paid to the twelve schools, and there were discussions with school managers and the civil servants responsible for education in Yogyakarta. Presentations were also given for interested parties within the BPPI’s local network at Fort Vredeburg and for groups of archaeology students at the university (Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University).
    • 14 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 2: Elaboration Communication In order to involve all the parties and to keep track of the progress of the project, it is advisable to decide at the very beginning what form internal and external communication should take. In addition to organising conferences, working visits, and school visits during which the parties meet one another, it is a good idea to regularly send out an electronic newsletter describing the progress of the project. A newsletter of this kind is a classic communication tool, and utilising social media and websites is also an obvious thing to do. Tip 8 Zoom in Regular communication Make sure that there is a regular medium – a A number of publications were produced newsletter, a functional website, a forum, during the course of the heritage education articles in magazines – describing experience pilot project: with projects. 1 The BPPI collaborated with a local cultural magazine (GONG) which published two supplements about the development of the pilot project; these were in both Indonesian and English. 2 The BPPI also published the pilot project on its website in both Indonesian and English. 3 In collaboration with the Netherlands Cultural Centre (Karta Pustaka) in Yogyakarta, the BPPI organised an exhibition and demonstration of heritage education which was open to the public. The pilot project was covered sufficiently by the mass media, both in Indonesia (locally and nationally) and in the Netherlands. Journalists were present at the training sessions for the teachers, the exhibition, and the international seminar at the end of the pilot project.
    • 15 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 3: Planning and funding Scheduling Developing and implementing heritage education projects takes a great deal of time. It is essential to have a realistic schedule and to stick to it. When schools and heritage institutions collaborate, significant differences become apparent as regards organisation and the work rhythm of the partners. If other parties are also involved, collaboration becomes even more complex and the importance of a schedule that is clear to all concerned becomes even more important. When developing heritage education projects for schools, it is the schools’ annual timetable that forms the basis. Activities such as organising working party meetings, holding evaluation discussions, and trying out draft materials must fit in with the school’s schedule so as to prevent too high demands and ultimately overloading. Tip 9 Zoom in Calendar for the year The important thing is not to attempt too much Like all schools, the participating schools in and not to go too fast. Draw up a calendar for Indonesia must stick to a tight schedule in the year showing the project activities. Make order to achieve their curriculum targets. clear who will be engaged in what activities at Heritage education was therefore incorporated what time. This will make clear whether the into the existing curriculum rather than being objectives are being met or whether changes given as an independent subject. Teachers need to be made. and the BPPI together decided which subjects were appropriate for the inclusion of heritage education. The BPPI also assisted the teachers with the preparation of some materials. The teachers wrote the texts, which were then edited and printed by the BPPI.
    • 16 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 3: Planning and funding Funding The costs involved in developing products and encouraging the process always give rise to concern. What sources of funding are available? What can be done to interest potential funding organisations? Besides a substantive project plan, it will be necessary to produce a clear picture of the costs for the various components of the plan. Make a clear distinction between costs that concern the process – coordination, meetings, evaluation, and communication – and production costs (for designing and printing materials). An indication should also be given of the investment made by project partners in developing the project in the form of their own particular efforts. It should be noted that acquiring funds for a project is in fact pretty much a field for specialists. Tip 10 Zoom in Realistic budget Drawing up a realistic budget for the project The fact that the Netherlands Institute for costs and finding the money form a separate Heritage provided financial support was assignment and should be specified separately a boost to starting the heritage education in the project plan. It is important to remember pilot project for a period of two years. After that all work in the form of hours can also be the conclusion of the project, it will be up to expressed in monetary terms and that a great the BPPI to secure the necessary funding to deal can be achieved by means of individual continue the initiative. Fortunately, the project efforts, even with only a small budget for itself and the results achieved led to a number materials. of parties being interested in collaborating with a view to continuing the initiative. These are UNESCO’s Jakarta office, a private company, and local government bodies.
    • 17 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 4: Monitoring Monitoring and evaluation If the process of project development is to be successful, there needs to be regular monitoring of progress by a monitor. The monitor constantly tracks progress, notes significant problems, and makes proposals to the project coordinators for solving those problems. Regular contact between the monitor and the various parties involved in the development process allows developments to be adjusted in good time. Having a monitor also makes it possible to plan evaluations at fixed points during the development process. It is important to consider how developments will in fact be evaluated in cooperation with the various parties, for example by means of interviews, group discussions, or in writing. It is advisable to make the results available to the relevant parties as quickly as possible. The monitor and the evaluation are not objectives per se. Their purpose is to ensure progress in the development process; they must not become an additional burden on the collaborating partners. Monitoring and evaluation are not intended to control matters; they keep track of developments in an atmosphere of interest and they contribute to continuing involvement in the development process on the part of all parties. Tip 11 Zoom in Interim reporting The experience generated by monitoring The project management in Yogyakarta should be published regularly in the form of a made one person available throughout the report that is made available to all the partners development process to stay in contact (see also tip 8). This will ensure that those with the schools. Representatives of the concerned remain involved with the project; participating schools were regularly brought it also makes it possible to learn from one together for meetings and there were also another’s experience. visits to the individual schools. The aim of all this was to ensure continuing commitment to the overall project, to pool experience, and to adjust the aims of the project where necessary. For the individual contacts with the schools and the discussions that were conducted there with the teachers and management, use was made of a standardised list of points to be considered; this was based on the approach during similar network projects in the Netherlands.
    • 18 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phase 4: Monitoring Outcomes and result A project will ultimately lead to actual products. In the case of heritage education, these will be teaching/learning resources, guidelines for teachers, learning pathways that demonstrate a heritage education programme for a school, and ultimately – on the basis of monitoring and evaluation – a complete overview of the products, the programme, and the process. For heritage institutions, the project will lead to a scenario for developing heritage education projects. The actual results and products can be presented to all concerned at a final meeting to round off the project. Tip 12 Zoom in Organise celebrations Achieving interim objectives and the final The project in Yogyakarta concluded with results are highlights within a project. That an international conference to which fact should not be forgotten, and meetings representatives of national and local should be organised not only for those directly government were invited, together with involved but also for other interested parties potentially interested parties, participants, such as funding organisations, representatives representatives from UNESCO’s Jakarta of the authorities, and other potentially office, and representatives of the Netherlands interested parties with a view to follow-ups or Institute for Heritage. Prior to the conference further implementation. – which involved celebrations around the presentation of the results – the project was evaluated with the participants, local educators, and interested parties from other parts of Indonesia, in particular West Sumatra, Bali, and Ternate. Subsequently, there was a large exhibition at the Indonesian-Dutch cultural centre in Yogyakarta showing the results of the project for a broader public from the education sector. Regular workshops took place during the exhibition dealing with topics included in the heritage project.
    • 19 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Step-by-step plan for a heritage education project
    • 20 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Step 1: Determine Step 3: Decide on an where the demand interesting working comes from. title or name for the Determine whether the project has been proposed on the project. basis of a top-down approach or a bottom-up request. This is an important consideration for implementing project plans as The name or working title of the project must indicate what the regards gaining support for an idea. Set out this commitment in project is actually about. It is worth taking the necessary time a collaboration agreement signed by all the interested parties. and trouble to decide on a clear working title – one acceptable You should specifically aim for support (awareness raising) to all parties – at the earliest possible stage. The title should among those who will ultimately implement the project (in be chosen with the expert assistance of parties that are not this case teachers) and methods by which the intended result directly involved in the project by asking them ‘What do you can be achieved (capacity building). Do those involved actually think of when you hear…?’ want the project and can they implement it? Step 2: Determine what Step 4: Determine need is to be provided a clear line of for by the project development. initiative. The design of the project should be formulated clearly, from the start to completion. Make a summary and include it in the Determine the demand that forms the basis for the project idea. project plan as a preamble. Determine whether there have been any comparable initiatives. This can be done partly by means of desk research and partly through interviews with participants in similar projects. It can take the form of a baseline survey. Determine who the possible parties/partners may be for developing the project. Organise an exploratory meeting with the aim of presenting the initiative and allowing the potential collaboration partners/ parties to comment on it. Based on the results of that meeting, set up a steering committee and/or advisory group; this should be a critical, active, and representative group of people.
    • 21 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Step 5: Determine Step 7: Determine the intended specific the level at which results of the project. collaboration Formulate objectives as specific results. agreements need to be concluded and with Rather than saying ‘We intend working on the heritage education learning pathways for elementary school pupils’ whom. it is better to say ‘In two years time, there will be a heritage education learning pathway for pupils aged 6 to 12.’ Conclude a collaboration agreement with all the parties concerned at management level. The agreement should set out all the reciprocal expectations and obligations. The actual conclusion of the agreement should take the form of an official, ceremonial event. This should be a separate event involving all those concerned (see also step 12). Collaboration also needs to be ‘maintained’. In addition to the development of materials and their incorporation into the curriculum, make sure that the progress of the project is monitored; do this by appointing a monitor for the development process. This can involve ensuring that there are regular meetings for the parties but also visits to the schools with the same frequency (see also phase 4). Step 6: Determine who Step 8: Determine how will carry out interim progress on the project evaluation and when. will be communicated. Do not try to achieve too much all in one go and do not hesitate Make sure that there is a regular medium – a newsletter, a to adjust objectives in the course of the project on the basis of functional website, a digital forum, articles in magazines – the experience gained. Make sure you have a specific contact describing experience with projects. person, i.e. the person who will carry out the evaluation. That person plays a crucial role in the project, and should be one of the project coordinators.
    • 22 Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Step 9: Determine Step 11: Determine how the progress of what means of the project is to be communication will be monitored. used so as to provide The important thing is not to attempt too much and not to go regular information about the project for all too fast. Draw up a calendar for the year showing the project activities. Make clear who will be engaged in what activities concerned. at what time. This will allow you to determine whether the objectives are being met or whether changes need to be made. The experience generated by monitoring should be published regularly in the form of a report that is made available to all the partners. This will ensure that those concerned remain involved with the project; it also makes it possible to share and learn from one another’s experience. Step 10: Determine how Step 12: Determine the project financing when and how results is to be expressed in will be presented hours and costs. (both internally and Drawing up a realistic budget for the project costs and finding externally). the money form a separate assignment and should be specified separately in the project plan. It is important to remember that Organise celebrations! Achieving interim objectives and the all work in the form of hours also means money and that a final results are highlights within a project. That fact should great deal can be achieved by means of individual efforts, even not be forgotten, and meetings should be organised not with only a small budget for materials. only for those directly involved but also for other interested parties such as funding organisations, representatives of the authorities, and other potentially interested parties with a view to follow-ups or further implementation.
    • Toolkit, step by step: an approach to heritage education Phases Steps 1 The start of the initiative, the creation of a basis of 1 Determine where the demand comes from. support, and the elaboration of a project idea into a project identity. 2 Determine what need is to be provided for by the project initiative. 2 The design of the project, paying attention to the project plan, the objectives, the collaborating partners, the 3 Decide on an interesting working title or name for the management, the communication, and the tasks that are project. consequently specified. 4 Determine a clear line of development. 3 Planning and financing. 5 Determine the intended specific results of the project. 4 Supervision of the process via monitoring and outcomes. 6 Determine who will carry out interim evaluation and when. 7 Determine the level at which collaboration agreements need to be concluded and with whom. 8 Determine how progress on the project will be communicated. 9 Determine how the progress of the project is to be monitored. 10 Determine how the project financing is to be expressed in hours and costs. 11 Determine what means of communication will be used so as to provide regular information about the project for all concerned. 12 Determine when and how results will be presented (both internally and externally).
    • Tips 9 Calendar for the year The important thing is not to attempt too much and not to go too fast. Draw up a calendar for the year showing the project activities. Make clear who will be engaged in what activities at what time. This will make clear 1 Top-down or bottom-up whether the objectives are being met or whether changes need to be made. Determine whether the project has been proposed on a top-down or a bottom-up basis. This is an important consideration for implementing 10 Realistic budget project plans as regards gaining support for an idea. Set out this Drawing up a realistic budget for the project costs and finding the money commitment in a collaboration agreement signed by all the interested form a separate assignment and should be specified separately in the parties. project plan. It is important to remember that all work in the form of hours can also be expressed in monetary terms and that a great deal can be 2 Preliminary study achieved by means of individual efforts, even with only a small budget for Determine the demand that forms the basis for the project idea. Determine materials. whether there have been any comparable initiatives. This can be done partly by means of desk research and partly through interviews with 11 Interim reporting participants in similar projects. It can take the form of a baseline survey. The experience generated by monitoring should be published regularly in the form of a report that is made available to all the partners (see also tip 8). 3 A specific name This will ensure that those concerned remain involved with the project; it The name or working title of the project must indicate what the project is also makes it possible to learn from one another’s experience. actually about. It is worth taking the necessary time and trouble to decide on a clear working title – one acceptable to all parties – at the earliest 12 Organise celebrations possible stage. The title should be chosen with the expert assistance of Achieving interim objectives and the final results are highlights within a various parties – the ministry, local government bodies, etc. – that are not project. That fact should not be forgotten, and meetings should be organised directly involved in the project by asking them ‘What do you think of when not only for those directly involved but also for other interested parties you hear…?’ such as funding organisations, representatives of the authorities, and other potentially interested parties with a view to follow-ups or further 4 Formulate clearly implementation. The design of the project should be formulated clearly, from the start to completion. The main outline should be kept in mind. Make a summary and include it in the project plan as a preamble. 5 Specific objectives Formulate objectives as specific results. Rather than saying ‘We intend working on the heritage education learning pathways for elementary school pupils’ it is better to say ‘In two years time, there will be a heritage education learning pathway for pupils aged 6 to 12.’ 6 Not too much Do not try to achieve too much all in one go and do not hesitate to adjust objectives in the course of the project on the basis of the experience gained. 7 Collaboration agreement Conclude a collaboration agreement with all the parties at management level. The agreement should set out all the reciprocal expectations and obligations. The actual conclusion of the agreement should take the form of an official, ceremonial event. Collaboration also needs to be ‘maintained’. In addition to the development of materials and their incorporation into the curriculum, make sure that the progress of the project is monitored; do this by appointing a monitor for the development process. This can involve ensuring that there are regular meetings for the parties but also by visiting the schools with the same frequency (see also phase 4). 8 Regular communication Make sure that there is a regular medium – a newsletter, a functional website, a forum, articles in magazines – describing experience with projects.