JT Velikovsky
VideoGame Historian
Year: 2000, CSU
With thanks to:
http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/
and ...
Overview
JT Velikovsky
Former national games market analyst (1999-2000)
at Inform Pty Ltd (now GfK)
Guest Lecture Presenta...
Overview
B.G. - Before Games
The Games Begin: 1961-77
Golden Years: 78-81
The Great Crash: 82-84
Games Are Back: 85-88
Hom...
100 YEARS B.G.
(Before Games)
1889 - Fusajiro Yamauchi starts Marufuku
1891 - Gerard Philips establishes Philips
1918 - Ko...
100 YEARS B.G.
(Before Games)
1932 - The Connecticut Leather Company established
1945 - Harold Matson & Elliot Handler sta...
50 YEARS B.G.
(Before Games)
1947 / 8 - THE PATENT
1947, Goldsmith and Mann submitted a patent for
the device, calling it ...
50 YEARS B.G.
(Before Games)
1947 - Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka set up the
Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Company
h...
50 YEARS B.G.
(Before Games)
- THE IDEA!
1951 - Ralph Baer, engineer with Loral, told to
"build the best TV set in the wor...
50 YEARS B.G.
(Before Games)
- The First-ever Ph.D. In Games?
1952 - OXO (Noughts and Crosses) - created and
programmed by...
50 YEARS B.G.
(Before Games)
1954 - Former US Korean War veteran David Rosen
starts SErvice GAmes
The Games Begin:
1958
1958 - Willy Higinbotham's "Tennis for Two“
(on an oscilloscope)
The Games Begin:
1961
1961 Steve Russell
creates Spacewar
* Play it here:
http://lcs.www.media.mit.edu/gro
ups/el/projects...
The Games Begin:
1970’s
Early 70’s - other games developed on mainframes:
Avatar, Airfight
• Star Trek written by Mike May...
The Games Begin:
1970’s
• 1970's Computers games
mostly use teletypes
• 1971 Intel builds the
4004 4-bit
microprocessor.
1971 - Nutting Releases First Arcade Video Game
• Computer Space
1972 - Magnavox Unveils The Odyssey
The Games Begin:
1971...
The Games Begin:
1971-77
1972
• Bushnell starts Atari
• g
n
• … and Pong is born
The Games Begin:
1971-77
1973 - Pong becomes an arcade phenomenon
• spawns 25 clones
1975 - Crowther & Woods create Advent...
The Games Begin:
1971-77
• 1975 - Sears' Pong
The Games Begin:
1971-77
1976
• Fairchild releases Fairchild Channel F
• Exidy releases Death Race arcade game
• many home...
The Games Begin:
1971-77
1976
• Steve Wozniak develops Apple 1 computer.
• Wozniak & Jobs found Apple Computer Co.
The Games Begin:
1971-77
1977
Atari opens Chuck E. Cheese chain
Midway Games releases Gunfight
The Games Begin:
1971-77
1977 - Atari VCS - later known as Atari 2600
The Games Begin:
1971-77
1977
Apple releases the Apple II
Blank, Daniels, Anderson & Lebling create
Zork (text adventure g...
Golden Years:
1978-81
1978
• Midway releases Space Invaders
• coin shortages in Japan
Golden Years:
1978-81
1978
•Atari releases Atari Football with trackball
• Bushnell leaves Atari (buys Chuck E. Cheese)
• ...
Golden Years:
1978-81
1978 - Atari Enters Computer Market
• Atari 400 and 800 computers
1978 - Magnavox releases console w...
Golden Years:
1978-81
1979
Atari releases Asteroids
their all-time best seller
Asteroids - 1979 Asteroids - 1999
Golden Years:
1978-81
1980 - Mattel Intellivision
Golden Years:
1978-81
1980
•Atari programmers leave and form Activision
•Atari creates Battlezone
Golden Years:
1978-81
1980 - Namco releases Pac-Man
• most popular arcade of all time
• originally named Puck-Man
1981 - N...
Golden Years:
1978-81
1981
more Atari programmers leave & form
Imagic
SEGA releases Frogger in US
US arcade revenues = $5 ...
Golden Years:
1978-81
1981 - IBM releases IBM PC
• uses Intel's 8088 microprocessor
The Great Crash
1982-1984
1982 - Coleco releases Colecovision
The Great Crash
1982-1984
1983 - Animated Video Games
Cinematronics releases Rick Dyer's Dragon's Lair
• first laser-disc ...
The Great Crash
1982-1984
1983 - Commodore releases the Commodore 64
The Great Crash
1982-1984
• The 1983 Crash!
• too many products on the shelves
• many 3rd-party companies go bust
• Mattel...
Games Are Back:
1985-88
1985 - Nintendo test-markets 8-bit NES
1986 - Nintendo Releases NES
• system debuts with Super Mar...
Games Are Back:
1985-88
1986 - Sega Releases Sega Master System
• NES competition
Games Are Back:
1985-88
1986 - Atari 7800 game console
Games Are Back:
1985-88
1986 - Good Nintendo News
• outsells competitors 10 to 1 in US
• #1 selling toy in America
• Legen...
Games Are Back:
1985-88
1987 - New software: Nintendo's hold on the market
grows, crowding out Sega and Atari - developers...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1989 - Nintendo introduces Monochrome Game Boy
• 1989 - retails at US$109
• 1999 - 60 million...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1989 - NEC releases "16-Bit" console in US
• NEC brings `PC-Engine’ to America
• call it the ...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1989 - Sega releases 16-Bit Genesis in US
• US$249.95
• called (`Mega Drive’ in Australia)
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
• Bambino
• Bandai
• Casio
• Coleco
• CGL
• Entex
• Grandstand
• Tomy
• Mattel
• Milton Bradl...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1989 - Atari Releases Handheld Lynx (US$149)
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1990 - Nintendo releases Super Mario 3
• all-time best-selling video-game cart
Video-game ren...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1990 - SNK releases Neo-Geo
• 24-bit (arcade & home formats)
• graphics & sounds crush Genesi...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1990 - Sega Arcade Hits Come Home
• Afterburner II, E-SWAT
• Sega secures Genesis rights
to C...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1990 - NEC Releases TurboExpress (US$299.95)
• basically handheld TurboGrafx-16
• separately ...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1990 - Commodore releases CDTV
• (Commodore Dynamic Total Vision)
• rival to Philips CDi
• ba...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1991 - Nintendo Releases SNES (US$249.95)
• Super Famicom, but called Super NES
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1991 - Sega Introduces Sonic
• Sega hopes to conquer NES/SNES (i.e. Mario)
• critics find Sup...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1991 - Sega CD (US$299.95)
• denies developers easy access to development tools
• graphics ra...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1991 - JVC Wondermega ($620)
• released in Japan
• a combination Genesis karaoke & Sega CD
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1991 - Nintendo Divorces Sony & marries Philips
• Sony & Nintendo abandon joint CD peripheral...
Home Market Expands:
1989-92
1991 - Sony apparently disgusted
• finishes up work on SNES games
• scraps old "PlayStation" ...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1993 - 3DO Company launched
• started by EA founder Trip Hawkins
• announce new 32-bit gamin...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1993 - Panasonic releases 3DO console
• only drawback: $699 price tag
• Goldstar soon after
...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1993 - Atari Launches Jaguar
• Atari bypasses 32-bit arena - to `64’ bits
• (actually two 32...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1993 - New Sega & Nintendo Next-Gen Systems Announced
Nintendo's `Project Reality’
• 64-bit ...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1993
• Intel’s Pentium chip launched
• Consoles (Sega & Nintendo) = 80% of game market
• Mic...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1994
SEGA invests $40 million into Atari
• obtains access to Atari's patents
Origin releases...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1994 - Amstrad CPC 464
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1994
• DOOM released by id Software
• first-person 3-D shooter with RT3D
engine, spawns:
• H...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1994 - ESRB Established
Entertainment Software Rating Board
• rates video games for:
• age
•...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1994 - Sega releases 32-Bit console (sort of)
• Sega 32X peripheral ($179.95)
• enables Gene...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1994 - Nintendo releases Super Game Boy ($59.95)
• adapter - lets Game Boy cartridges play o...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1995 - Microsoft releases Windows 95
• includes the game SDK & DirectX
• brings major game p...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1995 - Sony ships PlayStation (32 bit)
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1995
• Internet & WWW explode
• Full Motion Video (FMV) enters games
• 7th Guest
• Writer: M...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1995 - the Sega Saturn
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1995 - the Saturn debacle
• Sega announced Saturn will release in US on
"Saturnday," Septemb...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1995 - Nintendo Virtual Boy ($179.95)
• 32-bit "portable" game console
• to tide people over...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1995
• another bad year for video game sales
• Nintendo delays release of Nintendo 64
Sony's...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1996 - Price Wars
Sony lowers price of PlayStation to $199
Sega forced to follow suit
doubts...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1996 - Release of American N64
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1996 - N64’s impressive debut
500,000 sell on first day in Japan
causes riots
improved distr...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1996 - Arcades decline despite new games
• Sega releases Virtua Fighter 3
• shatters polygon...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1996 - Saturn News: Good and Bad
• Japanese sales from Saturn are high
• American sales and ...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1996 - Nintendo sells billionth cartridge!
Nintendo announces Atlantis
• 32-bit RISC-based c...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1996 - Sony Success
• Sony sales top $12 million per day thru
Christmas shopping season
• Pl...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1996 - Video-Game Museum Opens - Videotopia
• traveling exhibit on history of video games
• ...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997
Force-feedback joysticks &
steering wheels
Origin launches Ultima Online
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997
3-D graphics accelerators standardize
games start to assume 3-D acceleration
Pentium II...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997 - Console Price Wars
• Feb - Nintendo of Japan drops price of N64 to $137
• Mar - Sony ...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997 - Saturn still popular in Japan
• Saturn software sold through vending
machines at conv...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997 - Tamagotchi Fever
• Bandai - 14.5 million in 1 year
• over 20 virtual pet manufacturers
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997 - Sony & Nintendo Begin Year on High Note
• Sony has installed base 3.2 M units in US
•...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997 - PlayStation Most Popular Gaming Console
• 5 million sold in Japan
• 4 million in the ...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997
Nintendo’s StarFox 64 Sets Record
• Nintendo quick to announce StarFox 64 is
"hottest" ...
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997 - Tiger Releases Game Boy Competition:
game.com
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997 - Nintendo Releases "New" Console (SNES v 2.0)
The 32-bit Era Begins
1993-97
1997
Father of Game Boy Dies in Freak Accident
• October - Gumpei Yokoi, inventor of Game
Bo...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998
lots of awesome games for PC’s
console games still popular on PlayStation &
Nintendo 64
PlaySt...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - Next-Gen 128-bit Sega Console
• code-named Dural, Black Belt then Katana
• will use a Micros...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - Dreamcast launched Japan, November 27
• initial 150,000 systems sell immediately
• with 132,...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - Sega's Problems Continue
• cuts are made in the three American divisions:
• Sega of America
...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - More Price Wars
• at E3 Sony announces it will be shipping
PlayStation consoles with the new...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - Pokemania comes to America
• Pocket Monsters - marketing hit in Japan
• worldwide attention ...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - Nintendo's Game Boy Color
The Modern Age
1998-2K
•1998 - Others Jump on Handheld Market
• Tiger continues to tout its game.com
• also releases a sli...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - Hasbro Goes on Buying Frenzy
after success of its Frogger release for the PC
and PlayStation...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - Retro Excitement Continues
• Activision releases compendium of 30 Atari
2600 games for the P...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - VM Labs `NUON’
• chip built into DVD consoles
• allows DVD players to be fully interactive
•...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - Banner Year for Video games
IDSA (Interactive Digital Software Association)
announces 1998 w...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1998 - N64: Legend of Zelda - Ocarina of Time
• last 6 weeks of 1988 - $150 million (2.5m units)
TI...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999 - Nintendo announces 128-bit Dolphin
• built around IBM 400MHz copper Gekko microchip
• consol...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999 - Cellular Phone Games
Nintendo announces Game Boy Advance
• 32-bit color handheld system
• ca...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999 - Microsoft announces `X-Box’ plans
• home console system
• like Dreamcast - use Windows CE as...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999
Maximum Score for Pac-Man Achieved
• Billy Mitchell achieves 3,333,360 !
Neo-Geo Pocket (16-bi...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999
• Hasbro Acquires Rights to Namco Games
• Sony Releases Specs for New PlayStation
• Iomega pla...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999 - Sega Announces Games for Handhelds
• Nintendo's Game Boy
• Bandai's WonderSwan
Sega has no p...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999 - No Gun for Dreamcast
• due to shootings at Columbine High, light
gun not released in US
• fa...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999 - Emulation News
• Connectix Corporation introduces the
$149 Virtual Game Station
• plays emul...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1999 - Microsoft’s 1 million joysticks
• Microsoft ships 1 millionth SideWinder Force
Feedback Pro ...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
1) Myst - Mattel Interactive 4,236,198
2) MS Flight Simulator - Microsoft 2,781,288
3) Doom II - GT...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
ECONOMICS of THE GAME INDUSTRY (Year 2000)
• 300 games released each year
• only 30 make money
• $5...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
CONSOLE COMPARISON:
• Sony PlayStation
• Nintendo 64
• Sega Dreamcast
• Sony PlayStation 2
• Ninten...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
PLAYSTATION
• Japan launch - Dec 94
• launched rest of world - Sep 95
• 300 000 polygons/sec
• 30 M...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
NINTENDO 64
• US launch - Sep 96
• Aust launch - Feb 97
• 93.75 Mhz 64-bit CPU
• 64-bit MIPS co-pro...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
DREAMCAST - Sega tries again!
• US launch Sep 99, $299
• Aust launch - Nov 30, 99 $499
• Hitachi 20...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
PLAYSTATION 2
• Japanese launch March 3 2000
• US, Europe launch - Sep 2000
• Aust launch - Q4 2000...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
NINTENDO DOLPHIN
• Worldwide launch: pre-Christmas 2000
• DVD-ROM format (opposed to cartridge)
• 4...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
MICROSOFT X-BOX
...the “PlayStation2 killer”
• all rumours only...
• Dreamcast runs Windows CE as O...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
FUTURE HARDWARE
• DVD is already here
• computers improve in speed (2 or 3x every year)
• Pentium a...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
PIRACY
• = 15-20% of lost games market revenue
(PC & console combined)
S.C.U.M. (Stop Copying Unaut...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
AVSDA - Australian Visual Software Distributors Association
• formed 1998 - now has 13 members:
• S...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
FUTURE SOFTWARE
• Scaleable software
• Lifelike 3D characters & movement
• historical & famous figu...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
2000 - SONY
• Since the start of 1999 Sony’s market value has
more than tripled to ¥12.5 trillion (...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
Final Fantasy VIII
• RPG
• sold 3 million in Japan
• sold 500 000 in US
The Modern Age
1998-2K
2000+ - PLAYSTATION2 GRAPHICS
• two new semiconductor chips:
• “Emotion engine” 128-bit processor
•...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
• PSX has installed base = Sega & Nintendo 16 bit combined
• value of PSX market has begun to decli...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
• Cyclical Nature of Games Market - UK
The Modern Age
1998-2K
The Modern Age
1998-2K
Sega of America
• branch of Sega Enterprises, Tokyo-based
company worth $3 billion
• 1999 loss will...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
CASUAL GAMING
• 4 years ago, casual gamer market barely existed
• a game that sold 100,000 copies w...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
MMOGs - (Massively Multiplayer Online Games)
• Meridian 59
• Ultima Online
• EverQuest
• Asheron's ...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
RESTRUCTURES, MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS
• Interactive Magic was renamed iEntertainment Network
• Matte...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
GAMES INDUSTRY RESEARCH COMPANIES
• IDG Games Media Group
• NPD-TRSTS
• PC Data
• GfK
• Chart Track...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
PC GAME GENRES
13%
12%
18%
5%1%7%
4%
5%
7%
19%
8% 1%
Action
Adventure
Edutainment
Family
Platform
R...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
CONSOLE GAME GENRES
15%
22%
1%
22%
17%
3%
15%
2% 3%
0%
Action
Adventure
Family
Platform
Racing
RPG
...
The Modern Age
1998-2K
GAMES HISTORY RECAP…
Australia
1971 1980 1985
71 Pong invented
77 Atari 2600
72 Atari formed
80 Space Invaders
& Pac-Man arcades
80 Mattel’s
In...
Australia
1985 1990 1995
85 Nintendo NES
89 Sega Mega Drive
93 3DO
(not Aus)
94 Sega
Saturn
Australia
1995 2000 2001
95 Sony
PlayStation
99 Sega
Dreamcast
97 Nintendo N64
9/00 Sony
PSX2
01 Nintendo
Dolphin
The Game Software Channel
Developer
Consumer
Retailer
Distributor
Eidos
Publisher Sega
Ozisoft
Harvey Norman
Phil Burnham
...
The Games Market
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
Console HW Console SW H/held SW H/held HW PC Mac
Today (2000)
Worldwide Games Market
14%
40%42%
17%
14% 9%
1%
2%
30% 34%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
1998 1999
GBC
DC
N64
PSX
PC
The Present: 2000
2000 – `DRIVER’
The Legacy
1961 – Spacewar!
JT Velikovsky
VideoGame Historian
2000
With thanks to:
http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/
A History of
Vi...
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Videogames History - 1889 to the Year 2000 - JT Velikovsky

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A History of Videogames - from 1889 to the year 2000.
This was a lecture given in the year 2000 by JT Velikovsky at Charles Sturt University. JT Velikovsky was the national games market analyst in 1999-2000, at Inform P/L (now GfK). For more background see: http://on-writering.blogspot.com/

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  • The Games Software Retail Channel.
  • The present: (ie - the year 2000. After 2000 the games industry really exploded.)
  • 1961 – Spacewar. Play it online. It’s fun.
  • Videogames History - 1889 to the Year 2000 - JT Velikovsky

    1. 1. JT Velikovsky VideoGame Historian Year: 2000, CSU With thanks to: http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/ and others A History of VideoGames
    2. 2. Overview JT Velikovsky Former national games market analyst (1999-2000) at Inform Pty Ltd (now GfK) Guest Lecture Presentation on: The History of Videogames For Charles Sturt University, Bathurst NSW, Yr 2000 (First 3-Year B.A. Games Degree course, Australia) Images & Information – Fair Use: For Educational Purposes Only
    3. 3. Overview B.G. - Before Games The Games Begin: 1961-77 Golden Years: 78-81 The Great Crash: 82-84 Games Are Back: 85-88 Home Market Expands: 93-97 The 32-bit Era: 93-97 The Modern Age: 98-2K - What Next?: 2K+ http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/ TIMELINE:
    4. 4. 100 YEARS B.G. (Before Games) 1889 - Fusajiro Yamauchi starts Marufuku 1891 - Gerard Philips establishes Philips 1918 - Konosuke Matsushita starts Matsushita Electric Housewares Manufacturing Works http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/
    5. 5. 100 YEARS B.G. (Before Games) 1932 - The Connecticut Leather Company established 1945 - Harold Matson & Elliot Handler start Mattel http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/
    6. 6. 50 YEARS B.G. (Before Games) 1947 / 8 - THE PATENT 1947, Goldsmith and Mann submitted a patent for the device, calling it the Cathode-Ray Tube Amusement Device (Pat # #2455992), awarded 1948 Based on WW2 radar device, `missile command’ game Game was never mass-produced http://classicgames.about.com/od/classicvideogames101/p/CathodeDevice.htm
    7. 7. 50 YEARS B.G. (Before Games) 1947 - Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka set up the Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Company http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/
    8. 8. 50 YEARS B.G. (Before Games) - THE IDEA! 1951 - Ralph Baer, engineer with Loral, told to "build the best TV set in the world." • Baer suggests they add some kind of interactive game to the TV set • This apparently doesn’t happen. http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/
    9. 9. 50 YEARS B.G. (Before Games) - The First-ever Ph.D. In Games? 1952 - OXO (Noughts and Crosses) - created and programmed by Alexander Sandy Douglas, at Cambridge University • Platform: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) • PhD was awarded! (You Win!) http://classicgames.about.com/od/computergames/p/OXOProfile.htm/
    10. 10. 50 YEARS B.G. (Before Games) 1954 - Former US Korean War veteran David Rosen starts SErvice GAmes
    11. 11. The Games Begin: 1958 1958 - Willy Higinbotham's "Tennis for Two“ (on an oscilloscope)
    12. 12. The Games Begin: 1961 1961 Steve Russell creates Spacewar * Play it here: http://lcs.www.media.mit.edu/gro ups/el/projects/spacewar/ 1962 Nolan Bushnell plays Spacewar at the University of Utah.
    13. 13. The Games Begin: 1970’s Early 70’s - other games developed on mainframes: Avatar, Airfight • Star Trek written by Mike Mayfield (in BASIC) • almost no graphics • no significant commercial markets
    14. 14. The Games Begin: 1970’s • 1970's Computers games mostly use teletypes • 1971 Intel builds the 4004 4-bit microprocessor.
    15. 15. 1971 - Nutting Releases First Arcade Video Game • Computer Space 1972 - Magnavox Unveils The Odyssey The Games Begin: 1971-77
    16. 16. The Games Begin: 1971-77 1972 • Bushnell starts Atari • g n • … and Pong is born
    17. 17. The Games Begin: 1971-77 1973 - Pong becomes an arcade phenomenon • spawns 25 clones 1975 - Crowther & Woods create Adventure • first text-based adventure game
    18. 18. The Games Begin: 1971-77 • 1975 - Sears' Pong
    19. 19. The Games Begin: 1971-77 1976 • Fairchild releases Fairchild Channel F • Exidy releases Death Race arcade game • many home video games released • Atari sold to Warner Communications
    20. 20. The Games Begin: 1971-77 1976 • Steve Wozniak develops Apple 1 computer. • Wozniak & Jobs found Apple Computer Co.
    21. 21. The Games Begin: 1971-77 1977 Atari opens Chuck E. Cheese chain Midway Games releases Gunfight
    22. 22. The Games Begin: 1971-77 1977 - Atari VCS - later known as Atari 2600
    23. 23. The Games Begin: 1971-77 1977 Apple releases the Apple II Blank, Daniels, Anderson & Lebling create Zork (text adventure game)
    24. 24. Golden Years: 1978-81 1978 • Midway releases Space Invaders • coin shortages in Japan
    25. 25. Golden Years: 1978-81 1978 •Atari releases Atari Football with trackball • Bushnell leaves Atari (buys Chuck E. Cheese) • Nintendo cocktail tables with Computer Othello • Intel develops the 8088 (8/16-bit) processor
    26. 26. Golden Years: 1978-81 1978 - Atari Enters Computer Market • Atari 400 and 800 computers 1978 - Magnavox releases console with keyboard • the Odyssey 2
    27. 27. Golden Years: 1978-81 1979 Atari releases Asteroids their all-time best seller Asteroids - 1979 Asteroids - 1999
    28. 28. Golden Years: 1978-81 1980 - Mattel Intellivision
    29. 29. Golden Years: 1978-81 1980 •Atari programmers leave and form Activision •Atari creates Battlezone
    30. 30. Golden Years: 1978-81 1980 - Namco releases Pac-Man • most popular arcade of all time • originally named Puck-Man 1981 - Nintendo creates Donkey Kong
    31. 31. Golden Years: 1978-81 1981 more Atari programmers leave & form Imagic SEGA releases Frogger in US US arcade revenues = $5 billion Man dies of heart attack while playing Berserk
    32. 32. Golden Years: 1978-81 1981 - IBM releases IBM PC • uses Intel's 8088 microprocessor
    33. 33. The Great Crash 1982-1984 1982 - Coleco releases Colecovision
    34. 34. The Great Crash 1982-1984 1983 - Animated Video Games Cinematronics releases Rick Dyer's Dragon's Lair • first laser-disc technology arcade game
    35. 35. The Great Crash 1982-1984 1983 - Commodore releases the Commodore 64
    36. 36. The Great Crash 1982-1984 • The 1983 Crash! • too many products on the shelves • many 3rd-party companies go bust • Mattel shuts down after heavy losses • Warner sells off Atari
    37. 37. Games Are Back: 1985-88 1985 - Nintendo test-markets 8-bit NES 1986 - Nintendo Releases NES • system debuts with Super Mario Bros
    38. 38. Games Are Back: 1985-88 1986 - Sega Releases Sega Master System • NES competition
    39. 39. Games Are Back: 1985-88 1986 - Atari 7800 game console
    40. 40. Games Are Back: 1985-88 1986 - Good Nintendo News • outsells competitors 10 to 1 in US • #1 selling toy in America • Legend of Zelda - 1st `new gen’ game to exceed sales of 1 million units • many 3rd party developers & Atari supporters (eg Namco) sign on
    41. 41. Games Are Back: 1985-88 1987 - New software: Nintendo's hold on the market grows, crowding out Sega and Atari - developers: • KONAMI • CAPCOM • JALECO • BRODERBUND • INFOGRAMES • SQUARE • TAITO NEC Releases `PC-Engine’ Console in Japan • touted as 16-bit machine • (actually 16-bit graphics processor)
    42. 42. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1989 - Nintendo introduces Monochrome Game Boy • 1989 - retails at US$109 • 1999 - 60 million sold • only PSX outsold it • Other (colour!) handhelds • Lynx (colour) US$149 • Nomad • Turbo Express • Game Gear
    43. 43. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1989 - NEC releases "16-Bit" console in US • NEC brings `PC-Engine’ to America • call it the TurboGrafx-16 ($189)
    44. 44. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1989 - Sega releases 16-Bit Genesis in US • US$249.95 • called (`Mega Drive’ in Australia)
    45. 45. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 • Bambino • Bandai • Casio • Coleco • CGL • Entex • Grandstand • Tomy • Mattel • Milton Bradley • Tiger • Namco • Playtime • Conso • Popgames • Halion • Parker Bros • Nintendo • Gakken • Unisonic DEDICATED HANDHELD SYSTEMS
    46. 46. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1989 - Atari Releases Handheld Lynx (US$149)
    47. 47. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1990 - Nintendo releases Super Mario 3 • all-time best-selling video-game cart Video-game rental dispute • Nintendo sues Blockbuster over video game rentals • Nintendo wins
    48. 48. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1990 - SNK releases Neo-Geo • 24-bit (arcade & home formats) • graphics & sounds crush Genesis & TurboGrafx-16 • but US$899 retail crushes Neo-Geo's sales
    49. 49. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1990 - Sega Arcade Hits Come Home • Afterburner II, E-SWAT • Sega secures Genesis rights to Capcom's platform game Strider • Strider wins Game of the Year
    50. 50. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1990 - NEC Releases TurboExpress (US$299.95) • basically handheld TurboGrafx-16 • separately sold TV tuner • first time a portable can play dedicated console's games
    51. 51. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1990 - Commodore releases CDTV • (Commodore Dynamic Total Vision) • rival to Philips CDi • basically Commodore Amiga PC without keyboard • first home system to stress education software + games • software sold on CD, not cartridge
    52. 52. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1991 - Nintendo Releases SNES (US$249.95) • Super Famicom, but called Super NES
    53. 53. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1991 - Sega Introduces Sonic • Sega hopes to conquer NES/SNES (i.e. Mario) • critics find Super Mario World better Galoob Toys - Game Genie • device lets players cheat on NES games • infuriates Nintendo
    54. 54. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1991 - Sega CD (US$299.95) • denies developers easy access to development tools • graphics radical (hardware sprite zooming & rotation) • Sega of America shifts focuses to interactive movies
    55. 55. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1991 - JVC Wondermega ($620) • released in Japan • a combination Genesis karaoke & Sega CD
    56. 56. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1991 - Nintendo Divorces Sony & marries Philips • Sony & Nintendo abandon joint CD peripheral • which Sony had completed in prototype form! • Nintendo works with Philips to create CD-ROM compatible with Philips CD-i
    57. 57. Home Market Expands: 1989-92 1991 - Sony apparently disgusted • finishes up work on SNES games • scraps old "PlayStation" developed for Nintendo • sets engineers to work on 32-bit CD-only game machine to unseat Nintendo in Japan and US
    58. 58. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1993 - 3DO Company launched • started by EA founder Trip Hawkins • announce new 32-bit gaming console • 3DO has backing from Panasonic, Time- Warner, and MCA • 3DO won’t manufacture consoles itself
    59. 59. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1993 - Panasonic releases 3DO console • only drawback: $699 price tag • Goldstar soon after • Sanyo
    60. 60. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1993 - Atari Launches Jaguar • Atari bypasses 32-bit arena - to `64’ bits • (actually two 32-bit co-processors) • expensive for console ($700, $100/game)
    61. 61. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1993 - New Sega & Nintendo Next-Gen Systems Announced Nintendo's `Project Reality’ • 64-bit system developed by Silicon Graphics Sega's Saturn • 32-bit system !
    62. 62. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1993 • Intel’s Pentium chip launched • Consoles (Sega & Nintendo) = 80% of game market • Microprose’ Civilisation is published for PC • created by Sid Meier, creator of: • Civilisation 2, 3 • Alpha Centauri: Alien Crossfire
    63. 63. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1994 SEGA invests $40 million into Atari • obtains access to Atari's patents Origin releases Ultima VIII • introduces a full isometric perspective • bad year in general for video game sales
    64. 64. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1994 - Amstrad CPC 464
    65. 65. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1994 • DOOM released by id Software • first-person 3-D shooter with RT3D engine, spawns: • Half Life • Quake • Unreal • mouse & keyboard based • Myst released by Cyan • `slideshow’ adventure game • all time biggest PC game • 4 million sold 1994-2000
    66. 66. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1994 - ESRB Established Entertainment Software Rating Board • rates video games for: • age • violence • sexual content
    67. 67. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1994 - Sega releases 32-Bit console (sort of) • Sega 32X peripheral ($179.95) • enables Genesis to run new 32-bit cart games • to stave off sales of Atari Jaguar & Panasonic 3DO
    68. 68. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1994 - Nintendo releases Super Game Boy ($59.95) • adapter - lets Game Boy cartridges play on SNES
    69. 69. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1995 - Microsoft releases Windows 95 • includes the game SDK & DirectX • brings major game performance to Windows
    70. 70. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1995 - Sony ships PlayStation (32 bit)
    71. 71. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1995 • Internet & WWW explode • Full Motion Video (FMV) enters games • 7th Guest • Writer: Matt Costello
    72. 72. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1995 - the Sega Saturn
    73. 73. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1995 - the Saturn debacle • Sega announced Saturn will release in US on "Saturnday," September 2 1995 • Sega jumps the gun - releases in May for $399.99 • overall sales very low • very few titles are released
    74. 74. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1995 - Nintendo Virtual Boy ($179.95) • 32-bit "portable" game console • to tide people over until `Project Reality’ (now called Ultra 64) is ready for release • critics swarm to smash the system • sales very low
    75. 75. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1995 • another bad year for video game sales • Nintendo delays release of Nintendo 64 Sony's fortunes rising SEGA's diminishing
    76. 76. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1996 - Price Wars Sony lowers price of PlayStation to $199 Sega forced to follow suit doubts about cartridge format, CD better Multi-player games, via modem, internet, and private networks, gain popularity Atari effectively dies - sold to JTS Atari Jaguar discontinued
    77. 77. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1996 - Release of American N64
    78. 78. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1996 - N64’s impressive debut 500,000 sell on first day in Japan causes riots improved distribution via Convenience Stores entire shipment of 350,000 sells out in three days in US after 4 weeks sales drop lack of software blamed
    79. 79. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1996 - Arcades decline despite new games • Sega releases Virtua Fighter 3 • shatters polygon performance records • Saturn version immediately announced • simulation games popular in arcades • new skiing, snowboarding, & jet skiing games from Namco and Sega • arcades in decline - as home consoles catch up with arcade machines
    80. 80. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1996 - Saturn News: Good and Bad • Japanese sales from Saturn are high • American sales and returns low Bad Sega news • stores dump stocks of 16-bit cartridges • Sega takes huge loss - on worldwide warehouses full of 16-bit games • Acclaim takes similar loss on warehouses of really bad 16-bit games
    81. 81. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1996 - Nintendo sells billionth cartridge! Nintendo announces Atlantis • 32-bit RISC-based color handheld device • launch plans eclipsed by launch of N64 Nolan Bushnell Reappears • president of Aristo Games • makes Internet stations for arcades & bars
    82. 82. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1996 - Sony Success • Sony sales top $12 million per day thru Christmas shopping season • PlayStation worldwide #1 next-generation game console • video-game industry has highly profitable year • software prices on 32-bit games show exceptional volatility
    83. 83. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1996 - Video-Game Museum Opens - Videotopia • traveling exhibit on history of video games • Pittsburgh’s Carnegie Science Center Death of Virtual Boy • Nintendo stops all development on Virtual Boy • Nintendo blames designer, Gumpei Yokoi, a 30-year employee of Nintendo • responsible for highly successful Game Boy • Yokoi leaves Nintendo in disgrace, starts up own R&D company
    84. 84. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 Force-feedback joysticks & steering wheels Origin launches Ultima Online
    85. 85. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 3-D graphics accelerators standardize games start to assume 3-D acceleration Pentium II's running at 200MHz make serious game machines PII’s lead to bigger, demanding games like Cyan's Riven requires 100MHz PC with 16MB RAM, 75MB hard disk space, video & sound cards compatible with DirectX and Windows 95
    86. 86. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 - Console Price Wars • Feb - Nintendo of Japan drops price of N64 to $137 • Mar - Sony lowers PlayStation to $200 in UK and Aust. • SCE of America lowers PlayStation to $149 • George Harrison of N64 US says price drop doesn't faze his company • but Nintendo lowers N64 to $150 two weeks later! • June - Sega lowers the price of the Saturn to $150
    87. 87. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 - Saturn still popular in Japan • Saturn software sold through vending machines at convenience stores • Sega releases super-polygon arcade machine Super GT Scud Race, in Japan and America • Capcom’s Street Fighter III bombs • Sega Channel will cease broadcasting in 1998 • Genesis closer to extinction due to success of PlayStation & N64 • subscription base for Sega Channel kept getting smaller • Sega announces merger with Japanese toy company Bandai - this fails
    88. 88. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 - Tamagotchi Fever • Bandai - 14.5 million in 1 year • over 20 virtual pet manufacturers
    89. 89. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 - Sony & Nintendo Begin Year on High Note • Sony has installed base 3.2 M units in US • 1/3 sold over 1996 Christmas holiday season • Nintendo claims `could have sold 2.5 million consoles during the Christmas season’ had it been able to manufacture that many
    90. 90. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 - PlayStation Most Popular Gaming Console • 5 million sold in Japan • 4 million in the United States • 2.2 million in Europe • these figs double 4 months later when 20 millionth unit is sold Sony Releases Yaroze in US ($750) • lets users design PSX games on home PCs
    91. 91. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 Nintendo’s StarFox 64 Sets Record • Nintendo quick to announce StarFox 64 is "hottest" video game for any system • ...sells 300,000 copies within five days of June 30 launch • purists point out that this only applies in the United States - • Final Fantasy VII sold 2 million copies in 3 days when released in Japan in January
    92. 92. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 - Tiger Releases Game Boy Competition: game.com
    93. 93. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 - Nintendo Releases "New" Console (SNES v 2.0)
    94. 94. The 32-bit Era Begins 1993-97 1997 Father of Game Boy Dies in Freak Accident • October - Gumpei Yokoi, inventor of Game Boy involved in a car accident • Game Boy - Yokoi's most successful product • also responsible for the Game & Watch • the Virtual Boy • cross-key directional pad that replaced the joystick as the controller of choice
    95. 95. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 lots of awesome games for PC’s console games still popular on PlayStation & Nintendo 64 PlayStation rules the consoles more games for PlayStation, but Nintendo comes on strong with Return of Zelda JTS sells Atari name and assets to Hasbro for $5 million
    96. 96. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - Next-Gen 128-bit Sega Console • code-named Dural, Black Belt then Katana • will use a Microsoft Windows CE OS (easier game conversions to & from PC) • unique aspect is Visual Memory System (VMS) • memory device that plugs into controller but can also be used as a stand-alone game device with Tamagotchi-like graphics • Sega of America spends $100M to launch it • Sega announces name change to Dreamcast
    97. 97. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - Dreamcast launched Japan, November 27 • initial 150,000 systems sell immediately • with 132,000 copies of Virtua Fighter 3
    98. 98. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - Sega's Problems Continue • cuts are made in the three American divisions: • Sega of America • SegaSoft • Sega Entertainment Saturn Death Knell • Sega ceases distribution of the Saturn in North America
    99. 99. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - More Price Wars • at E3 Sony announces it will be shipping PlayStation consoles with the new Dual Shock controller • new configuration will retail for $149.95 • retailers sell off old stock of consoles with original controller for $129.95 • Nintendo announces it too will temporarily drop N64 retail price to $129.95 • Question on everyone's mind: • When will the systems fall to $99?
    100. 100. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - Pokemania comes to America • Pocket Monsters - marketing hit in Japan • worldwide attention - cartoon causes epileptic fits in 700 Japanese viewers • Game Boy versions - Nintendo's fastest- selling game ever • Nintendo also release Tamagotchi-like device called Pocket Pikachu
    101. 101. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - Nintendo's Game Boy Color
    102. 102. The Modern Age 1998-2K •1998 - Others Jump on Handheld Market • Tiger continues to tout its game.com • also releases a slimmer model called Game.com Pocket Pro - fails badly • Bandai introduces WonderSwan ($40) - can display games both horizontally & vertically on hi-res B&W screen, can also display limited full-motion video • SNK announces the Neo-Geo Pocket ($50) • a handheld system that will work both independently and in conjunction with Sega's Dreamcast. • features a tiny joystick and monochrome screen that larger than Game Boy's
    103. 103. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - Hasbro Goes on Buying Frenzy after success of its Frogger release for the PC and PlayStation Hasbro Interactive purchases: • Tiger Electronics • the rights to the Atari home library and name for $5 million. • first game released is Centipede for the PC
    104. 104. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - Retro Excitement Continues • Activision releases compendium of 30 Atari 2600 games for the PlayStation • lukewarm response • public is appreciative of re-released classic games • also releases updated version of Asteroids for the PC and PlayStation • CD-ROM called Intellivision Lives released • 50 Intellivision games for PC & MAC
    105. 105. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - VM Labs `NUON’ • chip built into DVD consoles • allows DVD players to be fully interactive • included in DVD players manufactured by: • Thompson (RCA and GE) • Toshiba • Top developers sign on: • Activision • Capcom • Hasbro • THQ
    106. 106. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - Banner Year for Video games IDSA (Interactive Digital Software Association) announces 1998 was a banner year for industry • first six months of 1998, sales up 30 % from all of 1997, which was record year IDSA reports home video-game industry is flourishing at the expense of arcade industry • one victim is Acclaim: • exits from the arcade industry on March 6 Emulation Woes - IDSA works to shut down web sites that offer ROM images • although definition of the legality of the ROM images remains in question
    107. 107. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1998 - N64: Legend of Zelda - Ocarina of Time • last 6 weeks of 1988 - $150 million (2.5m units) TITLE WEEKS TOTAL REVENUES Legend of Zelda (Nintendo) 6 $150m A Bug's Life 6 $114m Enemy of the State 7 $92m The Rugrats Movie 7 $85m
    108. 108. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 - Nintendo announces 128-bit Dolphin • built around IBM 400MHz copper Gekko microchip • console will ship before Christmas 2000 season
    109. 109. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 - Cellular Phone Games Nintendo announces Game Boy Advance • 32-bit color handheld system • can be combined with cell phone for Internet access • compatible with Game Boy & Game Boy Color software Howard Lincoln's Plans To Retire • announces he plans to retire as CEO of Nintendo of America in Feb 2000
    110. 110. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 - Microsoft announces `X-Box’ plans • home console system • like Dreamcast - use Windows CE as OS ?
    111. 111. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 Maximum Score for Pac-Man Achieved • Billy Mitchell achieves 3,333,360 ! Neo-Geo Pocket (16-bit) released in US ($69.95) • SNK didn't release monochrome NGP in US
    112. 112. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 • Hasbro Acquires Rights to Namco Games • Sony Releases Specs for New PlayStation • Iomega plans Zip Drive for Dreamcast
    113. 113. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 - Sega Announces Games for Handhelds • Nintendo's Game Boy • Bandai's WonderSwan Sega has no plans to market own handheld system Sega of Japan Lowers Dreamcast Price • Dreamcast goes from $250 to $164 • US launch price of $199 has not changed • Hollywood Video stores rent out Dreamcasts • renters must leave a $350 deposit • only game available is Sonic Adventure
    114. 114. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 - No Gun for Dreamcast • due to shootings at Columbine High, light gun not released in US • fans of House Of The Dead 2 dismayed • 3rd-party companies release working light guns in Sega's place Dreamcast sales figs • $98 million in first 24 hours of US launch!
    115. 115. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 - Emulation News • Connectix Corporation introduces the $149 Virtual Game Station • plays emulated PSX games on the Macintosh • Sony requests restraining order • request is denied bleem! • PSX emulator for IBM compatible PCs • available for $19.95! • Sony makes four attempts to restrain shipments • refused every time!
    116. 116. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1999 - Microsoft’s 1 million joysticks • Microsoft ships 1 millionth SideWinder Force Feedback Pro joystick • most popular force feedback stick • features a 16-bit onboard processor • MS's digital-optical technology
    117. 117. The Modern Age 1998-2K 1) Myst - Mattel Interactive 4,236,198 2) MS Flight Simulator - Microsoft 2,781,288 3) Doom II - GT Interactive 1,553,587 4) Riven: The Sequel to Myst - Mattel 1,305,595 5) Monopoly Game - Hasbro Interactive 1,273,553 6) Warcraft II - Havas Interactive 1,250,675 7) Diablo - Havas Interactive 1,176,457 8) Doom Shareware - Id Software 1,154,541 9) Sim City 2000 - Electronic Arts 1,136,244 10) Star Wars: Dark Forces - LucasArts 952,033 TOP TEN GAMES OF ALL TIME (at @ 2000)
    118. 118. The Modern Age 1998-2K ECONOMICS of THE GAME INDUSTRY (Year 2000) • 300 games released each year • only 30 make money • $5 billion - in PC games alone • Game market overtakes movie industry ($35b) • Input Devices = 16% of $31b worldwide total • 1 in 4 US homes has a PlayStation
    119. 119. The Modern Age 1998-2K CONSOLE COMPARISON: • Sony PlayStation • Nintendo 64 • Sega Dreamcast • Sony PlayStation 2 • Nintendo Dolphin • Microsoft X-Box ?
    120. 120. The Modern Age 1998-2K PLAYSTATION • Japan launch - Dec 94 • launched rest of world - Sep 95 • 300 000 polygons/sec • 30 MIPS processor • 4 Meg RAM • 400 US titles • 10% penetration in US homes • Analysis: • Multi-platform games look worse on PSX • cheap & lots of them for software dev’rs • 70% of the games market!
    121. 121. The Modern Age 1998-2K NINTENDO 64 • US launch - Sep 96 • Aust launch - Feb 97 • 93.75 Mhz 64-bit CPU • 64-bit MIPS co-processor • over 500 000 000 16-bit operations/sec • built-in pixel-drawing processor (RDP) • 4.5 Meg RAM, 150 000 polygons/sec • fewer (but better) titles • future may hang on Zelda & Goldeneye • 64-bit MIPS co-processor • dependent on software, hardware still powerful
    122. 122. The Modern Age 1998-2K DREAMCAST - Sega tries again! • US launch Sep 99, $299 • Aust launch - Nov 30, 99 $499 • Hitachi 200 Mhz CPU, Power VR 3D, 16 Meg RAM • but faster than a 400 Mhz PII for 3-D • 3 million polygons/sec • fast CD-ROM loads • support Sega & Microsoft OS, (Direct X 5.2), inbuilt 56K modem • software: Sega makes great arcade games • easy to port from PC • $100 M marketing budget • first 128-bit - but not backwards compatible!
    123. 123. The Modern Age 1998-2K PLAYSTATION 2 • Japanese launch March 3 2000 • US, Europe launch - Sep 2000 • Aust launch - Q4 2000 • 128 bit `Emotion Engine’ CPU, 32M ram, 300 MHz • 4x DVD • 24x CD ROM • 48 channel sound • 56K modem • 120 PSX2 game titles • over 600 PSX titles... • PSX2 - first backwards compatible console!
    124. 124. The Modern Age 1998-2K NINTENDO DOLPHIN • Worldwide launch: pre-Christmas 2000 • DVD-ROM format (opposed to cartridge) • 4 controller ports for 4-players • IBM 400MHz copper Gekko microchip • will N64 loyalists wait?
    125. 125. The Modern Age 1998-2K MICROSOFT X-BOX ...the “PlayStation2 killer” • all rumours only... • Dreamcast runs Windows CE as OS • MS don’t want to offend Sega • US$300 • DVD based • 500 MHz CPU - Pentium or Celeron • Windows CE as OS • 3Dfx’s Voodoo 3 or NVidia’s NV-10 • USB controller ports • amazing games ?
    126. 126. The Modern Age 1998-2K FUTURE HARDWARE • DVD is already here • computers improve in speed (2 or 3x every year) • Pentium architecture replaced within 3 years • memory gets cheaper - 128-256 Meg is standard • HDTV came out in 1999 • will computers be fast enough when it is cheap? • How fast will networks be? • Voice Rec next frontier e.g. Game Commander • immersive interfaces
    127. 127. The Modern Age 1998-2K PIRACY • = 15-20% of lost games market revenue (PC & console combined) S.C.U.M. (Stop Copying Unauthorised Material) campaign • started in Nov 98 by AVSDA • Results to date: • 29 Federal Court proceedings • over $80 000 in settlements • 17 035 PSX games forfeited to C’wlth
    128. 128. The Modern Age 1998-2K AVSDA - Australian Visual Software Distributors Association • formed 1998 - now has 13 members: • Sony • Nintendo • Acclaim • Activision • Roadshow • Dataflow • Hasbro Interactive • Hilad Corporation • Interplay • GT Interactive • Electronic Arts • Sega Ozisoft • Jack Of All Games • Non-members: • Playcorp/Metro Games • G & V
    129. 129. The Modern Age 1998-2K FUTURE SOFTWARE • Scaleable software • Lifelike 3D characters & movement • historical & famous figures rendered realistically • Large simulated environments, populated by people & computer characters • eg MicroProse’s BigWorld - 1 million users • AI becomes big part of games • Many games have movie sized budgets • High-level development environments • OpenGL & DirectX
    130. 130. The Modern Age 1998-2K 2000 - SONY • Since the start of 1999 Sony’s market value has more than tripled to ¥12.5 trillion ($112 billion)
    131. 131. The Modern Age 1998-2K Final Fantasy VIII • RPG • sold 3 million in Japan • sold 500 000 in US
    132. 132. The Modern Age 1998-2K 2000+ - PLAYSTATION2 GRAPHICS • two new semiconductor chips: • “Emotion engine” 128-bit processor • massively parallel “Graphics Synthesiser” • promises the quality of film in real- time gaming
    133. 133. The Modern Age 1998-2K • PSX has installed base = Sega & Nintendo 16 bit combined • value of PSX market has begun to decline • N64 has hit plateau (dearth of quality games) • Dolphin may have only 4 titles at launch! • DreamCast has had better start than Saturn (5.5 M installed)
    134. 134. The Modern Age 1998-2K • Cyclical Nature of Games Market - UK
    135. 135. The Modern Age 1998-2K
    136. 136. The Modern Age 1998-2K Sega of America • branch of Sega Enterprises, Tokyo-based company worth $3 billion • 1999 loss will double to $411m despite DreamCast •been in the red for the past two years • blames loss on poor Japanese sales • high brand loyalty among consolers • Sega will have sold 600,000 Dreamcasts in Japan between September 1999 and March • less than the 1.1 million it hoped for • plans to sell more shares to shareholder CSK • use proceeds to expand its online network
    137. 137. The Modern Age 1998-2K CASUAL GAMING • 4 years ago, casual gamer market barely existed • a game that sold 100,000 copies was deemed a "hit" • Today - estimated 35 million casual gamers • the real winners are games that top 500,000 in 1st year of release (Platinum) • some stay in the charts for a 2nd & 3rd year • high-end graphics technology (SGI, OpenGL) now used in volume consumer platforms
    138. 138. The Modern Age 1998-2K MMOGs - (Massively Multiplayer Online Games) • Meridian 59 • Ultima Online • EverQuest • Asheron's Call • BigWorld (due 2001) • allow thousands of simultaneous players to: • fight monsters • fulfill quests • develop a reputation • live out rich virtual lives in an immersive fantasy environment
    139. 139. The Modern Age 1998-2K RESTRUCTURES, MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS • Interactive Magic was renamed iEntertainment Network • Mattel Interactive has acquired • The Learning Company • Broderbund • Sierra • Havas Interactive • Electronic Arts • Maxis • Westwood Studios • Janes Combat Simulations • Hasbro Interactive • Atari • Infogrames • Gremlin • GT Interactive
    140. 140. The Modern Age 1998-2K GAMES INDUSTRY RESEARCH COMPANIES • IDG Games Media Group • NPD-TRSTS • PC Data • GfK • Chart Track • Inform!
    141. 141. The Modern Age 1998-2K PC GAME GENRES 13% 12% 18% 5%1%7% 4% 5% 7% 19% 8% 1% Action Adventure Edutainment Family Platform Racing RPG Simulator Sports Strategy Bundle All Other
    142. 142. The Modern Age 1998-2K CONSOLE GAME GENRES 15% 22% 1% 22% 17% 3% 15% 2% 3% 0% Action Adventure Family Platform Racing RPG Simulator Sports Strategy Bundle
    143. 143. The Modern Age 1998-2K GAMES HISTORY RECAP…
    144. 144. Australia 1971 1980 1985 71 Pong invented 77 Atari 2600 72 Atari formed 80 Space Invaders & Pac-Man arcades 80 Mattel’s Intellivision 82 Colecovision
    145. 145. Australia 1985 1990 1995 85 Nintendo NES 89 Sega Mega Drive 93 3DO (not Aus) 94 Sega Saturn
    146. 146. Australia 1995 2000 2001 95 Sony PlayStation 99 Sega Dreamcast 97 Nintendo N64 9/00 Sony PSX2 01 Nintendo Dolphin
    147. 147. The Game Software Channel Developer Consumer Retailer Distributor Eidos Publisher Sega Ozisoft Harvey Norman Phil Burnham Tomb Raider 4
    148. 148. The Games Market 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Console HW Console SW H/held SW H/held HW PC Mac
    149. 149. Today (2000) Worldwide Games Market 14% 40%42% 17% 14% 9% 1% 2% 30% 34% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1998 1999 GBC DC N64 PSX PC
    150. 150. The Present: 2000 2000 – `DRIVER’
    151. 151. The Legacy 1961 – Spacewar!
    152. 152. JT Velikovsky VideoGame Historian 2000 With thanks to: http://au.gamespot.com/gamespot/features/video/hov/ A History of VideoGames
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