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Dead Sea Scrolls Sound And Video Youtube


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The history and importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

The history and importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

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  • 1. The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Historic Discovery
  • 2. What are the Dead Sea Scrolls? When were they Discovered? Who Wrote them? Why are they so Important?
  • 3.
    • The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of fragments of almost 900 documents
    • Scrolls were gathered by a sect at Qumran
    • The sect lived there from 150 BCE – 68 CE when the Romans destroyed the Temple
    • Qumran was also destroyed at that time
  • 4. How, Where & When were the Scrolls Discovered?
  • 5. The Discovery
    • In 1947 Bedouin Arabs discovered an untouched cave near the Dead Sea containing ancient scrolls
  • 6. The Key Players Yigal Yadin Eleazar Sukenik
  • 7. What kinds of Writings are contained in the Dead Sea Scrolls? Biblical, Apocryphal and Sectarian
  • 8. Contents
    • Subject Matter: Biblical, Apocryphal (non- biblical) & sectarian writings
    • Condition: Thousands of Fragments; Remains of almost 900 manuscripts
    • Only 2 caves produce intact manuscripts; the rest are fragments
  • 9. More Contents
    • Scope: Fragments of every book of the Tanach except Megillat Esther
    • Language:Hebrew and Aramaic
    • Date: Hasmonean (152-63 BCE) – Early Roman(63 BCE – 68 CE)
  • 10. The Isaiah Scroll
    • Dated at 100 BC
    • Oldest copy of Isaiah
    • 21 Isaiah texts were found, only 1 complete
    • The Great Isaiah Scroll is 24 ft. long
  • 11. Rule of the Community
    • Lists members obligations
    • Basic theological beliefs
    • Initiation rites
    • One of the original scrolls found in 1947
  • 12. The War Scroll
    • Describes the eschatological last battle between the Sons of Light and Sons of Darkness
    • Describes scenarios for the end of days
  • 13. The Copper Scroll
    • Discovered by archaeologists it describes vast amounts of buried treasure
    • Some scholars say it refers to Temple treasures hidden before the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
    Mystery of the Copper Scroll
  • 14. MMT: Miqsat Ma’aseh ha-Torah
    • “ Some Rulings Pertaining to the Torah”
    • Author asserts sect broke away due to differences in religious laws
    • Unwilling to accept legal rulings of Hasmonean high priests
  • 15. Artifacts at Qumran
  • 16. Religious Artifacts Found at Qumran What kinds of objects are these?
  • 17. More Qumran Findings
  • 18. Who Wrote the Scrolls?
    • Excavations done at Qumran near the caves at the Dead Sea indicate occupation dating 130 BCE to 68 CE
    • Qumran believed to be the Wilderness retreat of the Dead Sea Sect - a separatist Jewish sect of the Second Temple Period
  • 19. Identity of the Sect : Who were they?
    • A Scholars Debate: - Some Christian Scholars say : Essenes pre-cursors to early Christianity - Other scholars say Sadducee opponents of the Pharisees
    • separatists
    • Sectarians
    • Apocalyptics – Focus on the End of Days
    • Messianic
    • Ascetics
  • 20. Dating the Scrolls: How do we Date the Scrolls?
    • Carbon 14 dating
    • Paleography – the study of shapes, letters and writing
    • Archeology of the Qumran ruins
    • Numismatics
  • 21. Qumran Findings
    • Mikvaot(Ritual baths)
    • Pottery
    Question: Why were many of the vessels made of stone?
  • 22. The Scrolls & Christianity
    • Christian scholars believed them to be documents of an early Christian sect and reflect Christian beliefs. These claims, in fact, are without basis.
    • There were no New Testament documents found. Nor is Jesus or John the Baptist mentioned .
    • Most likely, early Christianity evolved from sect like the Eseenes who may have been celibate, used ritual baths
    • (baptism), etc.
  • 23. Importance of the Scrolls for Judaism
    • Authenticate the accuracy of the Hebrew Tanach
    • Slight variations in the Texts
    • More than 1000 years older than previous oldest copy of Tanach – the Aleppo Codex
  • 24. Importance of the Scrolls
    • Validates the oral law (rabbinic tradition) as seen in the Mishna(200 CE): it was already the norm among the Pharisees
    • Oral Tradition of the Pharisees seen as dominant as early as Hasmonean period
    • Fills in gap between written Torah: Daniel:150 BCE) and Oral Law (Mishna: 200 CE)
  • 25. Validates Earlier Rabbinic Tradition
    • Teachings of rabbis post Temple destruction can be traced much earlier
    • Pharisaic teachings seen from Sect’s Polemics against them
    • Ex. Oppose halachic principle of Tevul Yom(MMT)
    • Sect refers to Pharisee leaders as “Builders of the Wall”
  • 26. Importance of the Scrolls
    • Oral Tradition seen artifacts found at Qumran: Tefilin
    • Written Law gives no details
  • 27. Importance of the Scrolls
    • Window to 2 nd Temple Judaism
    • Sectarianism : Variety of approaches to Judaism during 2 nd Temple Period
    • Messianism & Apocalyptic Ideas seen in War Scroll “Sons of attack..the Sons of Darkness”
  • 28. The Scrolls Today
    • The Scrolls are housed in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem
    • Conferences all over the world
    Pacific Science Center: Seattle 2007 Newscasts
  • 29. Questions & Discussion Points
    • What were the basic beliefs of the Essenes?
    • Why did they leave Jerusalem?
    • Why did it take so long (from 1947) for the scrolls to be published?
    • Did the Vatican seek to suppress the Scrolls?
    • What was the role of Yigal Yadin?
    • What do textual differences in Biblical texts signify?
    Lets Hear it !