Humann, P. 1993. Reef coral identification.Florida, Caribbean, Bahamas. Jacksonville, Florida, New World Publications,Inc. Superb color photographs and accurate identifications make this by far the best field guide to corals now available; includes sea grasses and some algae.
Karlson, R. H., and L. E. Hurd. 1993. Disturbance, coral reef communities, and changing ecological paradigms. Coral Reefs. 12:117–125. The first article of an entire issue devoted to effects of major disturbances, such as El Niño, hurricanes, and floods .