Cs160 chapter 4
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Cs160 chapter 4 Cs160 chapter 4 Presentation Transcript

  • NETWORKING AND THE INTERNETCS160
  • NETWORK CLASSIFICATIONSNetworking and the Internet
  • NETWORK CLASSIFICATIONS Size Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Intellectual Property Open Closed
  • TOPOLOGIES
  • PROTOCOLS Token Ring Messages passed in one direction Each message ends back at original sender
  • PROTOCOLS (CONTINUED) Carrier Sense, Multiple Access with CollisionDetection (CSMA/CD) Message sent across common bus Only intended recipient reads On collision, each sender waits before re-sending
  • COMBINING NETWORKS Repeater Physically connectstwo networks Passes all traffic May amplify signalsto compensate forincreased length Bridge Passes onlymessages formachines on a givensegment
  • COMBINING NETWORKS (CONTINUED) Switch Connects two ormore segments Routes messagesonly to segmentwhere recipient isfound When usingrepeaters, bridges,or switches the resultis one large, homo-geneous network
  • COMBINING NETWORKS (CONTINUED) Router Connects two ormore networks withdissimilar topologies Builds networks ofnetworks calledinternets
  • INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION Client-server One server, manyclients Server must executecontinuously Client initiatescommunication
  • INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION (CONTINUED) Peer-to-peer (P2P) Two processescommunicating asequals Peer processes canbe short-lived
  • THE INTERNETNetworking and the Internet
  • THE INTERNET Proper noun Originated in Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency (DARPA) in 1960’s Shifted from government to academia tocommercial
  • INTERNET ARCHITECTURE Domain: portion of theInternet that networkor internet controlledby a single authority Connected to the restof the Internet by arouter called a gateway Internet Corporationfor Assigned Names &Numbers (ICANN):Oversees theregistration of domains
  • STRATEGIES FOR CONNECTING TO THEINTERNET Internet Service Provider (ISP): Providesconnectivity to the Internet Popular means of connecting: Traditional telephone (dial up connection) Cable connections DSL Wireless Satelite
  • INTERNET ADDRESSING: IP ADDRESSES Every computer on the Internet is assigned anInternet Protocol (IP) Address IPv4 32-bits (4 bytes) 232 = 4,294,967,296 unique addresses “Dotted quads” xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
  • INTERNET ADDRESSING : IP ADDRESSES(CONTINUED) IPv6 128-bits (7 bytes) 2128 = 3.4 × 1038 5 × 1028 addresses for each of the 6.5 billion peoplealive today 252 addresses for each star in the known universe 10 billion billion billion times as many addresses as IPv4
  • INTERNET ADDRESSING: HOST NAMES Mnemonic address made up of two parts: Domain name Assigned by a registrar Example: linnbenton.edu Top level domain: Classification of domain owner By usage – Example: .edu= education By country – Example: .co.uk = England Subdomains and individual host names Assigned by domain owner Example: ml.linnbenton.edu Translation between mnemonic addresses andIP addresses handled by name servers
  • TRADITIONAL INTERNET APPLICATIONS World Wide Web (WWW) Electronic mail(E-mail) File transfer protocol(FTP) Instant messaging (IM) VOIP Internet relay chat (IRC) Telnet Secure Shell (SSH) Newsgroups Archie Early index of filesavailable on FTP sites Gopher Hierarchical menu-based system fordocument retrieval(WWW-like) Jughead Search engine forGopher Veronica Another search enginefor gopher
  • THE WORLD WIDE WEBNetworking and the Internet
  • THE WORLD WIDE WEB Hypertext and HTTP Hypertext markup language (HTML) Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) Browser gets documents from Web server Web page Documents identified by URLs Uniform resource locator World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Standards body
  • A TYPICAL URL
  • HTML Set of tags used to identify elements of a webpage Designed to be very simple to learn and use <p>…</p> <h1>…</h1> <img src=“foo.jpg /> <a href=“http://www.linnbenton.edu” />
  • SAMPLE WEB PAGE