OPERATING SYSTEMSCS160
HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMSOperating Systems
FUNCTIONS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM Oversee operation of computer Store and retrieve files Schedule programs for execution...
BATCH PROCESSING
INTERACTIVE PROCESSING
OPERATING SYSTEM ARCHITECTUREOperating Systems
SOFTWARE CLASSIFICATION
OPERATING SYSTEM ARCHITECTUREApplicationShellKernelHardware
WINDOWS XP SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
WINDOWS XP SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
OPERATING SYSTEM ARCHITECTUREApplicationShellKernelHardware
THE BOOT PROCESS: BIOS Custom settings are read from CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Memory used to store ...
THE BOOT PROCESS: POST POST BIOS instructs CPU to read code stored at variouslocations and compares it to known values ...
THE BOOT PROCESS: WARM VS COLD BOOT BIOS checks memory location 0x0472 Value of 0x1234 indicates a reboot and rest ofpos...
THE BOOT PROCESS: HANDOFF After POST BIOS hands off control to operatingsystem BIOS instructs CPU to begin executing the...
THE BOOT PROCESS: PLUG AND PLAYENUMERATION The operating system adds special devicedrivers called enumerators ISA bus en...
THE BOOT PROCESS: RESOURCE ARBITRATION Operating system assigns resources to eachenumerated device IRQ DMA Memory addr...
THE BOOT PROCESS: FINISHING UP Operating system mounts disk drives for use Video drivers are installed to allow for use ...
COORDINATING THE MACHINE’SACTIVITIESOperating Systems
PROCESSES Program: a set of instructions given to acomputer Process: a program in execution Process state: the current ...
PROCESS STATE DIAGRAMNewReadyAdmittedRunningScheduler dispatchTerminatedExitInterruptWaitingI/O or event waitI/O or event ...
PROCESS ADMINISTRATION Processes compete for operating systemattention and computer resources Operating system coordinat...
SCHEDULER Scheduler manages apool of processeswhich are currentlybeing executed Adds new processes Removes completedpro...
DISPATCHER Responsible to ensuring processes getscheduled for CPU time The act of changing from one process toanother is...
CONTEXT SWITCHING
HANDLING COMPETITION AMONGPROCESSESOperating Systems
SEMAPHORES
DEADLOCK
SECURITYOperating Systems
USER ACCOUNTS Privileges assigned according to account type Super User or Administrator Standard user Other role-based...
HIERARCHICAL PROTECTION DOMAINS(PROTECTION RINGS)Least PrivilegedMost PrivilegedApplicationShellRing 3Ring 2KernelRing 1Ha...
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Cs160 chapter 3

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Cs160 chapter 3

  1. 1. OPERATING SYSTEMSCS160
  2. 2. HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMSOperating Systems
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM Oversee operation of computer Store and retrieve files Schedule programs for execution Coordinate the execution of programs
  4. 4. BATCH PROCESSING
  5. 5. INTERACTIVE PROCESSING
  6. 6. OPERATING SYSTEM ARCHITECTUREOperating Systems
  7. 7. SOFTWARE CLASSIFICATION
  8. 8. OPERATING SYSTEM ARCHITECTUREApplicationShellKernelHardware
  9. 9. WINDOWS XP SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
  10. 10. WINDOWS XP SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
  11. 11. OPERATING SYSTEM ARCHITECTUREApplicationShellKernelHardware
  12. 12. THE BOOT PROCESS: BIOS Custom settings are read from CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Memory used to store configurable systemsettings System setup utility Power-on self-test (POST) is run to checksystem function
  13. 13. THE BOOT PROCESS: POST POST BIOS instructs CPU to read code stored at variouslocations and compares it to known values BIOS loads low-level drivers and interrupt handlersfor basic hardware Checks video card Initializes video BIOS Tests video card and video memory BIOS information (version, date, manufacturer)is displayed
  14. 14. THE BOOT PROCESS: WARM VS COLD BOOT BIOS checks memory location 0x0472 Value of 0x1234 indicates a reboot and rest ofpost is skipped Any other value indicates a cold boot and thefollowing steps are performed RAM is tested Values are written then read from each memorycell BIOS tests for existence of floppy disks, harddrive, and optical drives
  15. 15. THE BOOT PROCESS: HANDOFF After POST BIOS hands off control to operatingsystem BIOS instructs CPU to begin executing theoperating system boot loader Code found in sector zero of primary HDD Operating system replaces many of the devicedrivers and interrupt vectors that BIOS loaded
  16. 16. THE BOOT PROCESS: PLUG AND PLAYENUMERATION The operating system adds special devicedrivers called enumerators ISA bus enumerator SCSI bus enumerator PCI bus enumerator PCIe bus enumerator Port enumerator Operating system asks each enumerator toidentify which devices it has and whatresources they require
  17. 17. THE BOOT PROCESS: RESOURCE ARBITRATION Operating system assigns resources to eachenumerated device IRQ DMA Memory addresses If no new devices are discovered, stored PnPinformation is used Operating system loads appropriate high-leveldevice drivers for each PnP device Drivers initialize each device
  18. 18. THE BOOT PROCESS: FINISHING UP Operating system mounts disk drives for use Video drivers are installed to allow for use ofvideo hardware Operating system services are initialized User logon screen displayed
  19. 19. COORDINATING THE MACHINE’SACTIVITIESOperating Systems
  20. 20. PROCESSES Program: a set of instructions given to acomputer Process: a program in execution Process state: the current status of a processincluding the contents of the relevant CPUregisters
  21. 21. PROCESS STATE DIAGRAMNewReadyAdmittedRunningScheduler dispatchTerminatedExitInterruptWaitingI/O or event waitI/O or event completion
  22. 22. PROCESS ADMINISTRATION Processes compete for operating systemattention and computer resources Operating system coordinates execution ofprocesses Scheduler Dispatcher
  23. 23. SCHEDULER Scheduler manages apool of processeswhich are currentlybeing executed Adds new processes Removes completedprocesses This pool is acollection of processcontrol blocks (PCBs)
  24. 24. DISPATCHER Responsible to ensuring processes getscheduled for CPU time The act of changing from one process toanother is called a context switch PCBs are packed/unpacked Cooperative multitasking Processes remove themselves from running state Preemptive multitasking Dispatcher evicts process when time slice expires Occurs on interrupt
  25. 25. CONTEXT SWITCHING
  26. 26. HANDLING COMPETITION AMONGPROCESSESOperating Systems
  27. 27. SEMAPHORES
  28. 28. DEADLOCK
  29. 29. SECURITYOperating Systems
  30. 30. USER ACCOUNTS Privileges assigned according to account type Super User or Administrator Standard user Other role-based accounts
  31. 31. HIERARCHICAL PROTECTION DOMAINS(PROTECTION RINGS)Least PrivilegedMost PrivilegedApplicationShellRing 3Ring 2KernelRing 1HardwareRing 0

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