Papyrus Spring 2006

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Papyrus Spring 2006

  1. 1. I N T E R N AT I O N A L A S S O C I AT I O N O F M U S E U M FA C I L I T Y A D M I N I S T R AT O R S VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 PAPYRUS SPRING 2006 L.A. Confidential — The 16th Annual IAMFA Conference 2006 Join us in Los Angeles from September 17 to 20, 2006 the site of a private mansion owned by John P. Jones, a for this year’s Annual IAMFA Conference. The Los Angeles former U.S. Senator and the founder of Santa Monica, the County Museum of Art, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Fairmont Miramar Hotel Santa Monica has served as an and the J. Paul Getty Center will be your hosts for this year’s exclusive playground for Hollywood celebrities, and a quiet event. During the conference, we will be visiting numerous retreat for guests, since 1921. Please visit the IAMFA website Los Angeles museums, so prepare for plenty of touring at www.iamfa.org to register for this year’s conference. The and presentations on topics of interest to you as museum registration sheet will ask you to contact the hotel directly facility managers. to make reservations — please don’t forget to mention Given the extent and cultural diversity of the Los Angeles the IAMFA conference to receive the special rate for area, it is sure to offer something for everyone. Hollywood conference attendees. and L.A.’s beach culture are part of the collective image of Los Angeles has more than 80 stage theaters and 300 Los Angeles — to say nothing of the fact there are more museums — more than any city in the country. Our desert museums in Los Angeles than in any other city in the United image of a water oasis with palm trees everywhere has States. Some of the best hotels in the world are also located an annual rainfall of only 15 inches (38 cm). Los Angeles here, including Santa Monica’s Fairmont Miramar Hotel is rimmed with miles of beaches, and its shipping port is where we’ve arranged accommodations. Take a look at not only the busiest in the U.S. but one of the busiest in the hotel by visiting their website at www.fairmont.com/ the world. September is a wonderful time of year to visit santamonica. Nestled atop the scenic bluffs of Santa Monica Los Angeles. Temperatures are mild, with cool evenings. beach, it has panoramic views of the Pacific Ocean. Originally continued on page 2JOHN STEPHENS ©J. PAUL GETTY TRUST INSIDE THIS ISSUE Message from the President . . . . . 3 Fire Protection and the British Library Repository . . . . . . . 4 The 2005 IAMFA Conference in Bilbao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The Guest Perspective on the IAMFA Annual Conference . . . . . . 16 Regional Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 IAMFA Members Directory 2006 . . 19 2005 Benchmarking Review . . . . . 24 Benchmarking Update . . . . . . . . . 26 Letter from the Editor. . . . . . . . . . 28 Aerial view of the Getty Center.
  2. 2. L.A. Confidential — continued from page 1 The Getty Center (www.getty.edu) is the flagship cities in the world, LACMA serves as a cultural “village green”museum of the J. Paul Getty Trust. The 110-acre campus is for the people who live in, work in, and visit Los Angeles.located on a hill in the Brentwood section of Los Angeles. Since its founding, LACMA has undergone an enormousThe Getty Center is high enough that on a clear day, it is physical expansion, driven by its achievements in exhibi-possible to see the snow at Big Bear as well as the Pacific tion, collection and scholarship, as well as a growing roleOcean and the entire Los Angeles basin. There are 86 acres within the fabric of the Los Angeles community. Coveringof gardens and terraces, and 600 acres of surrounding hill- more than 700,000 square feet, the museum currently includessides left in their natural state. Visitors are transported from six buildings on Wilshire Boulevard’s “Miracle Mile”, betweenthe main parking area, three-quarters of a mile up the moun- downtown Los Angeles and Beverly Hills.tain on an emission-free electric tram that glides on a cushion The Museum of Contemporary Art — MOCAof air generated by electric blowers. This is the only tram (www.moca.org) — is the only museum in Los Angelessystem of its kind on the West Coast of the United States. devoted exclusively to contemporary art. Founded in 1979, The Getty Center collects and exhibits classical sculpture MOCA is committed to the collection, presentation andand art, European paintings, drawings, manuscripts, sculp- interpretation of work produced since 1940 in all media,ture, decorative arts and photographs. In 1997, the museum and to the preservation of that work for future generations.moved to its current location in Los Angeles, and the origi- MOCA offers a variety of exhibitions, collections, educa-nal Malibu museum, renamed the “Getty Villa”, was closed tional events, and publications. The Museum is currentlyfor renovation. housed in three facilities: MOCA Grand Avenue, MOCA at The Villa re-opened in January, and we plan to include The Geffen Contemporary in Little Tokyo, and MOCA ata visit to the new Villa during this year’s conference. The the Pacific Design Center in West Hollywood. If you loveVilla is dedicated to Greek, Roman, and Etruscan antiquities. Contemporary Art, this is one of the finest museums in the The Los Angeles County Museum of Art, known locally United States. Exhibitions are always mind-blowing, andas LACMA (www.lacma.org), is the premier encyclopedic leave you with a refreshing new look at contemporary art.visual arts museum in the western United States. Originally This year’s conference will feature an exciting Guestestablished as part of the Los Angeles County Museum of Program, including a day at Universal Studios. There willNatural History, Science and the Arts in early 1900, it relo- also be a harbor dinner cruise offering panoramic viewscated to its present 24-acre campus in the mid-Wilshire area of the city and coastal areas.in 1965. As an independent institution, the Museum has Lodging during the conference will be in Santa Monicaassembled a collection of approximately 100,000 works near the beaches and the Santa Monica 3rd Street Promenade.from around the world, spanning the history of art from Please refer to the conference registration form at www.ancient times to the present. Through its far-reaching col- iamfa.org, and contact the hotel directly, mentioning thelections and extensive public programs, the museum is IAMFA conference when booking your room.both a resource to, and a reflection of, the many cultural We are looking forward to seeing everyone thiscommunities in Southern California. September in Los Angeles, and will do our very best As one of the region’s foremost public art museums, to match the terrific experience at last year’s conferencelocated in the heart of one of the most culturally diverse in Bilbao. MARISSA ROTH MARISSA ROTHThe Los Angeles County Museum of Art. MOCA Grand Avenue. MOCA Grand Avenue.2
  3. 3. Message from the President to publish this issue of Papyrus — his begin to gather feedback from all IAMFA first since taking on this new role on members on the priorities that IAMFA the Board of Directors. Dan will be should be considering over the next Guy Larocque, President of IAMFA looking for contributions of articles five years. The establishment of the from members, so please be proactive committees as discussed at the Stra- and share your experiences through tegic Planning brainstorming sessionGetting on with IAMFA a Papyrus article. in Bilbao is already one step ahead ofBusiness John de Lucy has been very active in this process, and is a positive initiativeIt’s hard to believe that several months putting order in the Regional Chapter towards achieving IAMFA’s longer-termhave already past since our annual lists and assisting Richard Kowalczyk objectives.conference in Bilbao. My family and with the website updates, as well as As you can see, IAMFA businessI thoroughly enjoyed the company of making contact with Chapter members continues to progress because of theour colleagues and their spouses, our to encourage activity in their regions. dedication and hard work of yourhosts, and the hospitality of the Basque John is also working on sending out Board and of other IAMFA members.people. I take this opportunity to once letters to as many Presidents and CEOs These efforts are truly appreciated andagain thank Rogelio Diez and Roberto of Museums and Cultural Institutions in I look forward to the future success ofCearsolo for producing a truly wonder- the world as possible. My membership our association.ful and very informative conference. with ICOM has provided me with accessTheir hard work, very structured orga- to their membership lists, and I have Guy Larocque, P.Eng.nization, dedication and support from been working with John on this task. President, IAMFAtheir staff and colleagues have made You will be happy to know thatthis conference one that we will never IAMFA has created new committeesforget. I would also like to thank all to perform more detailed work for the IAMFA Board of Directorsof the speakers whose excellent pre- Board of Directors. Each committee Presidentsentations were most appreciated by has a chairperson who will report to a Guy Larocquethe delegates, encouraging much dis- Board member, and may be composed Canadian Museum of Civilization andcussion among the IAMFA members of all types of IAMFA members. The Canadian War Museum, Gatineau, Canada guy.larocque@civilization.cain attendance. committees established so far are the Since our annual conference last Benchmarking Committee chaired by V.P., Administration Richard KowalczykSeptember, your Board of Directors has Keith McClanahan of Facility Issues, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.,been busy working behind the scenes. the Outreach Committee chaired by USARichard Kowalczyk has updated our John de Lucy, and a committee chaired kowalczykr@nasm.si.eduIAMFA website to include changes to by Jack Plumb dealing with the U.K. V.P., Regional Affairsthe Board of Directors, information on emissions initiative, which aims at hav- John de Lucythe IAMFA 2006 Annual Conference in ing buildings labeled with a recognized The British Library, London, U.K.Los Angeles, the new IAMFA Museum standard such as the one proposed by john.delucy@bl.ukBenchmarks of Survey of Facility Man- IAMFA. We expect that, as these com- Treasureragement Practices, etc. I invite you all mittees make progress in their respec- Jim Moisson Harvard University Art Museums,to visit our website to stay abreast of tive areas of responsibility, they will Cambridge, MA, USAour activities. be able to share their progress with james_moisson@harvard.edu Jim Moisson has put a lot of effort members through articles published Secretary and Papyrus Editorinto working with our financial institu- in future issues of Papyrus. Daniel H. Daviestion to allow credit card payments for Joe May has already made excellent Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.,membership via the website. Because progress with the planning of our 2006 USA ddavies@si.eduof his dedication to keeping IAMFA’s Annual Conference in Los Angeles.accounts in order, we are once again This promises to be another excellent Chairman — Conference 2006this year operating with a surplus. Jim conference, and I urge you to visit our Joseph E. May J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, CA, USAis also preparing the IAMFA member- website to obtain more information on jmay@getty.eduship mail-out that you should have dates and places.received by now. Finally, the results of the strategic For additional contact information, Your IAMFA Secretary and Papyrus planning session that we had in Bilbao please visit our website atEditor, Dan Davies, has worked hard are being organized, so that we can www.iamfa.org 3
  4. 4. Fire Protection and the British Library Repository by John de LucyIn recent years, the British Library has Applying Section 6 of the British standard has been identified whichidentified a need to facilitate automa- Standard to this repository is not simple, could be similarly reviewed. However,tion of its collections, leading to the in that the repository is significantly some relevant guidance on constructioncreation of a new repository. The repos- larger than the typical archive building has been identified in the LPC Designitory will be fully automated, delivering for which the Code of Practice was Guide for the fire protection of buildingsand receiving totes from a conveyor belt written. In addition, with the exception 2000, and this is discussed within thewhich connects to the smaller ancillary of the ancillary staff area, it is a stand- section on Fire Compartmentalization.staff area (picking area) where books alone building rather than being part The risk of a serious fire occurringare selected, then loaded for dispatch or of a larger building, as is more typical. in the archive building — given itsreceived for storage. The repository is Finally, and possibly most significantly, high level of protection against arson,approximately 80 meters (262 feet) long, it is not possible to remove one of the and the fact that it is a modern build-50 meters (164 feet) wide and 24 meters main ignition risks (i.e., the automation ing — remains low. As such, the fire-(78 feet) high, providing a total volume system), by isolating the electrical sup- protection strategy will guard against aof 96,000m3 (3.4 million cu. ft.) ply when not in use. The British Library low-risk event that has high-potential The repository will store irreplace- thus requested that possible approaches consequences.able documents, and the British Library to fire prevention, detection and sup- There are two main approaches torequires that the repository should pression be identified, the links between fire protection:comply as fully as possible with BS them explained, and their costs set out. 1. Fire Prevention — preventing fires(British Standard) 5454 “Recommenda- The Library has also requested that the from occurring in the first place.tion for the storage and exhibition of role of providing fire compartmentsarchival documents“. This Code of also be considered and explained. 2. Fire Suppression — containing orPractice lays out the environmental con- Given the unusual nature of the extinguishing fires once they haveditions that must be achieved, and the repository, the approach adopted in started.measures that should be taken to limit the United States — as outlined inrisk to the collection. Fire is identified as NFPA 909 “Fire Protection of Cultural Fire Preventiona key risk, and Section 6 of the British Resources” — has been reviewed to GeneralStandard details the measures that determine if there is any applicable In principle, prevention offers the mostshould be taken to mitigate against it. guidance. No equivalent European effective approach to fire protectionArtist’s rendition of the new British Library Repository.4
  5. 5. because, if it can be prevented from prevention strategy, it will be necessary first line of defense is early detectionoccurring, there will be no conse- to apply a holistic approach which and rapid powering-down. This enablesquential damage. To prevent a fire eliminates all potential sources. an investigation to determine if remedialoccurring you have to remove one Sources of ignition are not generally action should be taken, such as theof the following: eliminated in commercial building con- removal of faulty equipment. As dis- struction, so practices adopted in the cussed below, the new British Library• fuel; nuclear, offshore and chemical industry Repository will be provided with a• ignition source; or were reviewed instead. Unlike com- high-sensitivity fire-detection system,• oxygen. mercial construction, these industries which should be able to detect an over- do employ protected electrics to prevent heating component before ignition has Removing the fuel from the repos- ignition in flammable atmospheres, but occurred. Rapid powering-down ofitory is not practical, given that it stores work on the principle of excluding the all electrical supplies upon first detec-combustibles. As for the ignition source, atmosphere. In highly hazardous areas, tion is thus considered a worthwhileas an unoccupied warehouse, the which must include only intrinsically fire precaution.repository’s principal ignition source safe automation equipment, pneumatics At the same time that automatedis its automation equipment. The prac- are used instead of electrics. There are systems are shut down, considerationticality of modifying the automation also proprietary products, such as self- could be given to shutting down theequipment to prevent it from pro- contained suppression systems, to pro- air-conditioning system as well, inviding the necessary ignition source tect motors, computer cabinets, etc. order to reduce forced ventilation andis discussed below. As for oxygen, a However, the applicability of these eliminate another potential ignition/low-oxygen system creates an inert products to the proposed automation fire source.atmosphere which reduces the con- equipment is not clear.centration of oxygen. The application It is therefore clear that, while reduc- Low Oxygenof a low-oxygen environment to the ing the risk of ignition from the auto- The principal benefit of a low-oxygenrepository is also discussed below. mation system is not impossible, it system is that, because it will prevent cannot be achieved with off-the-shelf a fire from occurring, there should beFire-Safe Automation technology, and achieving it would no consequential damage to the archive.Within the repository’s automation require significant development with The system achieves an inert atmosphereequipment, electrical motors, wiring automation contractors. by forcing compressed air through aand mechanical drives are all potential molecular sieve, which strips away thesources of ignition. Sensible steps can Powering Down oxygen molecules to produce a nitrogen-be taken to limit the potential for this Computer rooms are similar to reposi- rich atmosphere. The system will reduceby, for example, fitting the electric tories, in that the risk of fire is low, but the oxygen concentration to 15%, downmotors with thermistors. However, they are often fire-protected because from the normal 21%, at which com-if removing the ignition source is to the consequence of a fire would be bustion will not occur, although forcedbe adopted as the repository’s fire- high. In such cases, the recommended pyrolosis could still occur. The principle of maintaining an inert atmosphere to prevent fire has been applied in the nuclear and defense industry, but is not yet widespread. Over 100 systems — some of which were for buildings larger than the proposed repository — have been installed in Europe over the past six years. This is inconsequential, how- ever, when compared to the proven track record of sprinkler and water- mist systems. It should thus be recog- nized that, while low oxygen offers, in principle, the most effective fire- protection strategy, the Library and design team will be pioneering a new approach to archive protection.Floorplan for the First Floor of the new British Library Repository. continued on page 6 5
  6. 6. Fire Protection and the British Library Repository — continued from page 5 A low-oxygen system comprises a to the building envelope, could simi- issue, rather than affecting the reposi-compressor, a molecular sieve and an larly result in the archive being unpro- tory’s protection strategy. For example,oxygen-sensing device that samples the tected. Should all plant systems fail, the the benefit of having a 100% standbyair over many points to ensure that it building’s atmosphere would remain capacity is that replacement of com-remains at the required 15% oxygen inert for 90 hours. pressors replacement and nitrogen gen-concentration. A unique advantage of A low-oxygen system has higher erators would be phased-in, so that thea low-oxygen system is that the pipes running costs than suppression sys- repository always remains protected.used to check oxygen concentration tems. Depending on the degree of air-can also be used for smoke detection. tightness, a compressor rated between Staff AreaGiven the irreplaceable nature of the 55 and 65 kW would be required for The support building will be separatedarchived materials, the system would approximately seven hours. Maintenance by a four-hour fire-resistant compart-be provided with a standby compressor of the system would include normal ment wall; thus, any fire within it shouldand standby molecular sieve to provide compressor maintenance and annual not directly affect the repository con-a high level of redundancy. The power inspection of the oxygen-sensing tents. There are no significant issuessupply to the compressors and the system and the molecular sieve. associated with achieving a reasonablesensing equipment would also be With a 15% oxygen concentration, level of life safety in this part of theprovided with standby power. the repository would be classified as a building, and the only active fire-pre- The other element in the system is confined space. Therefore, while it caution measure required for Buildingthe building’s fabric. In order to main- would be safe for the Library staff to Regulations is a fire-alarm system. How-taining an inert atmosphere, the build- enter the repository for regular main- ever, a fire in the support building coulding must be as airtight as possible. The tenance tasks, full confined-space pro- damage any part of the collection whichrepository can be designed to achieve cedures will need to be developed and is in transit, as well as the conveyorthis, and its integrity will be tested followed. Ironically, if things go wrong system, thus halting operations. Theupon completion to ensure that the and air enters, the space gets safer! Automation Consultant advised that,installed low-oxygen system will Within the 70-year anticipated design if the conveyor belts were damaged,achieve the required nitrogen con- life of the building, there will be a need it could take several weeks before thecentration. However, the building’s to replace the major mechanical ele- conveyors could be reinstated and theintegrity will need to be maintained ments of the plant; i.e., the compressors. building resume normal operations.over the building’s life, which may have These will be in daily use; however, The support area will benefit fromlong-term maintenance implications. providing that they are well maintained, being staffed when in operation, and Events such as the removal of a the anticipated replacement period good fire-safety procedures could becrane, which requires the building to would be approximately every 20 to considered to provide an effective fire-be opened up, will result in the archive 25 years. The molecular sieve (nitrogen precaution strategy for most buildingsbeing unprotected for a period of time generator) would require replacing of this size. These procedures will needas normal air enters the building. Once every 10 years. to encompass good standards of house-the atmosphere is normalized, it would The plant for the low-oxygen system keeping, having all staff trained in thetake approximately 75 hours to return it will be housed outside the repository, use of fire extinguishers, and beingto a 15% oxygen concentration. Unplan- and plant replacement will therefore familiar with emergency procedures.ned events, such as accidental damage be an economic cost and management Automatic Fire Detection Recommended Method The British Standard recommends that a Type P1 automatic fire-detection system be installed throughout. This level of coverage ensures that all areas are protected with automatic fire detec- tion. The Code of Practice also recom- mends that it might be desirable to install a high-sensitivity fire-detection system which is designed to detect a fire in its incipient stage, before anyEast Elevation of the new British Library Repository. smoke, heat or flame is produced.6
  7. 7. An aspirating system is the recom- are actually best-suited for detecting Suppressionmended method of smoke detection clean-burning fires that would be pro- The British Standard recommends onlyfor the repository. It meets the recom- duced in spirit stores, for example. the consideration of fire suppressionmendations of the British Standard, in There are other methods of detection, for maximum protection. Thus, anythat this type of system can be 1,000 such as sensing for carbon monoxide, system could be considered to com-times more sensitive to the early signals which is present in all fires — often in pensate for the additional risk presentedof fire than conventional point detec- large quantities. It might even be prac- by the automation system. NFPA 909tors. Aspirating detection is also com- tical to modify low-oxygen sensing to recommends the adoption of a sprinklermonly used in high-rack storage, as a sample for CO as well as oxygen, and system.matter of best practice. This is because have a separate conventional aspirating Other fire-protection measures whichsampling the environment at several smoke-detection system to provide were considered and discounted arelevels, via the pipes running vertically two separate smoke-detection systems. detailed in Table 1 below.within the racks, overcomes the prob- continued on page 8lem of early smoke stratification (smokenot reaching high enough levels) thatwould render point detectors ineffective TABLE 1 — DISCOUNTED METHODSin this environment. Method Means Reasons An aspirating smoke detection sys- Inert gas Displaces oxygen Repository is much larger thantem might sense a fire at a very early available systems can handle.stage, but in this large repository it Chemical gas (FM200) Uses a refrigerant that As above; in addition, becausewill only be able to provide an approx- extinguishes the fire by only low concentrations byimate location. The principal benefit chemical action. volume are required, it needsof early detection is to enable the auto- a relatively airtightmation system to be rapidly powered environment to be effective.down (as the most likely ignition If either of the above gases was discharged inadvertently, the archive would besource), and any faults investigated unaffected, but there would be a large cost associated with replacing the “wasted” gases, during which time the archive would not be protected.within it. With aspirating systems, false alarms Cycling sprinkler Acts as a sprinkler Cannot be applied to theare prevented by enabling the system systems system, but water repository, because of difficul- is turned off when ties in accurately sensing theto “learn” the background environment automatic detection state of any fire. Also, in theit will see in the non-fire condition senses that the fire has U.S. there have been practicalduring the commissioning period. The been dealt with. failures in which the heat detectors which turn off thesystem is then set to recognize fire sig- water supply have beennals in addition to the normal conditions cooled by the sprinkler,that it is constantly sampling. causing the water flow to halt while there is still a fire.Secondary Smoke-Detection System High-expansion foam Fills large spaces, pre- Rejected for the repository: ifThe British Library’s conservators venting combustion it went into operation, everyexpressed their preference for a sec- by excluding oxygen. single tote would need to be decontaminated afterward.ondary smoke-detection system whichwould act as a backup to the aspirating Powder suppressant Delivers powder to Rejected because it was system the fire source, which developed for more localizedsystem. However, while beam detection acts by halting the applications, in which floodingis relatively simple, it is not sensitive chain reaction in the assistance helps effectiveness.enough. A fire at the ground-floor level combustion process.would have to become large enough Suppressant mounted Puts out the fire locally. Not considered workable,to be clearly visible before the beam on crane because of the time delaywould likely detect it. Point detectors between the fire being detected and the robotare impractical, because a large number reaching it.would have to be incorporated within Smoke ventilation Designed to keep A system that kept smokethe racking. Infrared or ultraviolet smoke above the level above the highest level ofdetectors are line-of-sight devices which of stock to protect it stock could not practicallywould need to be automated to enable from damage. be provided. (N.B.: Smokethem to scan the stacks and allow for clearance as required by BS 5454 will be provided.)the crane’s motion. Furthermore, they 7
  8. 8. Fire Protection and the British Library Repository — continued from page 7Sprinklers given by reference to the case studies • sprinkler tanks and pumps. TwoSprinklers work simply by putting provided in NFPA 909. These refer tanks would be provided, so ifwater onto the fire source. A point to 29 library fires that have occurred one had to be drained for main-often misunderstood about sprinklers in the U.S. and elsewhere. Of these, tenance, the other would remainis that they are thermally operated and 23 libraries had no sprinklers or had available. There would be a dutytherefore only sprinklers close to the only partial sprinkler protection. In and a standby pump.fire are activated. NFPA 909 suggests the majority of these fires, damagethat 70% of fires are controlled by four was extensive. In the six incidents in The sprinkler system would need tosprinkler heads or less. which sprinklers had been provided, be a closed system, and a small jockey The disadvantage of thermal-operated the extent of damage was reduced, pump will maintain system pressure,sprinklers is that they require a reason- as shown in Table 2 below. requiring a small amount of electricalable fire to operate, and damage to the The repository’s sprinkler system power. The main pumps will only bearchive would inevitably occur. This will comprise heads positioned at run for a short period to ensure thatdamage would include direct fire dam- the front of the racks and in the flues. they will operate when required.age, smoke contamination and water Heads will be provided at every level, Maintenance requirements woulddamage from sprinkler run-off. How- alternating between the front of the be fairly minimal, involving weeklyever, it is stressed that a sprinkler head rack, then in the flue and so on. In operation of the sprinkler valves andwill typically deliver 65 litres per minute, order to enable the supplier to provide the pumps. In addition, an annualwhereas a fire brigade hose will deliver cost and plant estimates, it was neces- inspection should be carried out. There1,000 litres per minute, making the sary to assume that there would be are numerous approved contractorslatter far more like to cause extensive 25 layers of totes that were 600 mm who could do this, irrespective of whowater damage. high, with a 150 mm gap between supplies and installs the system. A sprinkler system for the repository each tote and the sprinkler head. A more significant factor is the rec-would comprise in-rack sprinklers to The system would include the ommendation that a foam additive beensure that they operate at an early following components: provided. The foam additive AFFFstage. The extent of damage that is • the heads within the racks; would be introduced into the sprinklerlikely to occur in the event of suc- water via a bladder tank and a propor-cessful sprinkler operation is not easy • the pipe work; tioning valve, as only 3% by volume isto estimate. The best indication is • sprinkler zone valves, and required. It would be released through the normal sprinkler heads and foams upon contact with air. By forming a TABLE 2 — REPORTED INCIDENTS OF SUCCESSFUL SPRINKLER OPERATION foam blanket, AFFF generally improves Number of the suppression system’s effectiveness Sprinkler Heads by excluding air from the seat of the fire. Library Initiating Event in Operation Reported Damage The sprinkler system’s mechanicalBroward County Fire in trash room Not reported Parts of first floor plant would have to be replaced withinMain Library (1993) from cigarette damaged, including some library material. the repository’s lifespan. The duty and standby pumps would be run on aUniversity of Utah Overheating Two heads Damage mainly regular basis only to test their operation,(1981) slide projector confined to audiovisual area. would be well maintained, and should not wear out. However, it is usualSouth Bend Public Fire started in Not reported Building damageLibrary (1992) elevator shaft associated with industry practice to assume that they elevator area. will require replacing every 25 years.Saint Joseph Hospital Incendiary device Two heads Damage contained As with the low-oxygen plant, becauseMissouri (1982) in second floor to room of origin they are housed outside of the reposi- book stack tory and have a 100% standby, theirNew York University Fire in book stack One head Damage reported replacement will be a cost and man-Library (1965) to be limited to agement issue, and will not affect the $7,000. repository protection.New York University Fire in book stack One head Damage was The sprinkler system would haveLibrary (1951) reported to be zones, enabling the phasing of head limited to $1,000. and pipe replacement, and allowing8
  9. 9. for the decanting of totes to protected place air, thus reducing the available could only be established by full-scaleareas. However, their replacement will oxygen to the fire and increasing the fire testing to determine the most effec-clearly involve significant costs and system’s effectiveness. This increased tive positioning of sprinkler heads.management resources by the Library. effectiveness enables a water-mist sys- These fire tests would need to be insti- tem to extinguish a fire with typically gated, and several would be requiredWater Mist a tenth of the water required by a to determine the optimum head spacing.A water-mist system is best regarded sprinkler system. This would be expensive.as a high-pressure sprinkler system, This reduced water delivery limits A water-mist system does differ fromalthough the pressure at 200 Bar is such the extent of water damage that would a sprinkler system for lifecycle costs,that the water is delivered in drops just occur if the water mist operated within in that the pipe work and heads areseveral microns in size. This gives them the repository. It also requires a smaller of stainless steel. The need for stain-a larger surface area and a greater capa- plant and pipes, which would make it less steel is partially due to strengthcity to absorb heat. The fine nature easier to fit into the building. It may requirements, but is largely due toof the spray also enables water mist even be possible to reduce the clear- the fact that the small holes within theto be more penetrative, although this ance between the mist head and top head could easily become blocked bydoes rely on the thermal currents of a of the tote to below 150 mm. contamination. As the “wet” side offire to draw it in. This makes water The major disadvantage of a high- the water mist system is stainless steel,mist less effective on small fires than pressure water-mist system is that each it should not be necessary to replacean equivalent sprinkler system. When application is a one-off design. A water- the pipes or water-mist heads withindrawn into a fire, the mist will also dis- mist system design for the repository the repository’s 70-year lifespan. continued on page 10 TABLE 3 — COMPARISON OF SUPPRESSION METHODS WITH LOW OXYGEN Running and Maintenance Advantages Disadvantages CostsSuppression method Principal Secondary Principal Secondary System SecondaryLow Oxygen Will prevent fire Oxygen sensing system Novel technology; the System can only be £535,000 Saving on smoke from occurring. can be supplemented British Library would maintained by supplier, detection system: with smoke detectors, be pioneering this potentially putting the 70-year cost: £20,000. Claimed 100% avoiding the need for approach to archive British Library in a poor £1.7M effective when a separate system. protection. commercial position. Annual maintenance plant running. costs: £8,100. System’s effectiveness Plant availability is dependent on Power consumption: > 99.9% building integrity. £13,000 per annum. If lost, archive will be unprotected for a period of time. Repository will need to be treated as a confined space.Sprinklers Proven effective Staff area easily If they operate, a fire Building size has to be £800,000 Additional building method of pro- sprinkler-protected. has occurred and increased to accommo- cost due to increased tecting archive a proportion of date sprinklers. 70-year cost: building size: storage. Well-established the archive will be £2M £450,000 design codes to damaged by water Potential for leaks or 80–90% effective validate. run-off and smoke accidental activation. Annual maintenance damage, as well as costs: £10K direct fire damage. Running cost advised Sprinkler heads and as £250 per annum. pipe work will require replacement in the racking during the life of the building.Water mist Quick knock- Reduced water delivery. Will require expensive Expensive. £3–4 million Similar to that for down of fire; less testing to prove it for sprinklers. damage than Smaller sprinkler pipes. this application. 70-year cost: sprinklers. £4.4M Reduced plant area 80–90% effective required. 9
  10. 10. Fire Protection and the British Library Repository — continued from page 9Fire Compartmentalization of time in a real fire — long enough 15%. It offers preventive fire pro- to allow for firefighters to intervene tection, not post-event (reactive)Applicable Guidance and ensure that the fire is contained suppression of an actual fire.Since the repository is a single-storey in that compartment.building, there is no requirement under A further advantage to providing any 3. No water present in the repository.Building Regulations to divide it into compartment walls within the reposi-separate fire compartments. The Support 4. An advantage for salvage, as com- tory is that they will run longitudinally,Building is two storeys in height. In pared to discharge of sprinklers and and will generally avoid any penetra-order to treat the repository as a single- resulting water and smoke damage. tions for doors and services. These pen-storey building, it is necessary to provide etrations have been proven to be thea fire compartment wall between them. 5. Nitrogen is an inert gas which weak link in compartment construction, achieves homogeneous distribu- As no maximum compartment size with some estimates putting the instanceis given in the British Standard, the tion, easily providing consistent of failure in fire doors as high as 40%. levels of protection throughoutonly requirement for compartmen- Given the above, it can be statedtalization is between the repository the building. with a high degree of confidence thatand the Support Building. However, any compartment wall provided within 6. The system continuously samplesas discussed above, BS 5454 does not the repository will prevent fire spreading and monitors oxygen levels in theenvisage archive storage on this scale. to the adjacent compartment. repository. It is always clear whetherIt is understood that, when the clause or not the repository is protectedwas written, the largest compartment Application to the British Library against fire.area was envisaged was 300 m2. With Repositoryan assumed floor-to-floor height of To strictly satisfy the British Standard, 7. The system indirectly monitors4 meters, this gives a total volume of as written, the only compartment wall integrity of the building fabric by1,200 m3 or 1/50th of the proposed required is the one between the reposi- indicating any issue with air-tightness.size of the British Library Repository. tory and the ancillary accommodation. A reduced-oxygen fire prevention This compartment wall will have to system operates in conjunctionRequirement and Effectiveness be provided. The British Library has with air-handling systems.The true benefit of any compartment decided to provide a single longitu-wall will only be realized in the unlikely dinal compartment wall dividing the 8. Early smoke detection (an aspiratedevent that the suppression system fails building into one four-aisle space and system) is combined with the oxy-to operate, or halt the fire, and fire- one three-aisle space. gen sampling system and uses com-fighters subsequently fail to prevent mon pipes in the repository. Pipethe fire from involving a large part of Compartmentalization Summary work is plastic and not pressurizedthe building. Therefore, any compart- Advantages and therefore has good resistancements formed in the repository would • Reduces consequence of to deterioration and accidentalbe provided as the last line of defense. uncontrolled fire damage (e.g., by a crane).The caveat to this statement is that, evenwithout fire resistance, any subdivision • Reduces consequential damage (due 9. The aspirated system can detectof the repository will help to protect to smoke/steam) of controlled fire very early stages of pyrolysis innon-fire-affected items from any smoke very large spaces with a high Disadvantages degree of sensitivity.or steam that will be generated, even • Increases building footprint andwhen a sprinkler or water-mist system land requirements 10. The fire risk posed by automatedhas successfully controlled the fire. systems is mitigated: electrical cabl- A four-hour compartment wall, • Additional cost ing will not burn in 17% oxygen.established against the standard time/temperature curve, will not necessarily Reduced Oxygen Fire 11. There is a clear advantage in thesurvive this period of time in a real Prevention Systems: simplicity of the plant used, itsfire. However, given the standard of standardized industrial components, Risk/Benefit Analysisconstruction required to achieve four and its known maintenance cycles.hours under the standard BS476 test, Benefitsit is reasonable to assume that any 1. A reduced-oxygen fire prevention 12. Plant maintenance is not tied to acompartment wall will maintain its system will prevent fire occurring specific reduced-oxygen systemeffectiveness for a significant period with the proposed oxygen level of supplier.10
  11. 11. 13. The proposed system offers good 4. While the principles, equipment, the Library’s proposed building. scope for disaster planning. The and fire prevention rationale are They protect three years’ worth of proposal includes a duplicate com- not new, the combination is inno- advance fabric stock with a reduced- pressor and nitrogen generator. This vative in relation to fire protection oxygen environment, and chose to plant redundancy permits several and a building of this type. build a single warehouse protected layers of fire mitigation within the in this way, rather than two separate solution (e.g., backup should one 5. The Library would be applying warehouses protected by sprinklers. compressor fail or run both com- an innovative solution to a large (They would cease to exist as a pressors continuously to reduce repository, having not tested the corporate entity if this stock was oxygen below 15% if desired). It solution elsewhere; it would not lost to fire.) Their main reason for will also be possible to cater for be using an incremental, proto- this shift in their property strategy an emergency nitrogen gas dump typing strategy, which is the BL was the perceived additional bene- from a tanker. approach now adopted for other fit of the preventative/monitoring developments such as IT systems. fire-engineering rationale offered14. It is simple to integrate the reduced by a reduced-oxygen system. Also 6. In Europe, reduced-oxygen systems oxygen system with the existing see mitigation for point (9) below, have only been in use since 1998 site-wide fire alarm and building re: Oxford University. in approximately 100 installations, management systems. and thus do not have a long track 3. Constant monitoring of oxygen15. The current architectural building record. levels by the reduced-oxygen fire- design parameters (air tightness; prevention system also provides 7. We do not have data on reliability environmental controls; BREAM data about building integrity and of these systems. ratings) needed to meet Part M of air tightness. This would be required the Building Regulations already 8. Forced pyrolysis can still occur: anyway to monitor BREAM stan- accommodate a reduced-oxygen e.g., damage including charring dards. Building foundations are fire-prevention system’s operational produced by proximity to a very being designed to avoid differential requirements. hot motor, oxyacetylene torch, settlement that would deform the or overheating cable. automation racking. Sealant between16. There is a period of oxygen stability when the plant is not running: the the panels has the same design life 9. Suppliers can own the patented con- repository remains protected (an as the PAROC wall panels. The trol panel software system and have estimated 90 hours between failure architects’ design proposal and a monopoly over its maintenance. of plant and oxygen levels rising costs already include over-cladding above the upper operational 10. The BL will be pioneering this of the building walls every 25 years. threshold). solution and will be seen by the Even if the building began to leak professional community as cham- more air, fire protection should17. BL/service provider technical staff pioning this approach; failure could remain possible within the toler- can be trained to act as first-line damage the BL’s reputation. ances of the proposed system response for maintenance and (although energy costs would rise plant repair. 11. The BL needs to ensure that low- as the compressors would need to oxygen/enriched-nitrogen atmos- work for more than the proposedRisks pheres do not have a detrimental eight hours per day to maintain the effect on the longevity of cellulose 15% oxygen level).1. There is no precedent for the use collections. of a reduced-oxygen fire-prevention 4. Low oxygen already protects build- in a comparable size building; high Mitigations ings containing dangerous and/or density, automated storage and 1. The Library has seen library materials business-critical material, including library materials. in a small vault and a large oil explo- a Shell Oil exploration data store3. To work efficiently, the system is ration data centre building both and two chemical storage facilities. dependent upon maintaining ade- protected by a reduced-oxygen A German low-oxygen product is quate air tightness of the building fire-prevention system. The Library approved by the VdS (independent over its lifetime. Buildings become has also visited a clothing supplier’s standards authority for the German “leaky” over time; failure to ensure storage site in Germany: an auto- insurance industry which conducts air tightness over 25, 50, or 70 years mated high-density warehouse its own tests and validation of would incur financial costs and protected by a reduced-oxygen those tests). potentially lessen fire protection. system, and on a similar scale to continued on page 12 11
  12. 12. Fire Protection and the British Library ¡Repository — continued from page 11 IAMFA 2006 IN LOS ANGELES The Los Angeles Chapter welcomes you!5. We would not be the first to deploy low oxygen in a large building with September 17–20, 2006 automation. Prototyping is easier INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MUSEUM FACILITY ADMINISTRATORS with IT projects but often difficult in building design. A prototype Ⅺ YES! Sign me up to attend the 2006 IAMFA Annual Conference in could not mimic the scale of the Los Angeles, California, USA actual project adequately. Name: ___________________________________________________________________________6. See the mitigation for (3) above. Title: ____________________________________________________________________________ The British Library has requested Institution:_______________________________________________________________________ further information regarding the nature of the existing low-oxygen Address: _________________________________________________________________________ installations and their performance standard. City: _________________________________________ Postal/Zip Code: _________________ State/Province/County: ______________________ Country: _________________________7. BL staff will ask for improved data on the statistical likelihood of fires Phone: ________________________________ Fax: ____________________________________ in a similar building vs. actual events in buildings protected with E-mail: ________________________________ @ ______________________________________ low oxygen. If your address/contact information has changed in the past year, please check box Ⅺ Special dietary, access, or other requirements: __________________________________8. Pyrolysis would be detected at a very early stage by the aspirated __________________________________________________________________________________ system, and the alarm would be ALL FEES ARE PAYABLE IN U.S. DOLLARS raised. Please visit http://www.iamfa.org/ on the 2006 conference page to register for the conference using a credit card.9. The controlling software is open Ⅺ Member conference fee: $500 (after Aug 20, add $50) protocol. The system is relatively simple in IT terms and contains Ⅺ Non-member conference fee: $600 (after Aug 20, add $50) routines common in industrial Ⅺ Sign me up as a new member: $150 control applications. All other com- Ⅺ Guest program fee: $300 (after Aug 20, add $50) ponents are proprietary industry Ⅺ Guest under 12: $150 standard. Maintenance of compres- Ⅺ One-day attendance fee: $200 per day Ⅺ MON Ⅺ TUE Ⅺ WED sors and other hardware is not tied to any specific supplier. You may also complete this form, and send a hard copy along with a check to: International Association of Museum Facility Administrators (IAMFA) P.O. Box 27710. The professional reputations of Groton, MA 01450 USA both the low-oxygen supplier and the architects would be at stake. SUGGESTED ACCOMMODATION A successfully managed innova- We have reserved a limited number of hotel rooms at The Fairmont Miramar Hotel for tion would be a benefit to the BL. the period of Saturday, September 16 through Wednesday, September 20. The conference rate is $229 per night per room plus 14.05% tax, single or double occupancy, with an Oxford University has informed the additional charge of $25 each for a third or fourth adult per night, with a maximum Library of plans to build a similar of four people per room. There is no extra charge for children up to, and including, automated high-density book the age of 18 years who share a room with their parents. Early hotel registration is repository, also to be protected strongly recommended during this busy season in Los Angeles. The block of rooms will be held until August 1, 2006. To contact the Fairmont Miramar Hotel directly, please call by a reduced-oxygen system. 1-800-441-1414 or (310) 576-7777. Ask for Reservations and make sure to mention the IAMFA conference to get the special rate. Reservations can also be made by Internet at www.fairmont.com. Internet users must use the promotional code GRMUS1 to submit11. BL staff investigated the effects requests. The hotel will extend the program rate (3) days prior and (3) after conference of low-oxygen/enriched-nitrogen dates, based on availability. atmospheres on cellulose, and no effect is anticipated. Please check the IAMFA website for updates at: www.iamfa.org12
  13. 13. Networking in Sunny Spain — The 2005 IAMFA Conference in BilbaoThe Guggenheim Museum, the Ria de Bilbao Maritime Interaction with our colleagues from around the worldMuseum, the Euskalduna Conference Centre and Conference provided opportunities to share best practices and lessonsHall, the Fine Arts Museum, Bilbao, and the entire Basque learned. The organized sessions and tours were excellent,region of northern Spain were gracious hosts for the Annual but the classic IAMFA model of networking between andIAMFA Conference in September 2005. Many members and among these planned events formed the unique backboneguests extended their stays to take in the sites, sounds and of a classic conference.tastes of the region. Here, then, on the following pages, are a few of the scenes caught by the Editor.Delegates assembled for the traditional group photo.Guests joined delegates to close out a long-awaited, but far too fleeting conference in Bilbao. 13
  14. 14. Networking in Sunny Spain — The14
  15. 15. 2005 IAMFA Conference in Bilbao 15
  16. 16. The Guest Perspective on the IAMFA Annual Conference If I learned nothing else during my week in Bilbao, I learned a bottle of that home too. The hospitality of our hosts was these three words: café con leche. My three years of high- exceptional! Muchisimas gracias a Roberto y Rogelio. school French, years of watching Sesame Street with my two Bilbao is a great city to walk in. From the ancient archi- children (Spanish language lessons are a regular feature of tecture to the modern to the Guggenheim to the neat little the show) and a Spanish language CD I purchased after the shops to the street mime made-up to look like a stone statue, IAMFA conference in Boston were not a whole lot of help. there was so much to see and experience that each walk In most cases a simple “Hola” and a smile went a long way was an adventure. It is a good thing we were able to do so to getting you what you needed. (A certain Bilbao linen/fabric much walking, considering all of the food we ate during shop shall remain nameless!) the week. (I need to remember that little tidbit now that My first conference was D.C. 2001, delayed from September we are home.) to December due to 9/11. (Near and dear to my heart, as Now it is on to Los Angeles! I cannot wait to see all my Dan works for the Smithsonian and was part of the D.C. IAMFA friends, the Getty and the newly reopened Villa, the planning group. It was fun to be able to see your “home L.A. County Museum of Art, the Museum of Contemporary town” as a tourist.) London was great. Brought the umbrella, Art, the Santa Monica Pier and Universal Studios (no roller- no rain. San Francisco was excellent. Brought the umbrella, coasters for me!). I will bring my umbrella, and with any no rain and a record heat wave. Boston was awesome. I luck at all we will have great weather for our week in found the tombstone of my thirteenth great-grandfather at sunny southern California. Kings Chapel, and I took photos of Fenway Park. (Maybe that is why the Red Sox won the World Series in 2004 — Kim Davies my Dad would have been so happy.) Have IAMFA spouse, will travel! Then there was Bilbao . . . WOW! The food was great! I bought a tapas cookbook. The wine was great! We broughtDANIEL H. DAVIES Scenery in and around Bilbao, and nearby points of interest. 16
  17. 17. Regional Chapters John de Lucy, VP Regional AffairsOur regional chapters continue their active networking, The second floor features the exhibition, Made in Africa,discussing issues important to us all, while also working displaying stone tools made in Africa nearly two millionto raise IAMFA’s profile within their respective regions. years ago. We also experienced permanent interactiveThe following two reports detail the recent and upcoming displays on Food and Music, as well as the second floor’sactivities of two of our most active chapters. two theaters. Back-of-house space is minimal, since the MoAD is a tenant within the St. Regis Hotel tower. TheirNorthern California Chapter total space is 20,000 square feet, which has put space forby Joe Brennan storage and personnel at a great premium. continued on page 18Our first meeting of 2006 took place during the afternoonof February 15, 2006, at the newly opened Museum ofthe African Diaspora (MoAD) in San Francisco. Ten of usshowed up for the tour, hosted by MoAD Facilities DirectorPaula Ramsey, despite my transposing the street number inthe invitation. We assembled in their Boardroom for introductions andsome discussion of their opening experience, which focusedon events, catering and rentals. We also heard about someof the challenges of operating within the building as atenant, including access and exits, loading dock usage,alarm logistics etc. We were then taken on a tour of thefacility. This included their traveling exhibition space onthe third floor, where a diverse array of art is displayed.Dan Dunn of the Blackhawk Museum and John Lewis of theCalifornia Academy of Sciences hold tools made nearly twomillion years ago. These stone tools, from the Olduvai Gorge Ascending the main stairway in front of MoAD’s iconic photoin Tanzania, are on loan from the British Museum, and are collage mural of a girl’s face, made up of 1,200 individualsome of the oldest known manmade objects in the world. photos — see their website for the full effect at www.moadsf.org. 17
  18. 18. Regional Chapters — continued from page 17 Chairpersons The tour gave us all an interesting of Regional Chapterslook at the particular challenges facing Atlanta, USAmuseological institutions which must Kevin Streiteroperate in rented facilities that are not High Museum of Artpurpose-built, and provided us with Australiafood for thought on management of Kim Reasonour own facilities. Museum Victoria Our next three quarterly meetings Bilbao, Spainhave already been scheduled as follows: Rogelio Diez Guggenheim MuseumMay 17, 2006: Chicago, USA William CaddickLindsay Wildlife Museum in Walnut Art Institute of ChicagoCreek Hawaii, USA Robert WhiteSeptember 21, 2006: Honolulu Academy of ArtsJoint meeting of the Northern and Los Angeles, USASouthern California IAMFA Chapters Joe May J. Paul Getty Trustat Hearst Castle in San Simeon MoAD staff member demonstrating stone New England, USA hand tools to Jennifer Fragomeni of the Jim LabeckNovember 15, 2006: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Exploratorium, Nils Welin of CypressLocation to be determined . . . Security, and Andy Hirschfield of the New York, USAforward me your ideas. Exploratorium. Mark Demairo New Zealand Patricia Morgan Auckland Art GalleryU.K. Chapter Ottawa-Gatineau, CanadaOur next meeting is scheduled for May 5, 2006 at the National Library of Scotland Christian Pagein Edinburgh. The proposed program for that meeting is as follows: Canadian Museum of Civilization San Francisco, USA10:00–10:30: Bill Black — Set the Scene for Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order Joe Brennan San Francisco Museum of Modern Art10:30–11:45: Colin Todd — Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order: Life after the United Kingdom Risk Assessment Jack Plumb National Library of Scotland11:45–12:30: Bill Jackson — Another Standard — An Introduction to NFPA 909: Washington-Baltimore, USA Code for the protection of Cultural Resources Robert Evans Freer Gallery of Art/Arthur M. Sackler12:30–13:30: Lunch Gallery13:30: Either a visit to the National Gallery of Scotland’s Playfair extension, or a presentation on IAMFA Benchmarking Future Chapters This is a formidable line-up of speakers, and I am sure we will all benefit Cleveland, USA Tom Cataliotigreatly, not only from what they have to say, but also through the opportunity Cleveland Museum of Artto join in the discussions that will follow. The Netherlands The lasting effects of the conference in Bilbao, as well as our tours of its many Jan Abrahamsewonderful galleries and museums, have undoubtedly kept many of us from think- Rijksmuseuming about organizing regional activities and tours of our own local facilities. By the Pennsylvania, USAtime you read this, however, I hope you will all have heard from me, encouraging Victor T. Razzeyou to host events in your respective regions — and of course reporting on them Brandywine River Museum and Conservatoryin Papyrus! Seattle, USA Patrick DowlingJohn de Lucy Whatcom Museum of History and ArtVice President, Regional Affairs18

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