What is Earth Science<br />Pages 5 to 9 (Textbook)<br />Chapter 1-1<br />
Science<br />The process of observing, explaining, and understanding things in our world; means “having knowledge”; divide...
The Four Major Sciences<br />Chemistry<br />Life Science<br />Physics<br />Earth Science <br />
EARTH SCIENCE<br />Earth Science is divided into four specific areas of study:<br />Geology<br />Meteorology<br />Astronom...
Geology<br />The study of Earth and its matter, processes, and history. (p 8)<br />Death Valley California<br />
Astronomy<br />The study of object in space, including stars, planets, comets, and their origins <br />
Meteorology<br />The study of the Earth’s weather and the forces that it causes. (p 8)<br />
Oceanography<br />The study of Earth’s oceans, their processes, and life within them. (p 8)<br />
What is Earth Science?<br />Science<br />Earth Science<br />Life Science<br />Astronomy<br />Questions 1 - 4<br />
What is Earth Science<br />Physics<br />Geology<br />Chemistry<br />Meteorology<br />Oceanography<br />
What is Earth Science?<br />Astronomy<br />Geology<br />Meteorology<br />Oceanography<br />Fire up the NumaNuma! <br />
Chapter 1 –Section 2<br />Applying Science<br />Pages 10 to 11<br />Textbook<br />
Technology<br />Technology is the use of scientific discoveries.<br />Technology is transferable , it can be used in new s...
The Effects of Technology<br />Technology can have both positive and negative effects. <br />Postitive:<br />Satellites fo...
Use pgs 10 -11 in your textbook<br />Scientific<br />Forests<br />machines<br />robots<br />
technology<br />problems<br />pollution<br />environment<br />
Use pgs 10-11 in your textbook<br />Technology<br />Technology is the use of scientific discoveries. <br />Cars, Computers...
Use pgs 10-11 in your textbook<br />Technology has improved medicine, health care, and foods.<br />Technology can cause po...
Pollution Video<br />
Chapter 1 (Section 3)<br />Solving Problems<br />Pages 12 to 18<br />Textbook<br />
Strategies use to Solve Problems<br />Read pages 12 to 15 in your textbook. <br />Answer Section Wrap-Up question number 1...
Steps of the Scientific Method <br />Determine the problem<br />Make a hypothesis	<br />Hypothesis is an educated guess.<b...
Variables and Controls <br />An experiment should have only ONE variable being tested at a time.  <br />A variable is a ch...
Theories and Laws <br />Theory<br />An explanation backed by results obtained from repeated tests or experiments is a theo...
Chapter 1 (Section 4)<br />Measurement and Safety<br />Pages 19 to 25<br />Textbook<br />
IV.   Measurement<br />International System of Units (SI)<br />Si is a modern version of the metric system.<br />SI is bas...
The 3 Countries who don’t use Metric<br />
IV. Measurement<br />Length<br />The standard unit in SI for length is the METER..<br /> A meter is larger than a yard.<br />
IV. Measurement<br />C.  Mass<br />The standard unit in SI for mass is a Gram. <br />Mass is the amount of matter in an ob...
IV. Measurement<br />Weight<br />Weight is the measure of gravitational force on a mass.  <br />Gravity is an attraction f...
IV. Measurement<br />Area (Area of any rectangle is Length X width)<br />Area requires a combination of SI units.<br />Are...
IV. Measurement<br />Volume<br />Volume is a measure of how much space an object occupies. <br />Liquid Volume is measured...
Measurement. <br />Volume (Continued)<br />Graduated Cylinder and a Beaker  <br />a.        A graduated cylinder is more a...
How to read a beaker or graduated cylinder. (do not copy)<br />It is important to notice what each line or interval on the...
Measurement (How to read a beaker or graduated cylinder)<br />3.  The Meniscus<br />A characteristic of liquids in glass c...
The meniscus in a graduated cylinder<br />A characteristic of liquids in glass containers is that they curve at the edges....
Measurement<br />Density<br />Density is a measure of the amount of matter that occupies a particular space. <br />Density...
Circle of Stupidity<br />Can be used with any formula with three variables.  <br />A= l X w<br />D = m/v<br />n/4 = 24<br ...
Finding Density, mass, or volume<br />If the Volume of an object is 3 cm3 and the Density is 8 g/cm3; What is the mass of ...
H.  Temperature<br />SI unit for temperature is Kelvin. <br />a.  The Symbol for Kelvin is K. <br />Many Scientists use Ce...
I.  Converting Fahrenheit to Celsius<br />You can use this website if you are near a computer.<br />NOAA website<br />Form...
J.  Safety in the Lab<br />Please see page 26 in your textbook.  <br />
Converting Metric Units <br />Kilo—Hecto—Deca—BASE—deci—centi—mili<br />Largest------------------Base----------------small...
Converting Metric Units <br />Kilo—Hecto—Deca—BASE—deci—centi—mili<br />How this works:<br />5 kg= _______ g…<br />Problem...
Metric Conversion Game <br />Complete all of the answers with the partner at your table. <br />Once complete have answers ...
Metric Conversion Practice<br />
1.  Mass<br />2.  Celsius<br />
3.  Area<br />4.  Centi-<br />
6.  Meter<br />5.  Gravity<br />
8.  Kelvin<br />7.  Density<br />
9.  Weight<br />10.  Gram<br />
11. Volume<br />12.  milli-<br />
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Mr. Motuk 8th Grade Science: Chapter 1

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8th Grade General Science
Mr. Motuk
Chapter 1 Notes
Minersville Area School District

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  • Mr. Motuk 8th Grade Science: Chapter 1

    1. 1. What is Earth Science<br />Pages 5 to 9 (Textbook)<br />Chapter 1-1<br />
    2. 2. Science<br />The process of observing, explaining, and understanding things in our world; means “having knowledge”; divided into four general areas: Chemistry, Physics, Life Science, and Earth Science. (p 6)<br />(Key Science Words)<br />
    3. 3. The Four Major Sciences<br />Chemistry<br />Life Science<br />Physics<br />Earth Science <br />
    4. 4. EARTH SCIENCE<br />Earth Science is divided into four specific areas of study:<br />Geology<br />Meteorology<br />Astronomy<br />Oceanography<br />
    5. 5. Geology<br />The study of Earth and its matter, processes, and history. (p 8)<br />Death Valley California<br />
    6. 6. Astronomy<br />The study of object in space, including stars, planets, comets, and their origins <br />
    7. 7. Meteorology<br />The study of the Earth’s weather and the forces that it causes. (p 8)<br />
    8. 8. Oceanography<br />The study of Earth’s oceans, their processes, and life within them. (p 8)<br />
    9. 9. What is Earth Science?<br />Science<br />Earth Science<br />Life Science<br />Astronomy<br />Questions 1 - 4<br />
    10. 10. What is Earth Science<br />Physics<br />Geology<br />Chemistry<br />Meteorology<br />Oceanography<br />
    11. 11. What is Earth Science?<br />Astronomy<br />Geology<br />Meteorology<br />Oceanography<br />Fire up the NumaNuma! <br />
    12. 12. Chapter 1 –Section 2<br />Applying Science<br />Pages 10 to 11<br />Textbook<br />
    13. 13. Technology<br />Technology is the use of scientific discoveries.<br />Technology is transferable , it can be used in new situations. <br />What is an example of a piece of technology being used or modified to be used in another situation? <br />
    14. 14. The Effects of Technology<br />Technology can have both positive and negative effects. <br />Postitive:<br />Satellites for predicting weather, monitor pollution, etc. <br />Give an example of a positive effect of technology. <br />Negative<br />When forests are cleared to build cities, soil erosion increases, and weather patterns can change. <br />Jobs can be lost because human are replaced with robots. <br />Pollution (Coal Stokers, Cars, etc)<br />
    15. 15. Use pgs 10 -11 in your textbook<br />Scientific<br />Forests<br />machines<br />robots<br />
    16. 16. technology<br />problems<br />pollution<br />environment<br />
    17. 17. Use pgs 10-11 in your textbook<br />Technology<br />Technology is the use of scientific discoveries. <br />Cars, Computers, Robots, Air Conditioners, <br />Dangerous work can now be done by robots instead of people. <br />
    18. 18. Use pgs 10-11 in your textbook<br />Technology has improved medicine, health care, and foods.<br />Technology can cause pollution. <br />Air Conditioners can be helpful by keeping rooms cool. <br />Air conditioners release chemicals that can be harmful to the environment. <br />
    19. 19. Pollution Video<br />
    20. 20. Chapter 1 (Section 3)<br />Solving Problems<br />Pages 12 to 18<br />Textbook<br />
    21. 21. Strategies use to Solve Problems<br />Read pages 12 to 15 in your textbook. <br />Answer Section Wrap-Up question number 1.<br />List some strategies you can use to solve problems. (below)<br />Identify the problem, collect information; make lists to help organize information; use trial and error; solve a simpler problem; make a model or a drawing or graph; separate important information from unimportant information; analyze your conclusion; use the scientific notation. <br />ANSWER<br />Answers<br />
    22. 22. Steps of the Scientific Method <br />Determine the problem<br />Make a hypothesis <br />Hypothesis is an educated guess.<br />Test your hypothesis <br />Analyze your results. <br />Draw conclusion. <br />**These steps must be memorized!!<br />
    23. 23. Variables and Controls <br />An experiment should have only ONE variable being tested at a time. <br />A variable is a changeable factor in an experiment. <br />Why should you only have one variable being tested at a time? <br />1. If more than one variable is tested at a time, you don’t know what is causing the end result. <br />
    24. 24. Theories and Laws <br />Theory<br />An explanation backed by results obtained from repeated tests or experiments is a theory. <br />Law<br />1. A well tested description of the behavior of something in nature; predict or describe what will happen in a given situation but don’t explain why. <br />
    25. 25.
    26. 26.
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Chapter 1 (Section 4)<br />Measurement and Safety<br />Pages 19 to 25<br />Textbook<br />
    29. 29. IV. Measurement<br />International System of Units (SI)<br />Si is a modern version of the metric system.<br />SI is based on a decimal system that uses the number 10 as the base unit. <br />Only 3 Countries consider the customary system (Our system…3ft = 1yd etc)<br />a. See Next Slide <br />
    30. 30. The 3 Countries who don’t use Metric<br />
    31. 31. IV. Measurement<br />Length<br />The standard unit in SI for length is the METER..<br /> A meter is larger than a yard.<br />
    32. 32. IV. Measurement<br />C. Mass<br />The standard unit in SI for mass is a Gram. <br />Mass is the amount of matter in an object.<br />a. Mass depends on the number and kinds of atoms that make up an object. <br />
    33. 33. IV. Measurement<br />Weight<br />Weight is the measure of gravitational force on a mass. <br />Gravity is an attraction force that exists between all objects. <br />The standard measurement for weight is the NEWTON. <br />a. Sir Isaac Newton was the first person to describe gravity. <br />
    34. 34. IV. Measurement<br />Area (Area of any rectangle is Length X width)<br />Area requires a combination of SI units.<br />Area is the amount of surface included within a set of boundaries.<br />Area is measured in square centimeters.<br />cm2<br />cm2 is the same thing as cm X cm…<br />Example…the area of a rectangle that is 4cm by 3m would be 12 cm2.<br />Because….that would be 4cm X 3cm= 4 X 3 X cm X cm…<br />
    35. 35. IV. Measurement<br />Volume<br />Volume is a measure of how much space an object occupies. <br />Liquid Volume is measured in milliliters in a beaker. <br />Liquid volume can also be measured in cubic centimeters (cm3)<br />One 1ml is equal to 1cm3<br />
    36. 36. Measurement. <br />Volume (Continued)<br />Graduated Cylinder and a Beaker <br />a. A graduated cylinder is more accurate and precise than a beaker when measuring liquids. <br />Graduated cylinder<br />Beaker<br />Stop!<br />
    37. 37. How to read a beaker or graduated cylinder. (do not copy)<br />It is important to notice what each line or interval on the graduated cylinder represents. Different kinds of graduated cylinders are set up differently. A 10 milliliter cylinder, for example, usually has one tenth of a milliliter for each graduation, but some have two-tenths milliliter for each graduation. The way to check this is to count the divisions between consecutive numbers. Here we have the usual 10 divisions from one number to the next; therefore, the volume increment for each of those lines is a tenth of a milliliter. Estimating your measurements by reading between the lines, you should be able to measure to a hundredth of a milliliter.<br />
    38. 38. Measurement (How to read a beaker or graduated cylinder)<br />3. The Meniscus<br />A characteristic of liquids in glass containers is that they curve at the edges. This curvature is called the meniscus. You measure the level at the horizontal center or inside part of the meniscus. With water in glass, the meniscus will curve up at the edges and down in the center so we say you read the bottom of the meniscus.<br />
    39. 39. The meniscus in a graduated cylinder<br />A characteristic of liquids in glass containers is that they curve at the edges. This curvature is called the meniscus. You measure the level at the horizontal center or inside part of the meniscus. With water in glass, the meniscus will curve up at the edges and down in the center so we say you read the bottom of the meniscus.<br />Only copy the diagram!!<br />
    40. 40. Measurement<br />Density<br />Density is a measure of the amount of matter that occupies a particular space. <br />Density = Mass/ Volume<br />Density is measured in grams per cubic centimeter. <br />a. g/cm3<br />
    41. 41. Circle of Stupidity<br />Can be used with any formula with three variables. <br />A= l X w<br />D = m/v<br />n/4 = 24<br />Division Bar<br />Next to each other is multiplication<br />
    42. 42. Finding Density, mass, or volume<br />If the Volume of an object is 3 cm3 and the Density is 8 g/cm3; What is the mass of that object?<br />If the Mass of an object is 51 grams, and the Density is 17 g/cm3; What is the volume? <br />
    43. 43. H. Temperature<br />SI unit for temperature is Kelvin. <br />a. The Symbol for Kelvin is K. <br />Many Scientists use Celsius instead of Kelvin. <br />b. The symbol for Celsius is C. <br />Common temperatures in Celsius:<br />Freezing point= 0 degrees<br />Boiling Point = 100 degrees. <br />
    44. 44. I. Converting Fahrenheit to Celsius<br />You can use this website if you are near a computer.<br />NOAA website<br />Formula for converting F to Celsius<br />Subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temp and divide by 1.8<br />Formula for converting Celsius to Fahrenheit<br />Multiply the Celsius temp by 1.8 and add 32. <br />
    45. 45. J. Safety in the Lab<br />Please see page 26 in your textbook. <br />
    46. 46. Converting Metric Units <br />Kilo—Hecto—Deca—BASE—deci—centi—mili<br />Largest------------------Base----------------smallest<br />Move the decimal left or right…b/c the metric system is based on 10…just like our number system..<br />Any unit that is only 1 letter m(meter), g(gram), l (liter)..is a base unit<br />King-Henry-Died-By-drinking-chocolate-milk<br />
    47. 47. Converting Metric Units <br />Kilo—Hecto—Deca—BASE—deci—centi—mili<br />How this works:<br />5 kg= _______ g…<br />Problem starts with Kilograms…so we start at K. <br />They want the answer in g (grams) a base unit (only 1 letter)<br />So we move from K to Base..3 spots to the right. <br />Then we move the decimal in 5kg 3 spots to the right = 5000 grams!!!<br />
    48. 48. Metric Conversion Game <br />Complete all of the answers with the partner at your table. <br />Once complete have answers checked by Mr. Motuk. <br />You can change any incorrect answers until you get the right answer if you want. <br />Answers will be collected at the end of class and checked for correctness. <br />Play the game with the dice when you fill confident in all of your answers. <br />
    49. 49. Metric Conversion Practice<br />
    50. 50. 1. Mass<br />2. Celsius<br />
    51. 51. 3. Area<br />4. Centi-<br />
    52. 52. 6. Meter<br />5. Gravity<br />
    53. 53. 8. Kelvin<br />7. Density<br />
    54. 54. 9. Weight<br />10. Gram<br />
    55. 55. 11. Volume<br />12. milli-<br />
    56. 56. 13. What are the only two letters not used in this puzzle? <br />13. SI<br />

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