• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Es Ch. 23 Solar System
 

Es Ch. 23 Solar System

on

  • 3,148 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,148
Views on SlideShare
1,767
Embed Views
1,381

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
45
Comments
0

3 Embeds 1,381

http://sitebuilder.yola.com 1165
http://blendedschools.blackboard.com 185
http://theworldofwidgets.yolasite.com 31

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Es Ch. 23 Solar System Es Ch. 23 Solar System Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 23 Our Solar System
    •  
    • 23.1 The Solar System
      • From Earth, other planets are just dots of light
        • Tend to be mistaken for stars
        • Telescopes & space probes revealed so much more
      • Early Ideas about the Solar System
        • Earth Center Theory:
          • Early Greeks believed Earth was the Center of the Universe
          • All objects were imbedded in circular paths around us
        • Their order of the universe:
      • Earth  Moon  Sun  Mercury  Venus  Mars  Jupiter  Saturn  Stars
      Pgs. 639 - 645
    • Heliocentric Model
      • 1543: Nicholas Copernicus (Polish Astronomer)
        • Proposed a series of different views:
          • The Earth is a planet
          • The moon revolves around the Earth
          • Planets revolve around the Sun
          • The apparent movement of the sun & planets is due to Earth rotating on it’s axis
        • Galileo Galilei supported Copernicus
          • Showed Venus goes through phases just like the moon
          • Only possible if Venus orbits the sun
    • Modern View of the Solar System
      • 10 Planets revolve around our Sun
        • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
        • Asteroid belt (separates inner & outer Planets)
        • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Xena
      • Most planets have at least one moon orbiting them
      • The sun contains 99.86 % of all solar system mass
      • Gravity controls motion and orbital paths
    • Formation of the Solar System
      • 5 b.y.a. large cloud of gas, ice & dust existed
      • Began to contract & slowly rotate
        • Contraction increased density & rotation
        • Gravity began to pull material toward the center
        • Density increases = increased rotation & gravity
        • Begins to form disk with large center
        • Central mass begins to heat up due to contraction
          • Temperatures reach 10 million 0 C
          • Hydrogen atoms begin to fuse together forming Helium
          • Fusion occurs, driving the formation of our Sun
        • The material outside the central mass forms planets
        • This is known as the BIG BANG THEORY
    •  
    • The Parts of Our Solar System
      • The sun is the center of the Solar System
        • Inner Planets: First four planets
          • Solid, rock like structures
        • Asteroid belt: band of rocks orbiting the sun
        • Outer Planets: Six planets farthest from the sun
          • 4 are made up of mainly lighter element gases
          • Last two are frozen materials
    • Motion of the Planets
      • Johannes Kepler studied planetary orbits
        • Discovered orbits are elliptical
          • Farther from the sun, larger the ellipse
          • Realized the Sun is not exactly central in our solar system
        • Planets travel at different speeds through their orbit
          • Planets closer to the sun move faster
          • Planets change speed during their orbit as well
    •  
    • 23.2 The Inner Planets
      • Called Terrestrial Planets
        • First four planets: Mercury , Venus , Earth , Mars
        • All have a solid crust surface
        • Most have an atmosphere of some kind
        • Most have at least one moon
      Pgs. 646 - 650
    • Mercury:
      • Closest planet to the Sun
        • Revolution time: 88 days
        • Rotation time: 59 days
      • Third smallest planet
      • Probed by Mariner 10 (1974-1975)
        • Imaged 45% of surface
        • Surface crater riddled (similar to our Moon)
        • Has large cliff lined valleys
        • Has a weak magnetic field (indicates iron core)
        • Very thin atmosphere:
          • Hydrogen, Helium, Sodium & Potassium
        • Surface Temperature:
          • Daytime: 842 o F
          • Night: -274 o F
    • Venus:
      • Second planet from the sun
        • Revolution: 255 days
        • Rotation: Retrograde = spins backwards
        • Probed by Venera (Russian) in 1970
        • Probed by Magellan (US) in 1990 to 1994
      • “ Earth’s Twin Sister”
        • Size, Mass, Gravity similar to Earth
      • Atmosphere: Thick & toxic
        • Air Pressure = 90 times that of Earth
        • Mostly carbon dioxide
        • Clouds: Rain sulfuric acid
        • Only allow 2% of sunlight through to surface
          • Solar energy trapped = extreme Greenhouse Effect
      • Surface temperature = 878 o F
        • Surface covered by craters, fault lines, & Volcanoes
        • Winds = 300 km / hr.
    • Earth:
      • “ Third Rock from the Sun”
      • Average distance from the sun = 93,000,000 miles
      • Only planet water exists as 3 states of matter
        • Solid, Liquid, & Gas
      • Atmosphere protects the planet
        • From meteor strikes (most burn up)
        • Intense Solar Radiation (UV, X-Rays, Gamma Rays, etc.)
    • Mars:
      • Fourth Planet from the Sun
      • “ The Red Planet ”
      • Surface mainly iron oxide dust (Rust)
      • Revolution time: 687 days
      • Has polar ice caps
        • Northern: frozen Water (H 2 O)
        • Southern: frozen Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 )
    • Discoveries on Mars
      • Mariner 9 (1971–1972)
        • Discovered dried riverbeds
        • Olympus Mons: Largest know volcano in the Solar System
        • Rift Zones: Deep crustal tears
      • Viking 1 & 2 (1976)
        • Each consisted of Orbiter & Lander
        • Photographed entire Martian surface (Orbiters)
        • Studied meteorological, chemical, & biological aspects
          • Discovered barren, rocky, windswept surface
          • Atmosphere: very thin; Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen & Argon
          • Surface Temperatures: 95 o F (day) to -274 o F (night)
          • Temperature changes create intense winds & dust storms
          • NO evidence of life (past or present)
    •  
    • Martian Moons
      • Mars has small, crater riddled moons
        • 1) Phobos: 25 km in diameter
          • Slowly spiraling toward Mars
          • Expected impact of surface in 50 million years
        • 2) Deimos: 13 km in diameter
      • Both are irregularly shaped
      • Both orbit Mars several times a day
    •  
    • 23.3 Mission to Mars
      • How should Mars be explored?
        • Travel time to Mars is a consideration
          • Orbits at their closest = 1.5 years travel time
          • Orbits at their farthest = over 5 years travel time
        • Length of travel time invites great risks to humans
      • Should humans explore Mars?
        • Humans do more meticulous & detailed work than probes
        • Zero gravity travel weakens muscles & bones
        • Body fluids move upward (increase kidney function)
        • Radiation exposure drastically increased
      • Should robots explore Mars?
        • Robots aren’t affected by 0 G’s; travel time not a factor
        • Robots using videotronics can be controlled from Earth
          • Signals can have up to 20 min. delay
          • Robots cannot improvise & adapt to changing situations
      Pgs. 652 - 653
    • 23.4 The Outer Planets
      • 4 planets are gaseous giants ( Jovian Planets )
      • Last 2 are frozen spheres
        • Voyager 1 & 2 probed the 4 gaseous giants
          • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
      Pgs. 654 - 659
    • Jupiter:
      • Largest Planet in our Solar System
      • Fifth planet in order
      • Revolution = 11.9 years to orbit
      • Rotation = 10 hrs. (fastest of all planets)
      • Voyager 1 & 2 (1979) probed Jupiter
        • Gathered information about Jupiter’s Moons’ Atmospheres
        • Discovered 3 more moons
        • Discovered a faint dust ring orbiting Jupiter
      • Jupiter’s Composition:
        • Hydrogen, Helium, Ammonia, Methane, & water vapor
        • Gaseous Atmosphere, Liquid Mantle, & Solid Core
        • Clouds form color bands; Winds up to 400 km/hr.
        • Great Red Spot : Continuous Atmospheric Storm
        • Lightning has been observed in the atmosphere
        • Radiates 2x as much heat as it receives
        • Believed to be a star “that just didn’t make it”
    •  
    • Jupiter’s Moons
      • Jupiter has at least 16 moons
        • Four Largest = Galilean Moons (Discovered in 1610)
          • Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
        • Io: Closest of the Large moons to Jupiter
          • Most volcanic objects in out Solar System
          • Sulfuric Lava produces Reddish/Orange color
          • Holds a thin sulfur dioxide atmosphere
        • Europa: Composed of solid rock covered with ice
          • Tectonic activity
          • Thin oxygen atmosphere
        • Ganymede: Largest moon in the Solar System
          • Larger than Mercury, Surface covered in Ice
          • Slushy Mantle, Solid rock core
        • Callisto: Composed of heavily cratered Rock/Ice Crust
          • Water/Ice mantle with a rocky core
    • Galilean Moons Io with eruption Europa Ganymede Callisto
    • Saturn:
      • Sixth planet; 30 year orbit; 11 hr rotation
      • 1980 & 1981 surveyed by the Voyagers
        • “ Ringed Planet”
        • Second Largest planet
        • Very low density (would float in water)
      • Atmospheric composition:
        • Mostly hydrogen & helium; also ammonia, methane
        • Liquid Hydrogen/helium mantle
        • Small rocky core
      • Rings composed of 100’s of ringlets
        • Ringlets are made up of ice & rock particles
      • At least 18 moon orbit Saturn (Most of any planet)
        • Largest moon = Titan (2 nd largest in Solar System)
          • Real atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, & methane
          • Thick, smog clouds cover Titan
          • Surface temp. = -180 0 C (-292 o F)
    •  
    • Uranus:
      • Smallest of the gas planets
      • Discovered in 1781
      • 7 th planet, 84 year orbit, 17 hour rotation **
      • Average Temp. = -328 o F
      • Voyager 2 surveyed (1986)
        • Discovered 10 unknown moons (making 15 total)
          • 5 largest almost identical
          • Dark color, lack atmosphere, crater riddled
        • Discovered several dark rings
        • Detected a magnetic field tilted 60 0 from axis
        • Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium & Methane
          • Methane gives planet a blue/green tint
          • Liquid mantle of water, methane, & ammonia
          • Rocky core
        • ** Rotational axis lays on its side (spins like a tire)
    • Neptune:
      • Last of the gas planets; discovered in 1846
      • Orbit overlaps Pluto’s at 2 points
        • Change position 8  9 & 9  8
        • 1 orbit = 165 years; 1 rotation = 16 hrs
      • Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium, Methane
        • Methane gives Neptune bluish tint
        • Winds = 2200 km/hr; Temperature = -417 0 F
        • Has a dark spot = storm in it’s atmosphere
        • Liquid mantle: water, methane, & ammonia
        • Core: solid rock
      • Voyager 2 detected 6 moons (Totaling 8)
        • Largest moon = Triton
          • Has a thin nitrogen atmosphere
          • Constantly erupting methane geysers
        • Neptune also has rings (thin & thicken at different places)
    • Pluto:
      • Discovered in 1930; smallest planetoid
      • Between 1979 & 1999 Pluto orbited inside Neptune
        • Rest of the time the ninth planet
        • Orbit = 248 years
        • Has a different orbital plane (tilted 17 0 from other planets)
      • Surrounded by a minimal atmosphere
        • Temperature = -364 o F
      • Solid rocky crust
      • One Moon, Charon (½ diameter of Pluto)
        • Orbits very close to Pluto
        • Sometimes considered “a double planet” with Pluto
    • Xena:
      • Discovered January 8 th , 2005
        • 20 % larger than Pluto
        • Orbital time unknown; Rotational time unknown
        • Has one known moon
        • Dark & cold (below -225 0 C or -373 o F)
        • Has not been “officially” named yet
    • Kuiper Belt
      • Discovered by the Hubble Telescope
      • Vast disk of icy comets
      • Located near Neptune’s orbit
    • Voyagers’ Continuing Mission
      • After passing Saturn in 1980 Voyager 1 headed out of our Solar System
      • After passing Pluto in 2000 Voyager 2 headed out of our Solar System
      • Both are still transmitting information back to Earth about deep space, and our sun’s long range influence of charged particles
    •  
    • 23.5 Other Solar System Objects
      • Comets:
        • Controlled by a star’s gravity
        • Travel through planets’ orbits, out of the Solar System, & back in again
        • HALLEY’S COMET: Most famous (last seen 1986)
          • Returns every 76 years
          • Will return in 2062
        • HALE-BOPP: Most recent comet
          • Discovered in July 23, 1995
          • Visible from Earth during 1997
      Pgs. 662 - 666 Halley’s Comet Hale-Bopp Comet
    • Comet Information:
      • Comet Composition:
        • Dust, rock, frozen methane, ammonia, and water
        • Comets normally look like dirty snowballs
        • When they get close to stars, they change
          • They begin to vaporize & Glow
          • Forms a coma (tail) from the nucleus (head)
            • Coma: glowing trail of particles
            • Always points away from the star
        • Comets eventually break up into space debris
      • Oort Cloud: large collection of comets beyond Pluto
    • Meteoroids, Meteors, & Meteorites
      • Meteoroids: chunks of rock
        • Randomly moving through space
        • Usually leftover comet or asteroid debris
      • Meteor: Meteoroid that enters Earth’s atmosphere
        • Heat up & begin to glow = shooting star
        • Most burn up before reaching the surface
        • Many meteors at one time = meteor shower
      • Meteorite: Meteor that does not totally burn up, & strikes the Earth’s surface
        • Impact creates a crater
    • LARGEST METEORITE TO HIT EARTH – Namibia, Africa
    • Largest US Meteorite – Kansas under 6 feet of earth.
    • Asteroids
      • Large rocks located between Mars & Jupiter
        • Asteroid belt: Large orbiting ring of asteroids
        • Believed to be a planet that never formed
        • Range in size from dust to Moon size
          • Some Named Asteroids:
            • Ceres: 940 km (Largest known)
            • Pallas: 523 km
            • Vesta: 501 km
            • Juno: 244 km
            • Gaspra & Ida:
            • Photographed by Galileo probe
            • Ida even has a smaller asteroid orbiting it