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Es Ch. 23 Solar System

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  • 1. Chapter 23 Our Solar System
  • 2.  
  • 3. 23.1 The Solar System
    • From Earth, other planets are just dots of light
      • Tend to be mistaken for stars
      • Telescopes & space probes revealed so much more
    • Early Ideas about the Solar System
      • Earth Center Theory:
        • Early Greeks believed Earth was the Center of the Universe
        • All objects were imbedded in circular paths around us
      • Their order of the universe:
    • Earth  Moon  Sun  Mercury  Venus  Mars  Jupiter  Saturn  Stars
    Pgs. 639 - 645
  • 4. Heliocentric Model
    • 1543: Nicholas Copernicus (Polish Astronomer)
      • Proposed a series of different views:
        • The Earth is a planet
        • The moon revolves around the Earth
        • Planets revolve around the Sun
        • The apparent movement of the sun & planets is due to Earth rotating on it’s axis
      • Galileo Galilei supported Copernicus
        • Showed Venus goes through phases just like the moon
        • Only possible if Venus orbits the sun
  • 5. Modern View of the Solar System
    • 10 Planets revolve around our Sun
      • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
      • Asteroid belt (separates inner & outer Planets)
      • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Xena
    • Most planets have at least one moon orbiting them
    • The sun contains 99.86 % of all solar system mass
    • Gravity controls motion and orbital paths
  • 6. Formation of the Solar System
    • 5 b.y.a. large cloud of gas, ice & dust existed
    • Began to contract & slowly rotate
      • Contraction increased density & rotation
      • Gravity began to pull material toward the center
      • Density increases = increased rotation & gravity
      • Begins to form disk with large center
      • Central mass begins to heat up due to contraction
        • Temperatures reach 10 million 0 C
        • Hydrogen atoms begin to fuse together forming Helium
        • Fusion occurs, driving the formation of our Sun
      • The material outside the central mass forms planets
      • This is known as the BIG BANG THEORY
  • 7.  
  • 8. The Parts of Our Solar System
    • The sun is the center of the Solar System
      • Inner Planets: First four planets
        • Solid, rock like structures
      • Asteroid belt: band of rocks orbiting the sun
      • Outer Planets: Six planets farthest from the sun
        • 4 are made up of mainly lighter element gases
        • Last two are frozen materials
  • 9. Motion of the Planets
    • Johannes Kepler studied planetary orbits
      • Discovered orbits are elliptical
        • Farther from the sun, larger the ellipse
        • Realized the Sun is not exactly central in our solar system
      • Planets travel at different speeds through their orbit
        • Planets closer to the sun move faster
        • Planets change speed during their orbit as well
  • 10.  
  • 11. 23.2 The Inner Planets
    • Called Terrestrial Planets
      • First four planets: Mercury , Venus , Earth , Mars
      • All have a solid crust surface
      • Most have an atmosphere of some kind
      • Most have at least one moon
    Pgs. 646 - 650
  • 12. Mercury:
    • Closest planet to the Sun
      • Revolution time: 88 days
      • Rotation time: 59 days
    • Third smallest planet
    • Probed by Mariner 10 (1974-1975)
      • Imaged 45% of surface
      • Surface crater riddled (similar to our Moon)
      • Has large cliff lined valleys
      • Has a weak magnetic field (indicates iron core)
      • Very thin atmosphere:
        • Hydrogen, Helium, Sodium & Potassium
      • Surface Temperature:
        • Daytime: 842 o F
        • Night: -274 o F
  • 13. Venus:
    • Second planet from the sun
      • Revolution: 255 days
      • Rotation: Retrograde = spins backwards
      • Probed by Venera (Russian) in 1970
      • Probed by Magellan (US) in 1990 to 1994
    • “ Earth’s Twin Sister”
      • Size, Mass, Gravity similar to Earth
    • Atmosphere: Thick & toxic
      • Air Pressure = 90 times that of Earth
      • Mostly carbon dioxide
      • Clouds: Rain sulfuric acid
      • Only allow 2% of sunlight through to surface
        • Solar energy trapped = extreme Greenhouse Effect
    • Surface temperature = 878 o F
      • Surface covered by craters, fault lines, & Volcanoes
      • Winds = 300 km / hr.
  • 14. Earth:
    • “ Third Rock from the Sun”
    • Average distance from the sun = 93,000,000 miles
    • Only planet water exists as 3 states of matter
      • Solid, Liquid, & Gas
    • Atmosphere protects the planet
      • From meteor strikes (most burn up)
      • Intense Solar Radiation (UV, X-Rays, Gamma Rays, etc.)
  • 15. Mars:
    • Fourth Planet from the Sun
    • “ The Red Planet ”
    • Surface mainly iron oxide dust (Rust)
    • Revolution time: 687 days
    • Has polar ice caps
      • Northern: frozen Water (H 2 O)
      • Southern: frozen Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 )
  • 16. Discoveries on Mars
    • Mariner 9 (1971–1972)
      • Discovered dried riverbeds
      • Olympus Mons: Largest know volcano in the Solar System
      • Rift Zones: Deep crustal tears
    • Viking 1 & 2 (1976)
      • Each consisted of Orbiter & Lander
      • Photographed entire Martian surface (Orbiters)
      • Studied meteorological, chemical, & biological aspects
        • Discovered barren, rocky, windswept surface
        • Atmosphere: very thin; Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen & Argon
        • Surface Temperatures: 95 o F (day) to -274 o F (night)
        • Temperature changes create intense winds & dust storms
        • NO evidence of life (past or present)
  • 17.  
  • 18. Martian Moons
    • Mars has small, crater riddled moons
      • 1) Phobos: 25 km in diameter
        • Slowly spiraling toward Mars
        • Expected impact of surface in 50 million years
      • 2) Deimos: 13 km in diameter
    • Both are irregularly shaped
    • Both orbit Mars several times a day
  • 19.  
  • 20. 23.3 Mission to Mars
    • How should Mars be explored?
      • Travel time to Mars is a consideration
        • Orbits at their closest = 1.5 years travel time
        • Orbits at their farthest = over 5 years travel time
      • Length of travel time invites great risks to humans
    • Should humans explore Mars?
      • Humans do more meticulous & detailed work than probes
      • Zero gravity travel weakens muscles & bones
      • Body fluids move upward (increase kidney function)
      • Radiation exposure drastically increased
    • Should robots explore Mars?
      • Robots aren’t affected by 0 G’s; travel time not a factor
      • Robots using videotronics can be controlled from Earth
        • Signals can have up to 20 min. delay
        • Robots cannot improvise & adapt to changing situations
    Pgs. 652 - 653
  • 21. 23.4 The Outer Planets
    • 4 planets are gaseous giants ( Jovian Planets )
    • Last 2 are frozen spheres
      • Voyager 1 & 2 probed the 4 gaseous giants
        • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
    Pgs. 654 - 659
  • 22. Jupiter:
    • Largest Planet in our Solar System
    • Fifth planet in order
    • Revolution = 11.9 years to orbit
    • Rotation = 10 hrs. (fastest of all planets)
    • Voyager 1 & 2 (1979) probed Jupiter
      • Gathered information about Jupiter’s Moons’ Atmospheres
      • Discovered 3 more moons
      • Discovered a faint dust ring orbiting Jupiter
    • Jupiter’s Composition:
      • Hydrogen, Helium, Ammonia, Methane, & water vapor
      • Gaseous Atmosphere, Liquid Mantle, & Solid Core
      • Clouds form color bands; Winds up to 400 km/hr.
      • Great Red Spot : Continuous Atmospheric Storm
      • Lightning has been observed in the atmosphere
      • Radiates 2x as much heat as it receives
      • Believed to be a star “that just didn’t make it”
  • 23.  
  • 24. Jupiter’s Moons
    • Jupiter has at least 16 moons
      • Four Largest = Galilean Moons (Discovered in 1610)
        • Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
      • Io: Closest of the Large moons to Jupiter
        • Most volcanic objects in out Solar System
        • Sulfuric Lava produces Reddish/Orange color
        • Holds a thin sulfur dioxide atmosphere
      • Europa: Composed of solid rock covered with ice
        • Tectonic activity
        • Thin oxygen atmosphere
      • Ganymede: Largest moon in the Solar System
        • Larger than Mercury, Surface covered in Ice
        • Slushy Mantle, Solid rock core
      • Callisto: Composed of heavily cratered Rock/Ice Crust
        • Water/Ice mantle with a rocky core
  • 25. Galilean Moons Io with eruption Europa Ganymede Callisto
  • 26. Saturn:
    • Sixth planet; 30 year orbit; 11 hr rotation
    • 1980 & 1981 surveyed by the Voyagers
      • “ Ringed Planet”
      • Second Largest planet
      • Very low density (would float in water)
    • Atmospheric composition:
      • Mostly hydrogen & helium; also ammonia, methane
      • Liquid Hydrogen/helium mantle
      • Small rocky core
    • Rings composed of 100’s of ringlets
      • Ringlets are made up of ice & rock particles
    • At least 18 moon orbit Saturn (Most of any planet)
      • Largest moon = Titan (2 nd largest in Solar System)
        • Real atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, & methane
        • Thick, smog clouds cover Titan
        • Surface temp. = -180 0 C (-292 o F)
  • 27.  
  • 28. Uranus:
    • Smallest of the gas planets
    • Discovered in 1781
    • 7 th planet, 84 year orbit, 17 hour rotation **
    • Average Temp. = -328 o F
    • Voyager 2 surveyed (1986)
      • Discovered 10 unknown moons (making 15 total)
        • 5 largest almost identical
        • Dark color, lack atmosphere, crater riddled
      • Discovered several dark rings
      • Detected a magnetic field tilted 60 0 from axis
      • Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium & Methane
        • Methane gives planet a blue/green tint
        • Liquid mantle of water, methane, & ammonia
        • Rocky core
      • ** Rotational axis lays on its side (spins like a tire)
  • 29. Neptune:
    • Last of the gas planets; discovered in 1846
    • Orbit overlaps Pluto’s at 2 points
      • Change position 8  9 & 9  8
      • 1 orbit = 165 years; 1 rotation = 16 hrs
    • Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium, Methane
      • Methane gives Neptune bluish tint
      • Winds = 2200 km/hr; Temperature = -417 0 F
      • Has a dark spot = storm in it’s atmosphere
      • Liquid mantle: water, methane, & ammonia
      • Core: solid rock
    • Voyager 2 detected 6 moons (Totaling 8)
      • Largest moon = Triton
        • Has a thin nitrogen atmosphere
        • Constantly erupting methane geysers
      • Neptune also has rings (thin & thicken at different places)
  • 30. Pluto:
    • Discovered in 1930; smallest planetoid
    • Between 1979 & 1999 Pluto orbited inside Neptune
      • Rest of the time the ninth planet
      • Orbit = 248 years
      • Has a different orbital plane (tilted 17 0 from other planets)
    • Surrounded by a minimal atmosphere
      • Temperature = -364 o F
    • Solid rocky crust
    • One Moon, Charon (½ diameter of Pluto)
      • Orbits very close to Pluto
      • Sometimes considered “a double planet” with Pluto
  • 31. Xena:
    • Discovered January 8 th , 2005
      • 20 % larger than Pluto
      • Orbital time unknown; Rotational time unknown
      • Has one known moon
      • Dark & cold (below -225 0 C or -373 o F)
      • Has not been “officially” named yet
  • 32. Kuiper Belt
    • Discovered by the Hubble Telescope
    • Vast disk of icy comets
    • Located near Neptune’s orbit
  • 33. Voyagers’ Continuing Mission
    • After passing Saturn in 1980 Voyager 1 headed out of our Solar System
    • After passing Pluto in 2000 Voyager 2 headed out of our Solar System
    • Both are still transmitting information back to Earth about deep space, and our sun’s long range influence of charged particles
  • 34.  
  • 35. 23.5 Other Solar System Objects
    • Comets:
      • Controlled by a star’s gravity
      • Travel through planets’ orbits, out of the Solar System, & back in again
      • HALLEY’S COMET: Most famous (last seen 1986)
        • Returns every 76 years
        • Will return in 2062
      • HALE-BOPP: Most recent comet
        • Discovered in July 23, 1995
        • Visible from Earth during 1997
    Pgs. 662 - 666 Halley’s Comet Hale-Bopp Comet
  • 36. Comet Information:
    • Comet Composition:
      • Dust, rock, frozen methane, ammonia, and water
      • Comets normally look like dirty snowballs
      • When they get close to stars, they change
        • They begin to vaporize & Glow
        • Forms a coma (tail) from the nucleus (head)
          • Coma: glowing trail of particles
          • Always points away from the star
      • Comets eventually break up into space debris
    • Oort Cloud: large collection of comets beyond Pluto
  • 37. Meteoroids, Meteors, & Meteorites
    • Meteoroids: chunks of rock
      • Randomly moving through space
      • Usually leftover comet or asteroid debris
    • Meteor: Meteoroid that enters Earth’s atmosphere
      • Heat up & begin to glow = shooting star
      • Most burn up before reaching the surface
      • Many meteors at one time = meteor shower
    • Meteorite: Meteor that does not totally burn up, & strikes the Earth’s surface
      • Impact creates a crater
  • 38. LARGEST METEORITE TO HIT EARTH – Namibia, Africa
  • 39. Largest US Meteorite – Kansas under 6 feet of earth.
  • 40. Asteroids
    • Large rocks located between Mars & Jupiter
      • Asteroid belt: Large orbiting ring of asteroids
      • Believed to be a planet that never formed
      • Range in size from dust to Moon size
        • Some Named Asteroids:
          • Ceres: 940 km (Largest known)
          • Pallas: 523 km
          • Vesta: 501 km
          • Juno: 244 km
          • Gaspra & Ida:
          • Photographed by Galileo probe
          • Ida even has a smaller asteroid orbiting it