Es ch. 19 landuse

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Chapter 19 Notes

Chapter 19 Notes

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  • 1. Chapter 19 Our Impact on Land
  • 2. 19.1 Population Impact on the Environment
    • Human Population Explosion
      • Earth was believed to be a boundless cornucopia of resources
      • Endless supply of metals, fossil fuels, and fertile soil
      • Today we know that is not true
      • Earth has a Carrying Capacity
      • Carrying Capacity: the maximum number of individuals of a particular species an area can support
    • Before 1800’s: Human population relatively small
      • Minimum resources were used
      • Much less waste was produced
      • Currently, human population is growing at an alarming rate
    Pgs. 532 - 537 U.S. Population World Population
  • 3. Human Population:
    • Population: the total number of individuals of a particular species in a defined area
    • Over the past 200 years Humans have been undergoing a Population Explosion.
      • Population Explosion: rapid, uncontrolled population growth
  • 4.  
  • 5. Why Our Population is Increasing:
    • Modern medicine:
    • Reduced infant death drastically
    • Increased ability to reproduce (Fertility Drugs)
    • Allows people to live longer
    • Modern Sanitation:
    • Drinking water cleaned before use
    • Wastes disposed of better
    • People are cleaner
    • Better nutrition:
    • Food better distributed & more available
    • Aid given to area of famine
  • 6. Environmental Impact
    • Increasing population brings with it many changes
    • 1) Increased demands for resources
    • 2) Increased housing requirements
    • 3) Increased waste production
    • By the time you are 75…
    • You will produce enough garbage to equal the mass of 16 elephants = 47, 000 kg
    • You will consume enough water to fill 662,000 bathtubs = 163,000,000 L
    • Americans use 5x more energy than anyone else
  • 7. Our Daily Activities
    • Many resources required:
    • Electricity drives our daily lives
    • Mainly produced by burning fossil fuels (coal & oil)
    • Water is required for drinking, cooking, & cleaning
    • Once used, water is cleaned before returning to nature
    • Food must be grown
    • Requiring large amounts of land (fields, pastures, fisheries, etc.)
    • Wood used for building, packaging, & personal products
    • Trees need to be harvested
    • Plastics used for almost everything, refined from crude oil
    • Metals must be mined & refined for use
  • 8. Effects of our Daily Activity
    • Mining: metals & fossil fuels extracted from the Earth
      • Destroys Ecosystems (removes trees, soils, & rock)
    • Farming & Lumbering:
      • Topsoil Erosion
      • Chemical fertilizers, pesticides & herbicides used
    • Material Production:
      • Pollution of water & air
      • Use of large volumes of waters
    • Solid & Liquid waste:
      • Landfills, Water treatment & Sewage treatment plants
  • 9. The Future:
    • As population grows, so will our demands on nature
      • More land required for housing
      • Shrinking forests
      • Overflowing garbage dumps
      • Vanishing Wildlife
      • Increased disease
      • Less available water
    • We are the problem, We must also be the solution
  • 10. 19.2 Using the Land
    • Farming:
      • The Earth has 145 million square km of land
      • 15 million square km used for agriculture
        • 20 % of all humans go hungry
        • Millions starve to death each year
      • Farmers constantly try to increase crop yield
        • Better land use tactics
        • Use higher-yield or genetically engineered seeds
        • Chemical fertilizers
        • Herbicides & Pesticides
    Pgs. 538 - 545
  • 11. Agricultural Damage:
    • Chemicals can contaminate the soil
      • Chemicals from fertilizers, herbicides, & pesticides
      • Oils & Fuels used in machinery
    • Plowing land exposes soil to the elements
      • Increases erosion by wind & water
    • Grazing Livestock
      • Cattle & Sheep graze on grasslands
      • Overgrazing: removal of vegetation by livestock
  • 12. Minimizing Agricultural Damage:
    • Reducing Erosion:
      • Strip Cropping: fields set up in sections containing different crops
      • Crop Rotation: Changing crops planted yearly, creating a revolving cycle
      • Contour Plowing : following the lay of the land, plowing across the sides of hills (not up & down)
      • Terracing : Creating steps to grow crops
      • Shelter Belts: (windbreaks) tree lines planted to slow down winds
    • Integrated Pest Management: IPM
      • Natural predators control pests, reducing need for chemical sprays
        • Ex: Ladybugs to control aphids
  • 13. Strip Cropping & Crop Rotation
  • 14. Contour Plowing & Terracing:
  • 15. Shelter Belts:
  • 16. Cutting Trees:
    • Lumber has many uses
      • Paper products, building materials, & fuel
    • Timbering is an International business
      • Tropical Rain forests are harvested for their unique woods
      • Whole forests are cut down
        • Every year an area the size of PA is clear cut
        • Estimated 50,000 species became extinct due to deforestation
      • Deforestation: the process of removing entire forests
        • Reducing plant life decreases available oxygen
        • Also increases Carbon Dioxide amounts
          • Carbon Dioxide: major Greenhouse gas (leads to Global Warming)
  • 17. Landfills:
    • Areas where garbage is disposed & buried
      • Many types of landfills: most common = Sanitary Landfills
        • Governed by a strict set of regulations
        • Before dumping, a liner must be installed (Prevents water pollution)
        • Each days garbage is covered by a layer of dirt
        • Methane is vented off as well
  • 18. Hazardous Wastes:
    • Any waste that is poisonous, causes cancer, radioactive, or generally harmful to organisms
    • These waste products can be from industry or homes
    • They do not breakdown quickly & remain dangerous
    • Special care must be taken in disposing of these wastes
  • 19. Structures, Mines, & Natural Environments
    • Concrete & Asphalt are replacing grass & trees
      • Buildings, roads, parking lots, & sidewalks absorb large amounts of solar radiation (Heat)
        • Creates microclimates: Cities have higher temperatures, different wind patterns, and cloud bursts
        • Reduces water absorption into the ground
        • Increases water pollution
    • Strip Mining: removes vegetation over large areas
      • Deforestation decreases clean air & increases desertification
      • Mining produces runoff & pollution
  • 20. Natural Preserves
    • Not all land is being decimated by human needs
    • Some areas are set aside
      • US  National Parks & Forests
      • PA  State Parks & Game lands
      • Schuylkill County  County Park (Sweet Arrow Lake Area)
    • All are protected from industrial & municipal growth
    • Left to be natural retreats for wildlife (& humans)
    US National Parks Webcam Directory
  • 21. Conserving Resources:
    • We live in a disposable society
      • Everything is designed to be used, discarded & replaced
        • Material Packaging: Paper & Plastics
      • Planned Obsolescence : material designed to become quickly outdated or unusable
        • Automobiles: designed to last 10 years
        • Computers: technology outdated before purchase
        • Watches: last a year or two & stop working
      • Continual cycle of production established
      • Continual need for materials present
  • 22. Conservation:
    • The careful management & use of resources reducing harmful effects on the environment
    • THE 4 R’s:
      • Reduce : The US has 5% the world’s population, we use 25% of the world’s resources…
      • Reuse : Find more uses for things
        • Old cloths can become cleaning rag & towels
      • Recycle : Many materials can be reprocessed
        • Metals, plastics, paper, etc. all recyclable
        • Composting: Pile leaves & other plant material to decompose
      • Replace : Use natural, renewable products instead of processed materials
  • 23. The Population Outlook:
    • It is unlikely that Earth’s population will decline
      • Dilemma: Increasing population = decreased resources
      • How do we deal with the problem?
        • Several Options: (Not all good)
        • Do nothing: uses what we want, and don’t worry about it
        • Look toward our future: cut back a little so there is something left for later
        • Prepare for future generations: move toward renewable resources, & less destructive behavior, even if it inconveniences us now
  • 24. 19.3 Should recycling be required?
    • Any object that can be reprocessed = recyclable
    • What’s in your trash?
      • 80 % of all trash can be recycled or composted
      • Paper, Plastic, Metals & Glass all recyclable
    Pgs. 546 - 548
  • 25. Did You Know?
    • Paper products = 50% of your weekly garbage
      • Recycling paper saves trees, uses less water & creates less pollution than making “new” paper
      • Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to run a TV for three hours
      • Recycling 20 cans required the same amount of energy needed to make one new can from raw aluminum
  • 26. Two Points of View:
    • Everyone agrees: recycling is good for the Environment
      • It saves landfill space, energy, & natural resources
      • Decreases the need for mining, cutting trees, & oil drilling
    • Should recycling be mandatory?
      • The US should require residential recycling
        • Many people do not recycle because they “never got into the habit”
        • There is not a big push in industry for “reuse” facilities
        • Only 17 states have recycling laws
        • Some states pay deposits on cans, bottles, etc.
      • No: Voluntary Recycling only
        • Many people already recycle and the trend is increasing
        • Some people refuse to recycle: They claim they are protecting jobs of miners & “new” material production workers