Chapter 19 Our Impact on Land
19.1 Population Impact on the Environment <ul><li>Human Population Explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth was believed to b...
Human Population: <ul><li>Population:  the total number of individuals of a particular species in a defined area </li></ul...
 
Why Our Population is Increasing: <ul><li>Modern medicine: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced infant death drastically </li></ul><u...
Environmental Impact <ul><li>Increasing population brings with it many changes </li></ul><ul><li>1) Increased demands for ...
Our Daily Activities <ul><li>Many resources required: </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity drives our daily lives </li></ul><ul><...
Effects of our Daily Activity  <ul><li>Mining:  metals & fossil fuels extracted from the Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destr...
The Future: <ul><li>As population grows, so will our demands on nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More land required for housin...
19.2 Using the Land <ul><li>Farming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth has  145 million square km  of land </li></ul></ul><u...
Agricultural Damage: <ul><li>Chemicals can contaminate the soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals from fertilizers, herbicid...
Minimizing Agricultural Damage: <ul><li>Reducing Erosion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strip Cropping:   fields set up in section...
Strip Cropping & Crop Rotation
Contour Plowing & Terracing:
Shelter Belts:
Cutting Trees: <ul><li>Lumber has many uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper products, building materials, & fuel </li></ul></u...
Landfills: <ul><li>Areas where garbage is disposed & buried </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of landfills: most common =  ...
Hazardous Wastes: <ul><li>Any waste that is poisonous, causes cancer, radioactive, or generally harmful to organisms </li>...
Structures, Mines, & Natural Environments <ul><li>Concrete & Asphalt are replacing grass & trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bui...
Natural Preserves <ul><li>Not all land is being decimated by human needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas are set aside </li><...
Conserving Resources: <ul><li>We live in a disposable society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything is designed to be used, dis...
Conservation: <ul><li>The careful management & use of resources reducing harmful effects on the environment </li></ul><ul>...
The Population Outlook: <ul><li>It is unlikely that Earth’s population will decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilemma: Increas...
19.3 Should recycling be required? <ul><li>Any object that can be reprocessed =  recyclable </li></ul><ul><li>What’s in yo...
Did You Know? <ul><li>Paper products =  50%  of your weekly garbage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling paper saves trees, use...
Two Points of View: <ul><li>Everyone agrees: recycling is good for the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It saves landfill...
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Es ch. 19 landuse

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Transcript of "Es ch. 19 landuse"

  1. 1. Chapter 19 Our Impact on Land
  2. 2. 19.1 Population Impact on the Environment <ul><li>Human Population Explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth was believed to be a boundless cornucopia of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endless supply of metals, fossil fuels, and fertile soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today we know that is not true </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth has a Carrying Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrying Capacity: the maximum number of individuals of a particular species an area can support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before 1800’s: Human population relatively small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum resources were used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much less waste was produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently, human population is growing at an alarming rate </li></ul></ul>Pgs. 532 - 537 U.S. Population World Population
  3. 3. Human Population: <ul><li>Population: the total number of individuals of a particular species in a defined area </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past 200 years Humans have been undergoing a Population Explosion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Explosion: rapid, uncontrolled population growth </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Why Our Population is Increasing: <ul><li>Modern medicine: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced infant death drastically </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ability to reproduce (Fertility Drugs) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people to live longer </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Sanitation: </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water cleaned before use </li></ul><ul><li>Wastes disposed of better </li></ul><ul><li>People are cleaner </li></ul><ul><li>Better nutrition: </li></ul><ul><li>Food better distributed & more available </li></ul><ul><li>Aid given to area of famine </li></ul>
  5. 6. Environmental Impact <ul><li>Increasing population brings with it many changes </li></ul><ul><li>1) Increased demands for resources </li></ul><ul><li>2) Increased housing requirements </li></ul><ul><li>3) Increased waste production </li></ul><ul><li>By the time you are 75… </li></ul><ul><li>You will produce enough garbage to equal the mass of 16 elephants = 47, 000 kg </li></ul><ul><li>You will consume enough water to fill 662,000 bathtubs = 163,000,000 L </li></ul><ul><li>Americans use 5x more energy than anyone else </li></ul>
  6. 7. Our Daily Activities <ul><li>Many resources required: </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity drives our daily lives </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly produced by burning fossil fuels (coal & oil) </li></ul><ul><li>Water is required for drinking, cooking, & cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Once used, water is cleaned before returning to nature </li></ul><ul><li>Food must be grown </li></ul><ul><li>Requiring large amounts of land (fields, pastures, fisheries, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Wood used for building, packaging, & personal products </li></ul><ul><li>Trees need to be harvested </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics used for almost everything, refined from crude oil </li></ul><ul><li>Metals must be mined & refined for use </li></ul>
  7. 8. Effects of our Daily Activity <ul><li>Mining: metals & fossil fuels extracted from the Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys Ecosystems (removes trees, soils, & rock) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farming & Lumbering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topsoil Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilizers, pesticides & herbicides used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Material Production: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution of water & air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of large volumes of waters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid & Liquid waste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfills, Water treatment & Sewage treatment plants </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. The Future: <ul><li>As population grows, so will our demands on nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More land required for housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrinking forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overflowing garbage dumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanishing Wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less available water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We are the problem, We must also be the solution </li></ul>
  9. 10. 19.2 Using the Land <ul><li>Farming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth has 145 million square km of land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 million square km used for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 % of all humans go hungry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millions starve to death each year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers constantly try to increase crop yield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better land use tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use higher-yield or genetically engineered seeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbicides & Pesticides </li></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 538 - 545
  10. 11. Agricultural Damage: <ul><li>Chemicals can contaminate the soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals from fertilizers, herbicides, & pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils & Fuels used in machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plowing land exposes soil to the elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases erosion by wind & water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grazing Livestock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle & Sheep graze on grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing: removal of vegetation by livestock </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Minimizing Agricultural Damage: <ul><li>Reducing Erosion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strip Cropping: fields set up in sections containing different crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop Rotation: Changing crops planted yearly, creating a revolving cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour Plowing : following the lay of the land, plowing across the sides of hills (not up & down) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terracing : Creating steps to grow crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter Belts: (windbreaks) tree lines planted to slow down winds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated Pest Management: IPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural predators control pests, reducing need for chemical sprays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Ladybugs to control aphids </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Strip Cropping & Crop Rotation
  13. 14. Contour Plowing & Terracing:
  14. 15. Shelter Belts:
  15. 16. Cutting Trees: <ul><li>Lumber has many uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper products, building materials, & fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timbering is an International business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain forests are harvested for their unique woods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole forests are cut down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every year an area the size of PA is clear cut </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated 50,000 species became extinct due to deforestation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation: the process of removing entire forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing plant life decreases available oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also increases Carbon Dioxide amounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide: major Greenhouse gas (leads to Global Warming) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Landfills: <ul><li>Areas where garbage is disposed & buried </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of landfills: most common = Sanitary Landfills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governed by a strict set of regulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before dumping, a liner must be installed (Prevents water pollution) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each days garbage is covered by a layer of dirt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane is vented off as well </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Hazardous Wastes: <ul><li>Any waste that is poisonous, causes cancer, radioactive, or generally harmful to organisms </li></ul><ul><li>These waste products can be from industry or homes </li></ul><ul><li>They do not breakdown quickly & remain dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Special care must be taken in disposing of these wastes </li></ul>
  18. 19. Structures, Mines, & Natural Environments <ul><li>Concrete & Asphalt are replacing grass & trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings, roads, parking lots, & sidewalks absorb large amounts of solar radiation (Heat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates microclimates: Cities have higher temperatures, different wind patterns, and cloud bursts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces water absorption into the ground </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases water pollution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Strip Mining: removes vegetation over large areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation decreases clean air & increases desertification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining produces runoff & pollution </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Natural Preserves <ul><li>Not all land is being decimated by human needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas are set aside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US  National Parks & Forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PA  State Parks & Game lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schuylkill County  County Park (Sweet Arrow Lake Area) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All are protected from industrial & municipal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Left to be natural retreats for wildlife (& humans) </li></ul>US National Parks Webcam Directory
  20. 21. Conserving Resources: <ul><li>We live in a disposable society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything is designed to be used, discarded & replaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material Packaging: Paper & Plastics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned Obsolescence : material designed to become quickly outdated or unusable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automobiles: designed to last 10 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers: technology outdated before purchase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watches: last a year or two & stop working </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continual cycle of production established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continual need for materials present </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Conservation: <ul><li>The careful management & use of resources reducing harmful effects on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>THE 4 R’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce : The US has 5% the world’s population, we use 25% of the world’s resources… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse : Find more uses for things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old cloths can become cleaning rag & towels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycle : Many materials can be reprocessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metals, plastics, paper, etc. all recyclable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composting: Pile leaves & other plant material to decompose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace : Use natural, renewable products instead of processed materials </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. The Population Outlook: <ul><li>It is unlikely that Earth’s population will decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilemma: Increasing population = decreased resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we deal with the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several Options: (Not all good) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do nothing: uses what we want, and don’t worry about it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look toward our future: cut back a little so there is something left for later </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for future generations: move toward renewable resources, & less destructive behavior, even if it inconveniences us now </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. 19.3 Should recycling be required? <ul><li>Any object that can be reprocessed = recyclable </li></ul><ul><li>What’s in your trash? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80 % of all trash can be recycled or composted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper, Plastic, Metals & Glass all recyclable </li></ul></ul>Pgs. 546 - 548
  24. 25. Did You Know? <ul><li>Paper products = 50% of your weekly garbage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling paper saves trees, uses less water & creates less pollution than making “new” paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to run a TV for three hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling 20 cans required the same amount of energy needed to make one new can from raw aluminum </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Two Points of View: <ul><li>Everyone agrees: recycling is good for the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It saves landfill space, energy, & natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases the need for mining, cutting trees, & oil drilling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should recycling be mandatory? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US should require residential recycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many people do not recycle because they “never got into the habit” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is not a big push in industry for “reuse” facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 17 states have recycling laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some states pay deposits on cans, bottles, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No: Voluntary Recycling only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many people already recycle and the trend is increasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some people refuse to recycle: They claim they are protecting jobs of miners & “new” material production workers </li></ul></ul></ul>
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